The Essence of Materials for Engineers

The Essence of Materials for Engineers

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 554 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780763778330
  • DDC分類 620.11

Full Description


This text is designed for the introductory, one semester course in materials science or as a reference for professional engineers. It addresses what is essential for all engineers to know about the relationship between structure and properties as affected by processing in order to obtain all-important required performance. The organization of topics reflects this key interrelationship, and presents those topics in an order appropriate for students in an introductory course to build their own mental construct or hierarchy. Modern advances in polymers, ceramics, crystals, composites, semiconductors, etc. are discussed with an emphasis on applications in industry.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
PART 1 STRUCTURE 1 (136)
Chapter 1 Materials: Building Blocks for 3 (18)
Engineers
1.1 Why Materials Define Civilization 3 (1)
1.2 Materials Science Is Science Applied 4 (3)
to Materials, Not New Science
1.3 The Pervasive Role of Materials in 7 (2)
Engineering
1.4 The Engineering of Materials to Meet 9 (4)
Society's Needs: The Responsibility of
Engineers
1.5 13 (1)
Structure-Property-Processing-Performance
Interdependence
1.6 The Evolution of Materials over Time 14 (2)
1.7 Materials Selection in Design: Every 16 (1)
Engineer's Challenge
Summary 17 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 18 (3)
Questions
Chapter 2 The Periodic Table of Elements: 21 (26)
The Key to Understanding Atomic Bonding and
Types of Materials
2.1 The Structure of the Atom: The 22 (3)
Foundation of Matter
2.2 The Importance of Stable Electron 25 (3)
Configuration in Atoms
2.3 The Periodicity of Atomic Structure 28 (4)
and an Element's Properties
2.4 Why Atoms Form Bond with Other Atoms 32 (3)
2.5 Primary Bonding Between Atoms 35 (4)
2.6 Secondary Bonding Between Atoms and 39 (1)
Between Molecules
2.7 Mixed Bonding 40 (1)
2.8 Defining Material Types from the 41 (1)
Periodic Table
2.9 Atomic Bonding Forces and Energies 41 (2)
Summary 43 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 44 (3)
Questions
Chapter 3 Aggregation of Atoms: The Basis 47 (42)
for Solid Materials
3.1 States of Matter 48 (1)
3.2 Why Atoms Aggregate to Form Solids 49 (3)
Beyond Form Simple Bonds
3.3 Aggregation with Metallic Bonding: 52 (7)
Metal Crystal Structures
3.4 Aggregation with Ionic Bonding: 59 (6)
Ceramic Crystal Structures
3.5 Aggregation with Covalent Bonding: 65 (7)
Crystalline Carbon, High-Performance
Ceramics, Metalloid Semiconductors,
Silicates, and Polymer Macromolecules
3.6 Aggregation of Macromolecules by 72 (1)
Secondary Bonding to Form Polymers
3.7 A System for Navigating Within 73 (3)
Crystals: Miller Indices
3.8 Noncrystalline Materials: Why and 76 (3)
When They Occur
3.9 Characterizing Crystalline Structures 79 (3)
Summary 82 (2)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 84 (5)
Questions
Chapter 4 Imperfections in Solid 89 (20)
Crystalline Materials: Nature's Better
Alternative Than Perfection
4.1 Why Nature Accepts (Even If She Does 89 (3)
Not Prefer) Imperfection
4.2 Point (Zero-Dimensional) Imperfections 92 (4)
4.3 Negatives Versus Positives of Point 96 (1)
Imperfections
4.4 Line (One-Dimensional) Imperfections: 97 (2)
Dislocations
4.5 Negatives Versus Positive of 99 (1)
Dislocations
4.6 Area or Planar (Two-Dimensional) 100 (2)
Imperfections
4.7 Negatives Versus Positives of Planar 102 (1)
Imperfection
4.8 Volume (Three-Dimensional) 103 (2)
Imperfection: Amorphism
4.9 Atomic Vibrations: Phonons 105 (1)
4.10 Engineering with Imperfections in 106 (1)
Materials
Summary 106 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 107 (2)
Questions
Chapter 5 Amorphous and Semi-crystalline 109 (28)
Materials
5.1 Amorphous Versus Crystalline Versus 110 (3)
Semi-crystalline Structure and Materials
5.2 Amorphous Glasses 113 (2)
5.3 Creating Polymer Macromolecules from 115 (4)
Simple Building Blocks
5.4 Polymer Molecule Shape, Structure, 119 (8)
and Configurations
5.5 Classification of Polymers 127 (2)
5.6 Copolymers 129 (1)
5.7 Crystallization in Polymers 129 (2)
5.8 Liquid Crystal Polymers 131 (2)
Summary 133 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 134 (5)
Questions
PART 2 PROPERTIES 137 (160)
Chapter 6 Material Properties: The Response 139 (24)
of a solid Material's Structure to a
Stimulus
6.1 Structure Determines Properties, But 139 (1)
what Are Properties?
