GISの科学(第4版)<br>Geographic Information Science & Systems (4TH)

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GISの科学(第4版)
Geographic Information Science & Systems (4TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 477 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781118676950
  • DDC分類 910.285

Full Description


Effective use of today s vast geographic information (GI) resources requires more than just powerful technology for problem solving. It requires science to help us understand the way the world works, and to help us devise effective procedures for making decisions. Three previous editions have established this text as a defining multidisciplinary treatment of the scientific principles that underpin the use of geographic information technologies for problem solving. This extensively revised and updated edition provides a guide to the enduring scientific principles and information systems that support effective use of today s GI. It also provides a primer on essential methods for analysis of GI, and the ways in which effective management of GI informs policy and action.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           x
Dedication xi
Preface xii
List Of Acronyms xiv
Introduction
1 Geographic Information: Science, Systems, 1 (32)
and Society
1.1 Introduction: What Are GI Science and 1 (8)
Systems, and Why Do They Matter?
1.1.1 The Importance of Location 2 (4)
1.1.2 Spatial Is Special 6 (3)
1.2 Data, Information, Evidence, 9 (2)
Knowledge, and Wisdom
1.3 GI Science and Systems 11 (3)
1.4 The Technology of Problem Solving 14 (2)
1.5 The Disciplinary Setting of GI 16 (14)
Science and Systems (GISS)
1.5.1 The Historical Perspective 18 (1)
1.5.2 The Business Perspective 19 (4)
1.5.3 The Government Perspective 23 (1)
1.5.4 Computer-Science and 24 (1)
Information-Science Perspectives
1.5.5 The Geography Perspective 25 (2)
1.5.6 The Societal Perspective 27 (3)
1.6 GI Science and Spatial Thinking 30 (1)
1.7 GI Systems and Science in Society 31 (2)
Questions for Further Study 32 (1)
Further Reading 32 (1)
1 Principles
2 The Nature of Geographic Data 33 (22)
2.1 Introduction 33 (1)
2.2 The Fundamental Problem 34 (3)
2.3 Spatial Autocorrelation and Scale 37 (2)
2.4 Spatial Sampling 39 (3)
2.5 Sampling and VGI 42 (1)
2.6 Distance Decay 43 (5)
2.7 Measuring Distance Effects as Spatial 48 (3)
Autocorrelation
2.8 Taming Geographic Monsters 51 (2)
2.9 Induction and Deduction and How It 53 (2)
All Comes Together
Questions for Further Study 54 (1)
Further Reading 54 (1)
3 Representing Geography 55 (22)
3.1 Introduction 55 (2)
3.2 Digital Representation 57 (1)
3.3 Representation of What and for Whom? 58 (3)
3.4 The Fundamental Problem 61 (1)
3.5 Discrete Objects and Continuous Fields 62 (4)
3.5.1 Discrete Objects 62 (2)
3.5.2 Continuous Fields 64 (2)
3.6 Rasters and Vectors 66 (3)
3.6.1 Raster Data 67 (1)
3.6.2 Vector Data 68 (1)
3.6.3 Representing Continuous Fields 68 (1)
3.7 The Paper Map 69 (2)
3.8 Generalization 71 (5)
3.8.1 Generalization about Places 71 (3)
3.8.2 Generalization about Properties 74 (2)
3.9 Conclusion 76 (1)
Questions for Further Study 76 (1)
Further Reading 76 (1)
4 Georeferencing 77 (22)
4.1 Introduction 77 (3)
4.2 Place-Names and Points of Interest 80 (2)
4.3 Postal Addresses and Postal Codes 82 (2)
4.4 IP Addresses 84 (1)
4.5 Linear Referencing Systems 84 (1)
4.6 Cadasters and the U.S. Public Land 85 (1)
Survey System
4.7 Measuring the Earth: Latitude and 86 (2)
Longitude
4.8 Projections and Coordinates 88 (6)
4.8.1 The Plate Carree or Cylindrical 91 (1)
Equidistant Projection
4.8.2 The Universal Transverse Mercator 92 (1)
(UTM) Projection
4.8.3 Web Mercator 93 (1)
4.8.4 State Plane Coordinates and Other 94 (1)
