Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge : Ecology, Adaptive Management, and Restoration (The Science and Practice of Ecological Restoration Series) (1ST)

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Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge : Ecology, Adaptive Management, and Restoration (The Science and Practice of Ecological Restoration Series) (1ST)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 315 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9781597264785
  • DDC分類 639.9

Full Description


This title offers scientific and practical information on cork oak woodlands and the cultural systems dependent on them. Cork oak has historically been an important species in the western Mediterranean - ecologically as a canopy or 'framework' tree in natural woodlands, and culturally as an economically valuable resource that underpins local economies. Both the natural woodlands and the derived cultural systems are experiencing rapid change, and whether or not they are resilient enough to adapt to that change is an open question. "Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge" provides a synthesis of the most up-to-date, scientific, and practical information on the management of cork oak woodlands and the cultural systems that depend on cork oak. In addition, "Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge" offers ten site profiles written by local experts that present an in-depth vision of cork oak woodlands across a range of biophysical, historical, and cultural contexts, with sixteen pages of full-colour photos that illustrate the tree, agro-silvopastoral systems, products, resident biodiversity, and more."Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge" is an important book for anyone interested in the future of cork oak woodlands, or in the management of cultural landscapes and their associated land-use systems. In a changing world full of risks and surprises, it represents an excellent example of a multidisciplinary and holistic approach to studying, managing, and restoring an ecosystem, and will serve as a guide for other studies of this kind. Co-sponsored by the Society for Ecological Restoration International and Island Press, this series offers a foundation of practical knowledge and scientific insight that will help ecological restoration become the powerful reparative and healing tool that the world needs.