6.2 Classification of Properties by 140 (1)
Stimulus
6.3 Effect of Structure on Properties at 141 (3)
Different Levels: Subatomic to Macroscopic
6.4 Intensive Versus Extensive 144 (2)
Properties: Size Sometimes Matters
6.5 Complex Combination Properties 146 (1)
6.6 Correlations Between Properties 146 (7)
6.7 Anisotropy Versus Isotropy 153 (1)
6.8 Smart Materials 154 (3)
Summary 157 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 158 (5)
Questions
Chapter 7 Mechanical Properties of Solids: 163 (44)
A Material's Response to Loads or Forces
7.1 Why Mechanical Properties Are 164 (1)
Important to Engineering
7.2 Important Mechanical Properties to 164 (2)
Engineers
7.3 Types of Loading 166 (1)
7.4 Stress and Strain as Opposed to Load 166 (2)
and Elongation
7.5 Stress-Strain Elastic-Plastic 168 (5)
Behavior of Metals
7.6 Stress-Strain Elastic Behavior of 173 (2)
Brittle Materials (Ceramics and Glasses)
7.7 Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymers and 175 (2)
Viscous Behavior of Glasses
7.8 Responses to Compressive Loading 177 (3)
7.9 Hardness of Materials 180 (4)
7.10 Dynamic Properties of Materials 184 (14)
7.11 The Statistical Nature of Properties 198 (1)
and the Need for Safety Factors
Summary 199 (2)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 201 (6)
Questions
Chapter 8 Deformation Versus Fracture: 207 (36)
Different Mechanical Responses to Stresses
8.1 Mechanical Failure Criteria in 208 (1)
Materials and Structure
8.2 Plastic Deformation in Single-Crystal 209 (3)
Metals: The Process of Slip
8.3 The Role of Dislocations in Slip 212 (2)
8.4 Plastic Deformation in 214 (3)
Polycrystalline Metals: The Role of Grains
8.5 Cold Versus Hot Working of Metals: 217 (3)
Strain Hardening and Recrystallization
8.6 Brittle and Ductile Fracture 220 (6)
8.7 Fracture Mechanics and Fracture 226 (6)
Toughness
8.8 Deformation and Fracture in Ceramics 232 (2)
and Glasses
8.9 Deformation and Fracture in Polymers 234 (2)
Summary 236 (2)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 238 (5)
Questions
Chapter 9 Electrical Properties of Solids: 243 (32)
A Material's Response to an Electromagnetic
Field
9.1 Why Electrical Properties Are 243 (2)
Important to Engineering
9.2 Important Electrical Properties to 245 (1)
Engineers
9.3 The Origin of Material Conductivity: 246 (4)
Electron Band Theory
9.4 Electron Mobility and Electrical 250 (2)
Resistivity
9.5 Semiconductivity and Semiconductors 252 (8)
9.6 Dielectric Behavior and Dielectric 260 (5)
Materials
9.7 Ionic Versus Electronic Conduction 265 (1)
9.8 Electrical Properties of Polymers 265 (1)
9.9 Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric 266 (1)
Behavior in Ceramics
9.10 Thermoelectric Effect and 267 (2)
Thermoelectricity in Metals
Summary 269 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 270 (5)
Questions
Chapter 10 Thermal Properties of Solids: A 275 (22)
Material's Response to Heat
10.1 Why Thermal Properties Are Important 275 (8)
to Engineering
10.2 Important Thermal Properties to 283 (1)
Engineers
10.3 Heat Capacity of Solids 283 (2)
10.4 Thermal Expansion of Solids 285 (3)
10.5 Thermal Conductivity in Solids 288 (1)