Local Systems
4.9 Measuring Latitude, Longitude, and 94 (1)
Elevation: GPS
4.10 Converting Georeferences 95 (1)
4.11 Geotagging and Mashups 96 (1)
4.12 Georegistration 96 (2)
4.13 Summary 98 (1)
Questions for Further Study 98 (1)
Further Reading 98 (1)
5 Uncertainty 99 (29)
5.1 Introduction 99 (2)
5.2 U1: Uncertainty in the Conception of 101(10)
Geographic Phenomena
5.2.1 Conceptions of Place: Units of 101(3)
Analysis
5.2.2 Conceptions of Attributes: 104(4)
Vagueness and Ambiguity
5.2.3 Fuzzy Approaches to Attribute 108(3)
Classification
5.3 U2: Further Uncertainty in the 111(6)
Representation of Geographic Phenomena
5.3.1 Representation of Place/Location 111(1)
5.3.2 Statistical Models of Uncertainty 112(5)
in Attribute Measures
5.3.3 Statistical Models of Uncertainty 117(1)
in Location Measures
5.4 U3: Further Uncertainty in the 117(9)
Analysis of Geographic Phenomena
5.4.1 Internal and External Validation 117(1)
through Spatial Analysis
5.4.2 Validation through 118(4)
Autocorrelation: The Spatial Structure
of Errors
5.4.3 Validation through Investigating 122(1)
the Effects of Aggregation and Scale
5.4.4 Validation with Reference to 123(1)
External Sources: Data Integration and
Shared Lineage
5.4.5 Internal and External Validation; 124(2)
Induction and Deduction
5.5 Consolidation 126(2)
Questions for Further Study 127(1)
Further Reading 127(1)
2 Techniques
6 GI System Software 128(24)
6.1 Introduction 128(1)
6.2 The Evolution of GI System Software 129(2)
6.3 Architecture of GI System Software 131(5)
6.3.1 Project, Departmental, and 131(1)
Enterprise GI Systems
6.3.2 The Three-Tier Architecture 131(2)
6.3.3 Software Data Models and 133(1)
Customization
6.3.4 GI Systems on the Desktop, on the 134(2)
Web, and in the Cloud
6.4 Building GI Software Systems 136(1)
6.5 GI Software Vendors 137(3)
6.5.1 Autodesk 137(1)
6.5.2 Bentley 137(1)
6.5.3 Esri 138(1)
6.5.4 Intergraph 139(1)
6.6 Types of GI Systems 140(10)
6.6.1 Desktop Systems 140(2)
6.6.2 Web Mapping Systems 142(1)
6.6.3 Server GI Systems 142(4)
6.6.4 Virtual Globes 146(1)
6.6.5 Developer GI Systems 147(1)
6.6.6 Mobile GI Systems 148(1)
6.6.7 Other types of GI Software 149(1)
6.7 Conclusion 150(2)
Questions for Further Study 151(1)
Further Reading 151(1)
7 Geographic Data Modeling 152(21)
7.1 Introduction 152(2)
7.1.1 Data Model Overview 152(1)
7.1.2 Levels of Data Model Abstraction 153(1)
7.2 GI Data Models 154(14)
7.2.1 CAD, Graphical, and Image Data 155(1)
Models
7.2.2 Raster Data Model 155(2)
7.2.3 Vector Data Model 157(7)
7.2.4 Object Data Model 164(4)
7.3 Example of a Water-Facility Object 168(2)
Data Model
7.4 Geographic Data Modeling in Practice 170(3)
Questions for Further Study 172(1)
Further Reading 172(1)
8 Data Collection 173(21)
8.1 Introduction 173(2)
8.1.1 Data Collection Workflow 175(1)
8.2 Primary Geographic Data Capture 175(6)
8.2.1 Raster Data Capture 175(4)
8.2.2 Vector Data Capture 179(2)
8.3 Secondary Geographic Data Capture 181(6)
8.3.1 Raster Data Capture Using Scanners 181(2)
8.3.2 Vector Data Capture 183(4)
8.4 Obtaining Data from External Sources 187(3)
(Data Transfer)
8.4.1 Geographic Data Formats 189(1)
8.5 Capturing Attribute Data 190(1)
8.6 Citizen-Centric Web-Based Data 190(1)
Collection
8.7 Managing a Data Collection Project 191(3)
Questions for Further Study 193(1)
Further Reading 193(1)
9 Creating and Maintaining Geographic 194(23)
Databases
9.1 Introduction 194(1)
9.2 Database Management Systems 195(3)
9.2.1 Types of DBMSs 196(1)
9.2.2 Geographic DBMS Extensions 197(1)
9.3 Storing Data in DBMS Tables 198(3)
9.4 SQL 201(1)
9.5 Geographic Database Types and 202(3)
Functions
9.6 Geographic Database Design 205(1)
