Vengeance in Medieval Europe : A Reader (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures)

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Vengeance in Medieval Europe : A Reader (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 474 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781442601260
  • DDC分類 909

Full Description


How did medieval society deal with private justice, with grudges, and with violent emotions? This ground-breaking reader collects for the first time a number of unpublished or difficult-to-find texts that address violence and emotion in the Middle Ages. The sources collected here illustrate the power and reach of the language of vengeance in medieval European society. They span the early, high, and later middle ages, and capture a range of perspectives including legal sources, learned commentaries, narratives, and documents of practice. Though social elites necessarily figure prominently in all medieval sources, sources concerning relatively low-status individuals and sources pertaining to women are included. The sources range from saints' lives that illustrate the idea of vengeance to later medieval court records concerning vengeful practices. A secondary goal of the collection is to illustrate the prominence of mechanisms for peacemaking in medieval European society. The introduction traces recent scholarly developments in the study of vengeance and discusses the significance of these concepts for medieval political and social history.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION                                       xv
PART I. PROLOGUE: ANCIENT SOURCES FOR MEDIEVAL 1
CONCEPTS OF VENGEANCE
CHAPTER ONE: THE OLD TESTAMENT 3
1. The Pollution of Kin-Slaying 3
2. The Law of the Talion 5
3. Vengeance and Emotion 6
a. Seek not revenge 6
b. Eye for eye, tooth for tooth 6
4. The Principle of Sanctuary 7
a. The three cities of sanctuary 7
b. Revenge is mine 8
5. The Levite's Concubine 9
6. Humiliation and the Lord's Vengeance 14
a. Psalm 68 15
b. Psalm 93 17
7. Restraining Vengeful Emotions 18
8. The Vengeance of the Maccabees 18
CHAPTER TWO: THE NEW TESTAMENT 27
9. Peacemaking and the Ties of Kinship 27
a. Blessed are the peacemakers 28
b. Dismantling the kin group 28
10. Humility as Vengeance? 28
CHAPTER THREE: ROMAN LAWS 29
11. Criminal Justice and Vengeance in the 29
Theodosian Code and Sirmondian Constitutions
a. Accusations and inscriptions 30
b. The production and transfer of 33
accused persons
c. The Julian law on public and private 34
violence
d. The custody of private prisons 36
e. The Cornelian law on cutthroats 36
f. Parricides 37
g. Magicians, astrologers, and all 38
other like criminals
h. The violation of tombs 38
i. The rape of virgins and widows 39
j. Malicious accusers 39
k. Persons who flee for sanctuary to 40
the churches
12. Criminal Justice and Vengeance in 41
Justinian's Digest
a. Gamblers 41
b. Witnesses 42
c. Obligations and actions 42
d. Criminal proceedings 42
e. The Julian law on punishing 43
adulteries
f. The Julian law on violent crime 45
g. The Cornelian law on murderers and 45
poisoners
h. The Pompeian law on parricides 47
i. Punishment 49
PART II. THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES (400 000) 51
CHAPTER FOUR: CODES, CAPITULARIES, AND 53
PENITENTIALS
13. The Laws of the Salian Franks 54
a. Concerning wounds 54
b. Concerning disabling injuries 55
c. Concerning abusive terms 56
d. Concerning the killing of freemen 57
e. Concerning homicides committed by a 58
band of men
f. Concerning the killing of one of a 59
band of men