Table of Contents

PREFACE                                            xv
Introduction 1
PART I. Cork Oak Trees and Woodlands 7
1. The Tree 11
Juli G. Pausas, Jo縊 S. Pereira, and James
Aronson
Biogeography 12
Flowers and Fruits: The Ecological Role 15
of Acorns
Cork Harvest: Nature's Gift and Weakened 16
Trees?
Surviving Fire: The Ecological Role of 17
Cork
Framework Tree of Natural Ecosystems and 20
Cultural Derivatives
Site Profile 1.1: Akfadou, Algeria 22
Mahand Messaoud鈩e and Hachemi Merouani
2. Origin and Genetic Variability 25
Roselyne Lumaret, Unai L ez de Heredia,
and Alvaro Soto
Variation and Introgression 25
Origins and Migration Routes 28
Unresolved Questions 30
Implications for Conservation of Cork Oak 31
Genetic Resources
3. Open Woodlands: A Diversity of Uses (and 33
Overuses)
Miguel Bugalho, Tobias Plieninger, James
Aronson, Mohammed Ellatifi, and David Gomes
Crespo
A System with Different Names 34
One System, Multiple Land Uses 36
Recent Trends of Transformation and 40
Degradation
Conclusions 44
Site Profile 3.1: Aguelmous, Morocco 46
Mohammed Ellatifi
4. Historical Perspective of Montados: The 49
Example of Evora
Teresa Pinto-Correia and Ana Margarida
Fonseca
Land Use before the Fifteenth Century 49
Land Use between the Fifteenth and the 52
Eighteenth Centuries
Land Use in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth 53
Centuries: Emergence of the Montado
Conclusions 55
Site Profile 4.1: Machuqueira do Grou, 57
Portugal
Nuno de Almeida Ribeiro
5. Cork Bottle Stoppers and Other Cork 59
Products
Am駻ico M.S. Carvalho Mendes and Jos A.R.
Gra軋
Cork as an Industrial Material 59
Economic History of the Cork Sector 63
Conclusions 68
PART II. Scientific Bases for Restoration and 71
Management
6. Coping with Drought 73
Jo縊 S. Pereira, Cathy Kurz-Besson, and M.
Manuela Chaves
The limits of Survival 74
Water Deficits and Growth 78
Water Deficits and Cork Stripping 79
Conclusions 80
7. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Its Role in 81
Seedling Response to Drought
Daniel Mousain, Hassan Boukcim, and Franck
Richard
Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Diversity in 81
Mediterranean Oaks
The Role of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in 83
Drought Tolerance of Trees
Cork Oak Response to Drought and ECMs 84
Conclusions 87
8. Soil Properties Constraining Cork Oak 89
Distribution
Isabel Serrasolses, Marian P駻ez-Devesa,
Alberto Vilagrosa, Juli G. Pausas, Teresa
Sauras, Jordi Cortina, and V. Ramon Vallejo
Soil Characteristics 90
Cork Oak on Soils Developed over 94
Carbonate Rocks: The Case of Pinet
Cork Oak Establishment in Contrasted 95
Soils: A Lysimeter Experiment
Conclusions 97
Site Profile 8.1: Espada, Calderona, and 100
Pinet, Spain
Juli G. Pausas and V. Ramon Vallejo
9. Coping with Pests and Diseases 103
Manuela Branco and Ana Paula Ramos
Biotic Factors Affecting Acorns, 104
Seedlings, and Young Plantings
Biotic Factors Affecting Mature Trees 105
Decline and Loss of Productivity in Adult 109
Stands: Forestry Practices and Protection
Conclusions 110
Site Profile 9.1: Maremma, Italy 112
Federico Selvi
10. Natural Regeneration 115
Juli G. Pausas, Teodoro Mara n, Maria
Caldeira, and Josep Pons
From Seed to Seedling 115
Seedling Performance 118
Recruitment Patterns: Three Case Studies 120
Conclusions 123
Site Profile 10.1: Hayouna, Morocco 125
Mohamed Abourouh
PART III. Restoration in Practice 127
11. Germplasm Selection and Nursery Techniques 129
Maria Helena Almeida, Hachemi Merouani,
Filipe Costa e Silva, Jordi Cortina, Roman
Trubat, Esteban Chirino, Alberto Vilagrosa,
Abdelhamid Khaldi, Boutheina Stiti, Sidi
Lotfi El Alami, and V. Ramon Vallejo
Germplasm Selection 129
Availability and Quality of Initial Acorn 130
Stock
Acorn Manipulation, Storage, and Quality 130
Assessment
Plant Production and Nursery Practices 131
Conclusions 137
Site Profile 11.1: Aspres and Alb鑽es, 138
France
Renaud Piazzetta
12. Field Techniques to Improve Cork Oak 141
Establishment
Jordi Cortina, Marian P駻ez-Devesa, Alberto
Vilagrosa, Mohamed Abourouh, Mahand
Messaoud鈩e, Nora Berrahmouni, Luis Neves
Silva, Maria Helena Almeida, and Abdelhamid
Khaldi
Direct Seeding 142
Seedling Planting 142
Livestock Management 148
Conclusions 148
PART IV. Economic Analysis 151
13. Mixed Cork Oak亡tone Pine Woodlands in 153
the Alentejo Region of Portugal
Inoc麩cio S. Coelho and Pablo Campos
Mixed Cork Oak and Stone Pine Woodland 153
Areas
Private Economic Benefits and Cost 155
Valuation Methods
Sustainability and Stewardship of Total 159
Economic Value
Site Profile 13.1: Monchique and 162
Caldeir縊, Portugal
Jos M.D. Rosendo
14. Cork Oak Woodland Conservation and 165
Household Subsistence Economy Challenges in
Northern 1hnisia
Pablo Campos, Paola Ovando, Ali Chebil, and
Named Dale-Hassen
Case Study: Iteimia 166
Conclusions 173
Site Profile 14.1: Maamora, Morocco 175
Mohamed Abourouh
15. Cost烹enefit Analysis of Cork Oak 177
Woodland Afforestation and Facilitated
Natural Regeneration in Spain
Paola Ovando, Pablo Campos, Jos L. Oviedo,
and Cregorio Montero
Cork Oak Woodland, Shrubland, Pasture, 178
and Cropland Management Scenarios
Present Discounted Values of Capital 180
Income from Cork Oak Investment and
Noninvestment Scenarios
Conclusions 187
16. Manufacture and Trade of Cork Products: 189
An International Perspective
Santiago Zapata, Francisco M. Parejo,
Am駘ia Branco, Michele Gutierrez, J.
Ignacio Jim駭ez Blanco, Renaud Piazzetta,
and Andreas Voth
The Iberization of the Cork Business: 190
1920's to 1970's
Manufacture and Trade of Cork Products in 192
the Last Thirty Years: The International
Scene
Conclusions 199
PART V. Challenges for the Future 201
17. Ecoregional Planning for Biodiversity 203
Conservation
Nora Berrahmouni, Pedro Regato, Mohammed
Ellatifi, Hamed Daly-Hassen, Miguel
Bugalho, Sahraoui Bensaid, Mario Diaz, and
James Aronson
Biodiversity Value and Ecosystem Services 203
Challenges for Conservation 204
Reconnecting Environmental, Social, and 213
Economic Interests through Landscape
Conservation Planning
Conclusions 216
Site Profile 17.1: Los Alcornocales 217
Natural Park, Spain
Teodoro Mara n
18. Facing Climate Change 219
Jo縊 S. Pereira, Alexandre Vaz Correia, and
Richard Joffre
Rise in Atmospheric CO2 Concentration 220
Rising Temperatures 221
Effects on Communities and Ecosystems 223
Effects at the Landscape and Regional 224
Scales
Conclusions 225
19. Simulating Function and Vulnerability of 227
Cork Oak Woodland Ecosystems
John Tenhunen, Ralf Geyer, Jo縊 M.B.
Carreiras, Nuno de Almeida Ribeiro, Nguyen
Q. Dinh, Dennis O. Otieno, and Jo縊 S.
Pereira
Function and Productivity as Related to 228
Vulnerability Assessments
The Pixel-Oriented Growth Model for 229
Mediterranean Woodlands
Conclusions 233
20. The Way Forward 235
V. Ramon Vallejo, James Aronson, Juli G.
Pausas, Jo縊 S. Pereira, and Christelle
Fontaine
Cork Oak Decline 236
Cork Oak Woodland Products 238
Management Options 240
Conservation and Restoration 241
Coping with Uncertainty 242
GLOSSARY 247
REFERENCES 257
EDITORS 285
CONTRIBUTORS 287
SPECIES INDEX 301
INDEX 307