Mining Haul Roads : Theory and Practice

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Mining Haul Roads : Theory and Practice

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 294 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9781138589629
  • DDC分類 622.69

Full Description


Mining haul roads are a critical component of surface mining infrastructure and the performance of these roads has a direct impact on operational efficiency, costs and safety. A significant proportion of a mine's cost is associated with material haulage and well-designed and managed roads contribute directly to reductions in cycle times, fuel burn, tyre costs and overall cost per tonne hauled and critically, underpin a safe transport system.The first comprehensive treatise on mining haul road design, construction, operation and management, Mining Haul Roads - Theory and Practice presents an authoritative compendium of worldwide experience and state-of-the-art practices developed and applied over the last 25 years by the three authors, over three continents and many of the world's leading surface mining operations. In this book, the authors:Introduce the four design components of an integrated design methodology for mining haul roads - geometric (including drainage), structural, functional and maintenance managementIllustrate how mine planning constraints inform road design requirementsDevelop the analytical framework for each of the design components from their theoretical basis, and using typical mine-site applications, illustrate how site-specific design guidelines are developed, together with their practical implementationSummarise the key road safety and geometric design considerations specific to mining haul roadsSpecify the mechanistic structural design approach unique to ultra-heavy wheel loading associated with OTR mine trucksDescribe the selection, application and management of the road wearing course material, together with its rehabilitation, including the use of palliativesDevelop road and operating cost models for estimating total road-user costs, based on road rolling resistance measurement and modelling techniquesIllustrate the approach of costing a mining road construction project based on the design methodologies previously introducedList and describe future trends in mine haulage system development, how mining haul road design will evolve to meet these new system challenges and how the increasing availability of data is used to manage road performance and ultimately provide 24x7 trafficability.Mining Haul Roads - Theory and Practice is a complete practical reference for mining operations, contractors and mine planners alike, as well as civil engineering practitioners and consulting engineers. It will also be invaluable in other fields of transportation infrastructure provision and for those seeking to learn and apply the state-of-the-art in mining haul roads."This book is the most definitive treatise on mining haul roads ever written [...] There has never been a text that addresses the many facets of mining haul roads on such a scope [...]" From the Foreword by Jim Humphrey, Professional Engineer, Autonomous haulage systems developer and Distinguished Member of the Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xiii
Abbreviations and notation xv
Symbols xvii
1 Introduction to mine haul roads 1 (18)
1.1 Importance of mine haul roads 1 (6)
1.2 Characteristics of mine haul roads 7 (2)
1.3 The provision of mine haul roads 9 (2)
1.4 The quality of mine haul roads 11 (8)
2 Concepts for geometrical design 19 (54)
2.1 Geometric design and safer haul roads 19 (4)
2.1.1 Integrating design methodology 20 (1)
with safety audit systems
2.1.2 Analysis of mine haul road and 21 (2)
haulage incidents
2.2 Integrating design methodology with 23 (7)
mining plan
2.2.1 Including haul roads in the 25 (1)
ultimate pit design
2.2.2 Integrating roads through the 26 (4)
mine schedule
2.3 Geometric design process 30 (15)
2.3.1 Stopping and sight distances 32 (3)
considerations
2.3.2 Measurement of friction supply on 35 (4)
mine haul roads
2.3.3 Sight distances 39 (4)
2.3.4 Truck cab blind spots 43 (2)
2.4 Vertical alignment issues -- 45 (3)
gradeability and brake performance
2.5 Horizontal (longitudinal) alignment 48 (13)
issues
2.5.1 Width of road 48 (4)
2.5.2 Turning circle of large haul 52 (1)
trucks
2.5.3 Curvature and switchbacks 53 (2)
2.5.4 Curve super-elevation (banking) 55 (2)
2.5.5 Road camber -- cross-fall or crown 57 (2)
2.5.6 Development of super-elevation 59 (1)
2.5.7 Combined alignment 60 (1)
2.6 Safety berms 61 (3)
2.7 Ditches and drainage 64 (4)
2.8 Intersection design 68 (5)
3 Structural design of haul roads 73 (48)
3.1 Background and orientation 73 (3)
3.2 The CBR structural design method 76 (10)
3.2.1 Origin and background 76 (1)
3.2.2 CBR thickness design method 77 (2)
3.2.3 Example of application 79 (4)