g. Concerning the chrenecruda 59
h. Concerning him who wishes to remove 60
himself from his kin group
i. Concerning the composition for 61
homicide
j. Concerning the freeman killed while 61
in the army
k. On killing a freeman and the manner 61
in which the relatives receive
composition for his life
14. The Lombard Laws 62
a. Rothair's edict 62
b. The laws of King Liutprand 65
15. Carolingian Capitularies 68
a. Sanctuary and enforcing the payment 69
of the wergeld
b. Making amends for homicide 69
c. Compelling peace 70
d. Punishments for homicide 70
e. On giving aid to criminals 71
16. Early Medieval English Law 72
a. The laws of Ethelbert 72
b. The laws of King Athelstan 74
c. From Edmund's code concerning the 75
bloodfeud
17. Emotion and Sin 76
a. Penitential of Theodore 77
b. Penitential ascribed by Albers to 77
Bede
c. The Ecclesiastical Discipline of 78
Regino of Pr 
CHAPTER FIVE: SERMONS, EXEGESIS, AND LETTERS 79
18. Augustine on the Legitimacy of Fighting 79
Back
19. Augustine on the Need to Await God's 81
Vengeance
20. Jerome on Kindness and Cruelty 83
21. Law and the "Accursed Custom" of 85
Vengeance in Theoderic's Italy
22. Isidore of Seville on the Law of the 86
Talion
23. Pope Honorius Speaks of Justice as 87
Vengeance
24. Smaragdus of St. Mihiel on Restraining 88
Royal Anger
25. Hrabanus Maurus's Homily on Avoiding 90
Anger and Homicide
26. Einhard on the Fear of Family Vengeance 93
a. Vengeance gets in the way of 93
military service
b. A request to pay composition 94
27. Charles the Bald to Pope Nicholas on 94
Vengeance without Violence
28. Vengeance for the "Hard Man" 98
CHAPTER SIX: SAINTS' LIVES, CHRONICLES, AND 101
EPICS
29. Jordanes on Vengeance and the Vandal 102
Wars of Conquest
30. Gregory of Tours on Feuding and 104
Vengeance
a. The need for kings to keep peace 104
b. Sacrilege done in the church of St. 105
Denis because of a woman
c. Queen Austrechild seeks an avenger 106
d. A feud in the Jewish community 106
e. Civil war among the citizens of Tours 107
f. The killing of Sichar 108
31. Gregory of Tours on God's Vengeance 110
a. The vengeance of the martyr 110
Pancratius
b. The martyr Eugenius punishes an 110
oathbreaker
c. Divine vengeance strikes some thieves 111
d. A thief is rescued from a stern judge 112
e. Count Gomacharius suffers God's 112
vengeance
f. The wickedness of a heretic 113
32. Vengeance as the Devil's Work in the 114
Life of Saint Sadalberga
33. Saint Amandus Rescues a Man from 115
Judicial Vengeance
34. Saint Willibrord Forgoes Vengeance and 116
Anger
35. History of the Lombards by Paul the 118
Deacon
a. King Turisind prevents vengeance 118
b. Rosemunda avenges her father 119
36. Einhard on the Peace Inspired by the 121
Relics of Saints Marcellinus and Peter
37. Saint Gerald of Aurillac Seeks Peace 122
with His Enemies
38. Liutprand of Cremona's "Tit-For-Tat" 125
39. Heroic Vengeance 126
a. Grendel's mother pursues vengeance 126
b. Beowulf vaunts his vengeance 128
c. A sinful crime 130
CHAPTER SEVEN: FORMULARIES, CHARTERS, AND 133
JUDGMENTS
40. Promise for Peace after a Murder 133
41. An Orderly Merovingian Judgment 134
42. Lombard Record of Judgment at Pavia 135
PART III. THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES (I000-1250) 139
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE EFFORT TO REGULATE 141
VIOLENCE AND EMOTION
43. The Peace of God in Charroux 141
44. Penance for Homicide in the Decretum of 142
Burchard of Worms
45. The Laws of the Family of St. Peter 145
46. The Penitential of Burchard of Worms 148
47. Truce of God in Arles 148
48. A Comital Peace Assembly of Barcelona 150