9.6.1 The Database Design Process 205(1)
9.7 Structuring Geographic Information 206(6)
9.7.1 Topology Creation 206(2)
9.7.2 Indexing 208(4)
9.8 Editing and Data Maintenance 212(1)
9.9 Multiuser Editing of Continuous 213(1)
Databases
9.9.1 Transactions 213(1)
9.9.2 Versioning 213(1)
9.10 Conclusion 214(3)
Questions for Further Study 216(1)
Further Reading 216(1)
10 The Geo Web 217(20)
10.1 Introduction 217(5)
10.2 Distributing the Data 222(5)
10.2.1 Object-Level Metadata 223(2)
10.2.2 Geolibraries and Geoportals 225(2)
10.3 The Mobile User 227(6)
10.3.1 Virtual Reality and Augmented 228(2)
Reality
10.3.2 Location-Based Services 230(2)
10.3.3 Issues in Mobile GIS 232(1)
10.4 Distributing the Software: GI 233(2)
Services
10.4.1 Service-Oriented Architecture 234(1)
10.5 Prospects 235(2)
Questions for Further Study 236(1)
Further Reading 236(1)
11 Analysis Cartography and Map Production 237(29)
11.1 Introduction 237(4)
11.2 Maps and Cartography 241(5)
11.2.1 Maps and Media 245(1)
11.3 Principles of Map Design 246(11)
11.3.1 Map Composition 247(1)
11.3.2 Map Symbolization 248(9)
11.4 Map Series 257(4)
11.5 Applications 261(4)
11.6 Conclusion 265(1)
Questions for Further Study 265(1)
Further Reading 265(1)
12 Geovisualization 266(24)
12.1 Introduction: Uses, Users, Messages, 266(2)
and Media
12.2 Geovisualization, Spatial Query, and 268(6)
User Interaction
12.2.1 Overview 268(3)
12.2.2 Spatial Query Online and the 271(3)
Geoweb
12.3 Geovisualization and Transformation 274(6)
12.3.1 Overview 274(2)
12.3.2 Cartograms 276(2)
12.3.3 Remodeling Spatial Distributions 278(2)
as Dasymetric Maps
12.4 Participation, Interaction, 280(8)
Augmentation, and Dynamic Representation
12.4.1 Public Participation and 280(2)
Participatory GI Systems (PPGIS)
12.4.2 User Interaction and 282(2)
Representation in 2.5-D and 3-D
12.4.3 Handheld Computing and Augmented 284(1)
Reality
12.4.4 Visualizing Geotemporal Dynamics 285(3)
12.5 Consolidation 288(2)
Questions for Further Study 289(1)
Further Reading 289(1)
13 Spatial Data Analysis 290(29)
13.1 Introduction: What Is Spatial 290(5)
Analysis?
13.1.1 Examples 292(3)
13.2 Analysis Based on Location 295(9)
13.2.1 Analysis of Attribute Tables 296(3)
13.2.2 Spatial Joins 299(1)
13.2.3 The Point-in-Polygon Operation 300(1)
13.2.4 Polygon Overlay 301(2)
13.2.5 Raster Analysis 303(1)
13.3 Analysis Based on Distance 304(13)
13.3.1 Measuring Distance and Length 304(2)
13.3.2 Buffering 306(2)
13.3.3 Cluster Detection 308(1)
13.3.4 Dependence at a Distance 309(1)
13.3.5 Density Estimation 310(3)
13.3.6 Spatial Interpolation 313(4)
13.4 Conclusion 317(2)
Questions for Further Study 318(1)
Further Reading 318(1)
14 Spatial Analysis and Inference 319(20)
14.1 The Purpose of Area-Based Analyses 319(2)
14.1.1 Measurement of Area 319(1)
14.1.2 Measurement of Shape 320(1)
14.2 Centrality 321(3)
14.2.1 Centers 322(2)
14.2.2 Dispersion 324(1)
14.3 Analysis of Surfaces 324(5)
14.3.1 Slope and Aspect 324(2)
14.3.2 Modeling Travel on a Surface 326(1)
14.3.3 Computing Watersheds and Channels 327(1)
14.3.4 Computing Visibility 328(1)
14.4 Design 329(5)
14.4.1 Point Location 330(2)
14.4.2 Routing Problems 332(2)
14.5 Hypothesis Testing 334(3)
14.5.1 Hypothesis Tests on Geographic 335(2)
Data
14.6 Conclusion 337(2)
Questions for Further Study 338(1)
Further Reading 338(1)
15 Spatial Modeling with GI Systems 339(19)
15.1 Introduction 339(4)
15.1.1 Why Model? 341(1)
15.1.2 To Analyze or to Model? 342(1)
15.2 Types of Models 343(8)
15.2.1 Static Models and Indicators 343(1)
15.2.2 Individual and Aggregate Models 343(4)
15.2.3 Cellular Models 347(2)
15.2.4 Cartographic Modeling and Map 349(2)
Algebra
15.3 Technology for Modeling 351(1)
15.3.1 Operationalizing Models in GI 351(1)