3.2.4 Material characterisation and 83 (3)
laboratory tests
3.2.5 Limitations of the CBR method 86 (1)
3.3 Mechanistic-empirical design method 86 (24)
3.3.1 Origin of method -- Boussinesq 86 (1)
theory
3.3.2 Critical parameters for analysis 87 (12)
and input measurements
3.3.3 Analytical methodology 99 (3)
3.3.4 Example applications 102 (5)
3.3.5 Comparison of design methodologies 107 (3)
3.4 General construction notes -- 110 (7)
layerworks
3.4.1 Preparation of in-situ road bed 110 (3)
materials
3.4.2 Placing and compaction of 113 (4)
material above road-bed
3.5 Large tracked and platform-type 117 (4)
equipment
4 Functional design 121 (66)
4.1 Introduction and requirements for 121 (1)
functional acceptability
4.2 Functional characterisation 122 (17)
4.2.1 Material properties 122 (3)
4.2.2 Laboratory characterisation of 125 (9)
wearing course
4.2.3 Field testing of wearing course 134 (1)
4.2.4 Combination of materials to 135 (4)
achieve desired wearing course
properties
4.3 Benchmarking and monitoring 139 (15)
functional performance
4.3.1 Qualitative assessment of road 142 (6)
functionality
4.3.2 Quantitative assessment of road 148 (6)
functionality
4.4 Benchmarking and monitoring rolling 154 (3)
resistance
4.4.1 Qualitative assessment of rolling 154 (3)
resistance
4.4.2 Quantitative assessment of 157 (1)
rolling resistance
4.5 General construction notes -- wearing 157 (5)
course
4.5.1 Material selection, crushing, 160 (2)
blending and QAQC -- wearing course
4.6 Stabilisation and dust palliation 162 (25)
4.6.1 Products available for 162 (2)
stabilisation and palliation
4.6.2 The use of water for palliation 164 (4)
4.6.3 Water-spray systems performance 168 (6)
modelling
4.6.4 Palliative selection 174 (4)
4.6.5 Economic evaluation of palliation 178 (5)
strategies
4.6.6 Practical evaluation of additives 183 (4)
5 Road management and maintenance 187 (46)
5.1 Background and orientation 187 (1)
5.2 Introduction to road management 187 (17)
5.2.1 Root cause analysis in road 188 (1)
maintenance
5.2.2 Road maintenance activities 188 (4)
5.2.3 Routine haul road maintenance -- 192 (6)
untreated wearing courses
5.2.4 Routine haul road maintenance -- 198 (2)
treated (palliated) wearing courses
5.2.5 Grader selection and road 200 (2)
maintenance productivity
5.2.6 Maintenance management systems 202 (2)
(MMS)
5.3 Minimising total costs across a 204 (22)
network of roads
5.3.1 Haul truck speed and cycle time 206 (1)
estimation
5.3.1.1 Speed rimpull gradeability 206 (3)
curves
5.3.1.2 Coopers speed estimation models 209 (4)
5.3.1.3 Spline estimation techniques 213 (3)
5.3.2 Vehicle operating cost models 216 (1)
5.3.3 Road maintenance cost models 217 (1)
5.3.4 Tyre cost models 218 (1)
5.3.5 Vehicle maintenance, parts and 218 (2)
labour cost models
5.3.6 Optimising management of mine 220 (2)
roads
5.3.7 Example of MMS application 222 (4)
5.4 Real-time road maintenance 226 (7)
6 Equipment performance and costing road 233 (28)
construction
6.1 Introduction to accounting analysis 233 (1)
6.2 Economic analysis 233 (3)
6.2.1 Background 233 (1)
6.2.2 Project evaluation 234 (2)
6.2.3 Discussion of project analyses 236 (1)
6.3 Equipment performance and costing for 236 (3)
road construction
6.4 Earthworks equipment and typical 239 (8)
operations
6.4.1 Typical excavator/loader 240 (1)
applications
6.4.2 Typical truck applications 240 (1)
6.4.3 Typical tractor/dozer applications 241 (2)
6.4.4 Typical motor grader applications 243 (1)
6.4.4.1 Site preparation 243 (1)
6.4.4.2 Heavy blading 244 (1)
6.4.4.3 Finish grading 244 (1)
6.4.4.4 Ripping/Scarifying 244 (1)
6.4.5 Typical water truck applications 244 (1)
6.4.6 Typical compactor applications 245 (2)
6.5 Earthworks equipment capital and 247 (3)
operational costs
6.5.1 Estimating cost of operation 247 (1)
6.5.1.1 Fuel or power costs 248 (1)
6.5.1.2 Lubrication and filter costs 248 (1)
6.5.1.3 Tyres or crawler and 249 (1)
undercarriage
6.5.1.4 Repair parts and overhauls 249 (1)
6.5.1.5 Wear parts 250 (1)
6.5.2 Estimating cost of ownership 250 (1)
6.6 Cost comparison of road design options 250 (11)
6.6.1 Cost estimation example 251 (1)
6.6.1.1 Excavator hours 252 (1)
6.6.1.2 Truck hours 253 (1)
6.6.1.3 Dozer hours 254 (1)
6.6.1.4 Motor grader hours 255 (1)
6.6.1.5 Compactor hours 256 (1)
6.6.1.6 Water truck hours 256 (1)
6.6.2 Evaluation of design options 256 (5)
costs and benefits
7 New technology and haulage equipment 261 (24)
developments
7.1 Background and orientation 261 (2)
7.2 Autonomous haulage 263 (10)
7.2.1 Autonomy technologies in mine 264 (4)
haulage
7.2.2 Road design challenges for 268 (2)
autonomous haulage and mining
7.2.3 Roadmap for AHS haul road design 270 (2)
and management
7.2.4 Premium or long-life pavements 272 (1)
7.3 Drone-based condition monitoring of 273 (4)
haul roads
7.4 Haul road geometrical diagnostics - 277 (4)
an example
7.5 Fleet management systems 281 (4)
References 285 (6)
Subject index 291