49. The Truce of God in Cologne 153
50. Peace of the Land in Mainz 156
51. The Laws of Henry I of England 157
a. The payment of compensation 157
b. Rules for determining who should 157
bear the feud
c. Unintentional killings 159
d. Dealing with slayers 160
52. The Usatges of Barcelona 161
53. Rules for Trial by Combat in Brescia 165
54. The Penitential of Alain of Lille 166
55. The Penitential of Robert of Flamborough 168
56. General Constitution Concerning 171
Judgments and Keeping the Peace
CHAPTER NINE: SERMONS AND LEARNED COMMENTARY 173
ON ANGER AND VENGEANCE
57. Aelfric's Sermon on Anger and Peace 173
58. Wulfstan's "Sermon of the Wolf" on the 175
Evils of His Day
59. Peter Damian on Restraining Anger 177
60. A Letter by Peter Damian on the 180
Vengeance of Spiritual Leaders
61. William of Malmesbury on the 183
Consequences of Resisting Peace
62. Pope Urban II Urges Vengeance on the 185
Enemies of Christendom in Robert the Monk's
History of Jerusalem
63. An Account of the, Speech of Pope Urban 188
II by Fulcher of Chartres
a. The council held at Clermont 188
b. The decree of Urban in the same 189
council
c. Urban's exhortation concerning a 189
pilgrimage to Jerusalem
64. A Sermon by Saint Francis on Hatred and 191
Peace
65. The Wolf of Gubbio 192
66. Albertanus of Brescia on the Cost of 194
Pursuing Private War
67. Thomas Aquinas on Homicide, Vengeance, 196
and Anger
a. Question 64: Homicide 196
b. Question 108: Vengeance 201
c. Question 158: Anger 208
CHAPTER TEN: SAINTS' LIVES, CHRONICLES, AND 211
EPICS
68. Rodulphus Glaber on the Truce of God 211
69. How the Emperor Conrad Pacified His 212
Realm, According to Wipo
70. Adam of Bremen on the Attacks of Bishop 218
Adalbert's Enemies
71. The Cattle Raid of Cooley 221
72. Feud between Bishop Gaudry and Baron 226
G駻ard in the Autobiography of Guibert of
Nogent
73. The Murder of Charles the Good by 237
Galbert of Bruges
74. Peter Abelard's "Story of My 244
Adversities"
75. The Deeds of Louis the Fat by Suger of 246
St. Denis
a. How Louis destroyed the castle of Le 246
Puiset after he captured Hugh
b. The overthrow of Thomas of Marie's 252
castles at Cr馗y and Nouvion
76. The Vengeance of Kings in Geoffrey of 254
Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain
a. The vengeance of the sons of 254
Constantine
b. The speech of Augusel 256
77. The Bloodfeud of Meingold and Albric 257
78. Hariulf on the Sweet Words of Arnulf of 260
Soisso-ns
79. Chronicle of the Slays by Helmold of 261
Bosau
a. The story of Gottschalk 261
b. The murder of Cnut 263
80. Emotions Among the Military Aristocracy 266
in Raoul of Cambrai
81. The Hatred of Kriemhild and Brunhild in 271
The Nibelungenlied
82. Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach 275
83. Harald's Norway and the Flight to 279
Iceland in the Laxdaela Saga
84. The Story of a Feud in Njal's Saga 280
CHAPTER ELEVEN: PEACE CHARTERS AND OATHS 301
85. Peace Oath Proposed by Bishop Warin of 301
Beauvais to King Robert the Pious
86. Henry II Settles a Feud on Monastic Land 303
87. Attempted Settlement by Combat 305
88. Grant to the Norman Bishops of Fines 306
Due from Breaches of the Truce of God
89. A Catalan Peace Settlement 308
90. A Twelfth-Century Forged Donation of 309
King Dagobert III
91. A Peace Treaty from Avignon 310
PART IV. THE LATER MIDDLE AGES (1250-1500) 315
CHAPTER TWELVE: MUNICIPAL, TERRITORIAL, AND 317
ROYAL LAWS CONCERNING VENGEANCE AND MURDER
92. Homicide in the Laws and Customs of 317
England
93. From the Sachsenspiegel 322
a. The imperial landpeace of Mainz 322
b. Trial by combat 324