10.6 Thermal Degradation of Materials and 289 (2)
Structures: Thermal Stresses, Thermal
Fatigue, and Thermal Shock
Summary 291 (2)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 293 (4)
Questions
PART 3 PROCESSING 297 (162)
Chapter 11 Using Processing to Improve the 299 (32)
Mechanical Properties of Solids:
Strengthening and Toughening Materials
11.1 The Role of Processing Materials in 299 (2)
Engineering
11.2 Why Engineers Seek Stronger and 301 (1)
Tougher Materials
11.3 The Bases for Strengthening and for 302 (3)
Toughening
11.4 Strengthening Metals by Grain Size 305 (2)
Reduction
11.5 Strengthening Metals by Cold Work: 307 (3)
Strain Hardening
11.6 Strengthening Metals by Alloying: 310 (1)
Solid-Solution Strengthening
11.7 Strengthening Metals with Second 311 (9)
Phases
11.8 Transformation Hardening Metals: The 320 (1)
Martensite Transformation
11.9 Strengthening and Toughening Ceramics 321 (1)
11.10 Strengthening Amorphous Glasses and 322 (1)
Polymers
Summary 323 (2)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 325 (6)
Questions
Chapter 12 Alloy Phase Diagrams: Maps of 331 (32)
Structure as Functions of Composition and
Temperature
12.1 The Importance of Alloying and the 332 (1)
Role of Phase Diagrams in Engineering
12.2 The Language of Phase Diagrams 333 (1)
12.3 Solubility Limits and Hume-Rothery's 334 (2)
Rules
12.4 One-Component Pressure-Temperature 336 (2)
Phase Diagrams: As a Start
12.5 Gibbs' Phase Rule 338 (1)
12.6 Binary Diagrams: Isomorphous and 339 (9)
Simple Eutectic
12.7 Other Phase Reactions and More 348 (5)
Complicated Binary Phase Diagrams
12.8 The Iron-Carbon/Iron-Iron Carbide 353 (1)
Phase Diagrams: Steels Revealed
12.9 Creamic Phase Diagrams 354 (1)
12.10 Dealing with Systems More Complex 355 (3)
Than Binaries
Summary 358 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration Question 359 (4)
Chapter 13 Heat-Induced Transformations In 363 (52)
Materials: Improving Properties by
Controlled Solidification, Diffusion, or
Heat Treatment
13.1 How Heat Leads to Changes in 364 (1)
Structure and Properties
13.2 Nucleation and Growth: Crystals, 365 (8)
Grains, Precipitates, and Cracks
13.3 Diffusion in Crystalline Solids 373 (7)
13.4 Solidification of Pure Metals and 380 (6)
Single-Phase Alloys
13.5 Eutectic Solidification 386 (4)
13.6 Nonequilibrium Versus Equilibrium 390 (3)
Solidification and Phase Transformations
13.7 The Eutectoid Transformation: Key to 393 (5)
the Diversity of Properties in steels
13.8 Heat Treatement of Steels: 398 (12)
Isothermal and Continuous Cooling
Transformation
13.9 Heat-Induced Transformations in 410 (1)
Polymers
Summary 411 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 412 (3)
Questions
Chapter 14 Strain-Induced Transformations 415 (16)
In Materials: Improving Properties by
Controlled Deformation
14.1 What Strain Can Do to Improve 416 (1)
Properties in Crystalline Materials
14.2 Cold Work and Recovery, 416 (5)
Recrystallization, and Grain Growth in
Metals
14.3 Strain-Induced Martensite 421 (1)
Transformation
14.4 Stretch-Leveling and Strain-Aging in 422 (2)
Steels
14.5 Effects of Strain on Aging in 424 (1)
Precipitation-Hardening Alloys
