The Manchu Way : The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China

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The Manchu Way : The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 608 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780804746847
  • DDC分類 950

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was published 2001.

Full Description


In 1644, the Manchus, a relatively unknown people inhabiting China's rude northeastern frontier, overthrew the Ming, Asia's mightiest rulers, and established the Qing dynasty, which endured to 1912. From this event arises one of Chinese history's great conundrums: How did a barely literate alien people manage to remain in power for nearly 300 years over a highly cultured population that was vastly superior in number? This problem has fascinated scholars for almost a century, but until now no one has approached the question from the Manchu point of view.This book, the first in any language to be based mainly on Manchu documents, supplies a radically new perspective on the formative period of the modern Chinese nation. Drawing on recent critical notions of ethnicity, the author explores the evolution of the "Eight Banners," a unique Manchu system of social and military organization that was instrumental in the conquest of the Ming.The author argues that as rulers of China the Manchu conquerors had to behave like Confucian monarchs, but that as a non-Han minority they faced other, more complex considerations as well. Their power derived not only from the acceptance of orthodox Chinese notions of legitimacy, but also, the author suggests, from Manchu "ethnic sovereignty," which depended on the sustained coherence of the conquerors.When, in the early 1700s, this coherence was threatened by rapid acculturation and the prospective loss of Manchu distinctiveness, the Qing court, always insecure, desperately urged its minions to uphold the traditions of an idealized "Manchu Way." However, the author shows that it was not this appeal but rather the articulation of a broader identity grounded in the realities of Eight Banner life that succeeded in preserving Manchu ethnicity, and the Qing dynasty along with it, into the twentieth century.

Table of Contents

        List of Maps and Figures                   xi
List of Tables xii
Preface xiii
Note on Transcription and Other Conventions xxii
Qing Reign Periods xxiii
Introduction. The Problem with the Manchus 1 (1)
Ethnic Sovereignty and Pax Manjurica 2 (6)
The ``Manchu Way,'' 8 (5)
Manchu or Bannerman? 13 (3)
Thinking Again about Ethnicity in Late 16 (4)
Imperial China
``Barharians'' and ``Chinese'': Competing 20 (6)
Views of the Manchus in History
Sinicization and the Manchus 26 (6)
New Narratives 32 (7)
PART ONE Structures of Eight Banner Society
The Eight Banners and the Origins of the 39 (50)
Manchus
What Was the Eight Banners? 39 (3)
Myths of Manchu Origins 42 (5)
Who Were the Jurchens? 47 (5)
The Jianzhou Ascendancy 52 (4)
Roots of Power: The Formation of the Eight 56 (7)
Banners
Roots of Identity: The Banners and the 63 (9)
Manchu Nation Under Hong Taiji
The Mongol and Chinese Banners 72 (6)
Hierarchies of Ethnicity and Status in the 78 (11)
Banners
Manchu Cities: Tigers on the Mountain 89 (44)
Garrisons Before the Conquest 90 (3)
Outline of the Qing Occupation 93 (5)
Manchu Apartheid and the Division of Beijing 98 (7)
Manchu Cities in the Provinces 105 (11)
Close Quarters 116 (6)
The Idea of Occupation 122 (6)
Garrison Dyarchy 128 (5)
The Emperor's Men 133 (42)
The Nature of the Banner Bureaucracy 134 (4)
The Garrison General 138 (8)
The Garrison Lieutenant General and Other 146 (6)
Staff
Relations with the Civil Bureaucracy 152 (4)
Bannermen to the Rescue 156 (4)
Rage and Praise: Letters to the Emperor 160 (4)
Banner Administration and the Manchu Nation 164 (11)
PART TWO Patterns of Banner Life
The Iron Rice Bowl of Banner Privilege 175 (35)
At the Training Ground 175 (7)
From Chase to Campaign 182 (9)
Eating the Emperor's Rice 191 (6)
A Privileged People 197 (13)
Among the Nikan 210 (24)
The Manchu-Han ``Family,'' 212 (4)
Family Quarrels 216 (3)
Ethnic Transactions 219 (6)
Mediating Between Manchu and Han 225 (2)
Master and Slave 227 (3)
Ethnic Tension and Coexistence 230 (4)
Resident Aliens 234 (41)
Manchu Shamanism 235 (6)
Manchu Names and Naming Practices 241 (5)
The Place of Manchu Women 246 (9)
Dimensions of the Manchu Diaspora 255 (2)
No Place Like Home 257 (6)
Matters of Life and Death 263 (5)
Resident Aliens 268 (7)
PART THREE The Crises of the Eighteenth Century
Whither the Manchu Way? 275 (30)
Acculturation and the Manchu Way 276 (8)
Living the Good Life 284 (6)
The ``National'' Language 290 (4)
Slip of the Tongue 294 (5)
Language and Identity 299 (6)
Saving the Banner System 305 (40)
The Costs of the Banner System 306 (7)
The Ways of Poverty 313 (9)
Secondary Status in the Banners 322 (4)
Genealogy and the Reforms of Banner 326 (3)
Household Registration
Mutable Identities 329 (4)
Poor Relations: The Eight Banner Chinese 333 (4)
Sacrificing the Chinese Bannermen 337 (5)
Bannerman and Manchu 342 (3)
Conclusion. Manchu Identity and Manchu Rule in 345 (18)
China
How Did They Do It? 346 (9)
What Did It Matter? 355 (8)
Appendix A. Note on the Size of the Eight 363 (2)
Banner Population
Appendix B. Ranks in the Eight Banners 365 (4)
Appendix C. Foundation and Expansion of 369 (4)
Provincial Garrisons
Notes 373 (132)
Chinese Character Glossary 505 (6)
References 511 (40)
Index 551