Systems
15.3.2 Model Coupling 351(1)
15.3.3 Cataloging and Sharing Models 352(1)
15.4 Multicriteria Methods 352(2)
15.5 Accuracy and Validity: Testing the 354(2)
Model
15.6 Conclusion 356(2)
Questions for Further Study 357(1)
Further Reading 357(1)
16 Policy, Management, and Action Managing 358(23)
GI Systems
16.1 Introduction 359(1)
16.2 Managing Risk 359(1)
16.3 The Case for the GI System: ROI 360(6)
16.4 The Process of Developing a 366(12)
Sustainable GI System
16.4.1 Choosing a GI System: The 368(5)
Classical Acquisition Model
16.4.2 Implementing a GI System 373(2)
16.4.3 Managing a Sustainable, 375(3)
Operational GI System
16.5 Sustaining a GI System---The People 378(2)
and Their Competences
16.5.1 GI System Staff and the Teams 378(1)
Involved
16.5.2 Project Managers 379(1)
16.5.3 Coping with Uncertainty 379(1)
16.6 Conclusions 380(1)
Questions for Further Study 380(1)
Further Reading 380(1)
17 Information and Decision Making 381(30)
17.1 Why We Need Information 381(5)
17.1.1 Trade-Offs, Uncertainty, and Risk 383(1)
17.1.2 Organizational Drivers 383(3)
17.2 Information as Infrastructure 386(5)
17.2.1 Information for Management 387(4)
17.3 Different Forms of GI 391(13)
17.3.1 GI about Individuals 394(8)
17.3.2 More Novel Forms of GI 402(1)
17.3.3 The Changing World of GI 402(2)
17.4 Open Data and Open Government 404(2)
17.4.1 The Metadata Issue 405(1)
17.5 Example of an Information 406(3)
Infrastructure: The Military
17.5.1 Technological Change and the 406(1)
Military
17.5.2 The Military Information 407(1)
Infrastructure
17.5.3 Civilian Spin-Offs 408(1)
17.6 Conclusions 409(2)
Questions for Further Study 410(1)
Further Reading 410(1)
18 Navigating the Risks 411(24)
18.1 Clashes Between Scientists and the 412(1)
Judiciary
18.2 Business Models for GI-Related 412(2)
Enterprises
18.3 Legal and Regulatory Constraints 414(7)
18.3.1 Geography and the Law 414(1)
18.3.2 Three Aspects of the Law and GI 415(6)
18.4 Privacy and GI Systems 421(3)
18.4.1 Preserving Privacy without 422(2)
Losing the Use of Personal Information
18.5 Public Trust, Ethics, and Coping 424(2)
with the Media
18.5.1 Public Trust 424(1)
18.5.2 Ethics 425(1)
18.5.3 Coping with the Media 426(1)
18.6 Partnerships, Up-Scaling Activities, 426(6)
and Risk Mitigation
18.6.1 Spatial Data Infrastructures: 427(2)
The U.S. Experience
18.6.2 INSPIRE 429(1)
18.6.3 UN Initiative on Global 430(1)
Geospatial Information Management
18.6.4 Have SDIs Worked? 430(2)
18.7 Coping with Spatial Stupidity 432(1)
18.8 Conclusions 433(2)
Questions for Further Study 434(1)
Further Reading 434(1)
19 Epilog: GISS in the Service of Humanity 435(26)
19.1 GISS, the Active Citizen, and 435(2)
Citizen Scientists
19.1.1 Who Can Help? 436(1)
19.1.2 Areas Where GISS Contributes 437(1)
19.2 Context: Our Differentiated World 437(3)
19.3 Context: Our Interdependent World 440(1)
19.4 The Process 441(2)
19.4.1 Stage 1: Defining and Describing 442(1)
the Issue
19.4.2 Stage 2: Analyzing and Modeling 442(1)
Spatial Interrelationships
19.4.3 Stage 3: Devising Possible 442(1)
Solutions
19.4.4 Communicating Results and 443(1)
Possible Solutions to Decision Makers
19.4.5 Stage 5: Reflect, Learn, and 443(1)
Educate
19.5 The Grand Challenges 443(2)
19.6 Grand Challenges Whose Effects We 445(14)
Can Help to Ameliorate
19.6.1 Population Growth 445(1)
19.6.2 Poverty and Hunger 446(2)
19.6.3 Human Health 448(4)
19.6.4 Access to Food, Potable Water, 452(1)
and Boundary Disputes
19.6.5 Coping with Natural Disasters 453(3)
19.6.6 Coping with Terrorism, Crime, 456(1)
and Warfare
19.6.7 Environmental Sustainability 456(3)
19.7 Conclusions 459(2)
Questions For Further Study 460(1)
Further Reading 460(1)
Index 461