14.6 Strain-Induced Phase Formation in 425 (1)
Ceramics
14.7 Texturing in Metals 426 (1)
14.8 Microstructure and Property Changes 427 (1)
from Hot Working of Metals and Alloys
14.9 Strain Processing of Polymers 428 (1)
Summary 428 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 429 (2)
Questions
Chapter 15 Composite Materials: Another 431 (28)
Level of the
Structure-Property-Process-Performance
Relationship
15.1 Composite Materials: When the Basic 432 (1)
Materials Will Not Do
15.2 Roles of the Reinforcement and of 433 (2)
the Matrix Phases in Composites
15.3 Types and Forms of Composites: 435 (3)
Composite Classification
15.4 The Rule of Mixtures and 438 (9)
Functionally Specific Properties
15.5 The Role of Reinforcement-Matrix 447 (1)
Interface Strength on Composite Behavior
15.6 Particle- Versus Fiber- Versus 448 (2)
Laminate-Reinforced Composites
15.7 Polymer- Versus Metal- Versus 450 (3)
Ceramic-Matrix Composites
15.8 Nanocomposites: When Smaller Is 453 (1)
Better
Summary 453 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 454 (5)
Questions
PART 4 PERFORMANCE 459 (46)
Chapter 16 Environmental Degradation of 461 (26)
Materials: A Cost to Society
16.1 Environmental Degradation in 462 (1)
Service: The Bane of Even a Good Design
16.2 The Chemistry of Corrosion 462 (2)
16.3 Electrochemical Cells and Galvanic 464 (5)
Corrosion
16.4 Forms of Corrosion 469 (8)
16.5 Environmental Factors in Corrosion 477 (1)
16.6 Preventing Corrosion 477 (1)
16.7 Wear in Materials 478 (1)
16.8 Preventing Wear 479 (2)
16.9 Degradation in Other Materials and 481 (1)
by Other Environments
Summary 482 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 483 (4)
Questions
Chapter 17 The Evolution of Materials: 487 (18)
Solving Problems and Embarking on New
Frontiers
17.1 Where We Stand and Why we Stand Here 487 (1)
17.2 Learning from the Old to Create the 488 (2)
New (or Nothing New Under the Sun)
17.3 More Toward Functionally Specific 490 (1)
Properties and Designer Materials
17.4 Combining Material Synthesis and 491 (2)
Processing: Synergy and Economy
17.5 Energy, Water, Pollution, and 493 (4)
Poverty: Saving the Earth
17.6 Transportation: Shrinking the World 497 (3)
and Beyond
17.7 Bionics: Mimicking Nature for the 500 (1)
Betterment of Humankind
Summary 501 (1)
Thinking Problems and Exploration 502 (3)
Questions
Appendix A-1 List of Selected Elements and Key 505 (4)
Facts
Appendix A-2 Summary of the Seven Possible 509 (2)
Crystal Systems and Fourteen Possible Bravais
Lattices
Appendix A-3 Convention for Assigning Miller 511 (4)
Indices for Hexagonal Crystals
Appendix B-1 Some Key Mechanical Properties for 515 (4)
Some Important Engineering Materials
Appendix B-2 Hardness Conversion Table: 519 (8)
Approximate Hardness Equivalents Among Common
Hardness Scales (Including Ultimate Tensile
Strength, UTS)
Appendix B-3 List of the Values of Electrical 527 (4)
Conductivity and Resistivity for Some Important
Engineering Materials (at Room Temperature)
Appendix B-4 Seebeck Coefficients for Various 531 (2)
Materials
Appendix B-5 List of Some Important Thermal 533 (6)
Properties for Some Important Engineering
Materials
Index 539