c. Penalties for crime 326
d. Legal procedures 329
94. Guarantees of Peace in the Customs of 330
Touraine and Anjou
95. The Law of Homicide in the Fuero Real 332
96. Procedures for Private War in the 334
Customs of Beauvaisis
97. The Statute of Homicide of Marseille, 348
France
98. From the Statutes of Acqui, Italy 348
99. From the Statutes of Apricale, Italy 352
100. From the Statutes of Saone, Italy 353
101. From the Statutes of Cuneo, Italy 354
102. From the Statutes of Celle, Italy 357
103. The Perpetual Peace of the Land 359
Proclaimed by Maximilian I
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: ECCLESIASTICAL AND SECULAR 363
COMMENTARY ON PEACE AND THE RESTRAINT OF
EMOTIONS
104. The Nature of Wrath According to a 363
Preacher's Manual
105. A Sermon on Peace by Vincent Ferrer 372
106. Laudable Anger in Leonardo Bruni's 374
Handbook of Moral Philosophy
107. Sermon on the Importance of Peace by 376
Bernardino of Siena
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: SAINTS' LIVES, CHRONICLES, 381
AND EPICS
108. Ambrose Sansedoni's Preaching of Peace 381
Arouses Enmity
109. The Vengeful Miracles of Saint Bridget 384
of Sweden
110. Saint Catherine of Siena as Peacemaker 385
111. Vengeance and Peace in the Life of 388
Cola di Rienzo
112. Dino Compagni on the Florentine 390
Factions
113. Trial by Combat in Froissart's 393
Chronicles
114. The Vengeance of Our Lord 396
a. Vespasian seeks a cure for leprosy 397
b. Jaffet, a friendly Jew, joins 398
Vespasian
c. A battle miracle 399
d. Pilate seeks mercy 400
e. Revenge against the Jews 403
f. Pilate's punishment 405
115. A Miracle of the Blessed Virgin Mary 407
116. A Vision of Peacemaking in the 408
Miracles of Saint Rose of Viterbo
CHAPTER FIFTEEN: COURT CASES AND NOTARIAL 409
PEACE ACTS
117. The Peace Registers of the City of 409
Tournai
a. Jakemins h Caudreliers foreswears 410
Jehennet d'Eskelmes
b. The foreswearing of Watiers de la 410
Plagne and company
c. The Polckins brothers foreswear 411
Gillion Ghievart
d. The de Poukes brothers foreswear 411
Colart de Poukes
e. Jehans Liepus foreswears his nephew 411
f. Willaume Castagne foreswears his 411
nephew
g. Henris Pourres foreswears Bauduin de 412
Rengies
118. Tura Ranerii, of Florence, Creates a 412
Procurator
119. Cases of Homicide in the Calendar of 413
Coroner's Rolls, London
a. The death of John le Belringere 414
b. The death of Roger Herne 414
c. The abjuration of William, son of 415
William le Toliere, and Roger le Leche
d. The deaths of William Gilemyn and 415
Robert de Staunton
e. The abjuration of John, son of 416
Richard Taillard, for two murders
120. Notarized Peace Acts and Related Acts 417
from Marseille
a. Peace for the killing of Uguo Clalpin 417
b. Peace between Jacme Gavot and Folco 418
de Nercio
c. Peace for the killing of Guilhem 419
Turel
d. Peace for the killing of Adalays 421
Rogeria
e. Peace between Guilhem Johan and the 422
brothers Peire and Guilhem Tallarone
f. Peace between Uguo Blanc and Peire 423
Gontard
g. Peace for the killing of Adalays 424
Borgone
h. A dowry act for Bertomieua Bohiera 426
i. Peace for the killing of Ugueta 427
Roquiera
j. Guilhem de Bessa declares vengeance 428
121. A Lawsuit by Nicolau Guilhem, a Cutler 429
of Marseille
122. A Lawsuit against Lois Orlet of 433
Marseille
123. A Lawsuit by Anhellon Faber, a Butcher 441
of Marseille
124. An Inquest into the Murder of Bernart 445
Berengier in Marseille
125. The Marseille City Council Makes a 455
Ruling about Broken Sanctuary
126. Ignoring Due Process during a Feud in 456
the Paston Letters
INDEX OF TOPICS 459
SOURCES 469