デカルトの懐疑の方法<br>Descartes's Method of Doubt

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デカルトの懐疑の方法
Descartes's Method of Doubt

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 224 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780691117324
  • DDC分類 121

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was published in 2002.

Full Description


Descartes thought that we could achieve absolute certainty by starting with radical doubt. He adopts this strategy in the Meditations on First Philosophy, where he raises sweeping doubts with the famous dream argument and the hypothesis of an evil demon. But why did Descartes think we should take these exaggerated doubts seriously? And if we do take them seriously, how did he think any of our beliefs could ever escape them? Janet Broughton undertakes a close study of Descartes's first three meditations to answer these questions and to present a fresh way of understanding precisely what Descartes was up to. Broughton first contrasts Descartes's doubts with those of the ancient skeptics, arguing that Cartesian doubt has a novel structure and a distinctive relation to the commonsense outlook of everyday life. She then argues that Descartes pursues absolute certainty by uncovering the conditions that make his radical doubt possible. She gives a unified account of how Descartes uses this strategy, first to find certainty about his own existence and then to argue that God exists.Drawing on this analysis, Broughton provides a new way to understand Descartes's insistence that he hasn't argued in a circle, and she measures his ambitions against those of contemporary philosophers who use transcendental arguments in their efforts to defeat skepticism. The book is a powerful contribution both to the history of philosophy and to current debates in epistemology.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
Abbreviations xv
Introduction 1 (1)
The Method of Doubt and Other Cartesian 2 (5)
Methods
The Method of Doubt and Descartes's 7 (3)
Conception of Knowledge
Descartes's Reasons for Deploying the 10 (11)
Method of Doubt
PART ONE Raising Doubt
Who Is Doubting? 21 (12)
The Meditator as Anyone 22 (4)
The Meditator as Scholastic Philosopher 26 (2)
or Person of Common Sense
The Meditator's Problematic Persona 28 (5)
Ancient Skepticism 33 (9)
Academic Skepticism as a Criticism of 34 (3)
Stoic Epistemology
Pyrrhonian Reflection 37 (5)
Reasons for Suspending Judgment 42 (20)
The Maxim for Assent 43 (6)
High Strategy 49 (5)
Withholding Assent and Bracketing Beliefs 54 (8)
Reasons for Doubt 62 (10)
Skeptical Scenarios as Explanations for 64 (3)
False Beliefs
Radical Grounds and the Method of Doubt 67 (5)
Common Sense and Skeptical Reflection 72 (25)
Michael Williams's Reading 74 (4)
Contrasts between Ancient Skeptics and 78 (4)
Descartes's Meditator
Contrasts between Contemporary 82 (15)
Philosophers and Descartes
PART TWO Using Doubt
Using Doubt 97 (11)
Conditions of Using Doubt 98 (3)
Suggestive Texts 101(3)
Three Types of Dependence Argument 104(4)
Inner Conditions 108(36)
The Cogito First Reading 109(5)
My Existence as a Condition of My Doubt 114(6)
``I think'' 120(11)
Careful Self-Attributions as Conditions 131(13)
of Doubt
Outer Conditions 144(31)
The Idea of God 146(7)
Causal Principles 153(17)
The Physical World 170(5)
Reflections 175(28)
The Cartesian Circle 175(11)
Transcendental Arguments 186(10)
The Fate of Common Sense 196(7)
References 203(8)
Index 211