グールド著/進化論の構造<br>The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

グールド著/進化論の構造
The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

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基本説明

The world's most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time - a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision.

Full Description


The world's most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time--a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision.With characteristic attention to detail, Stephen Jay Gould first describes the content and discusses the history and origins of the three core commitments of classical Darwinism: that natural selection works on organisms, not genes or species; that it is almost exclusively the mechanism of adaptive evolutionary change; and that these changes are incremental, not drastic. Next, he examines the three critiques that currently challenge this classic Darwinian edifice: that selection operates on multiple levels, from the gene to the group; that evolution proceeds by a variety of mechanisms, not just natural selection; and that causes operating at broader scales, including catastrophes, have figured prominently in the course of evolution.Then, in a stunning tour de force that will likely stimulate discussion and debate for decades, Gould proposes his own system for integrating these classical commitments and contemporary critiques into a new structure of evolutionary thought.In 2001 the Library of Congress named Stephen Jay Gould one of America's eighty-three Living Legends--people who embody the "quintessentially American ideal of individual creativity, conviction, dedication, and exuberance." Each of these qualities finds full expression in this peerless work, the likes of which the scientific world has not seen--and may not see again--for well over a century.

Table of Contents

  Defining and Revising the Structure of           1   (93)
Evolutionary Theory
Theories Need Both Essences and Histories 1 (11)
The Structure of Evolutionary Theory: 12 (12)
Revising the Three Central Features of
Darwinian Logic
Apologia Pro Vita Sua 24 (24)
A Time to Keep 24 (9)
A Personal Odyssey 33 (15)
Epitomes for a Long Development 48 (45)
Levels of Potential Originality 48 (5)
An Abstract of One Long Argument 53 (40)
Part I: The History of Darwinian Logic and
Debate
The Essence of Darwinism and the Basis of 93 (77)
Modern Orthodoxy: An Exegesis of the Origin
of Species
A Revolution in the Small 93 (4)
Darwin as a Historical Methodologist 97 (19)
One Long Argument 97 (2)
The Problem of History 99 (4)
A Fourfold Continuum of Methods for the 103 (13)
Inference of History
Darwin as a Philosophical Revolutionary 116 (47)
The Causes of Nature's Harmony 116 (1)
Darwin and William Paley 116 (5)
Darwin and Adam Smith 121 (4)
The First Theme: The Organism as the 125 (12)
Agent of Selection
The Second Theme: Natural Selection as a 137 (4)
Creative Force
The Requirements for Variation 141 (1)
Copious 141 (2)
Small 143 (1)
Undirected 144 (2)
Gradualism 146 (9)
The Adaptationist Program 155 (4)
The Third Theme: The Uniformitarian Need 159 (4)
to Extrapolate: Environment as Enabler of
Change
Judgements of Importance 163 (7)
Seeds of Hierarchy 170 (81)
Lamarck and the Birth of Modern 170 (22)
Evolutionism in Two-Factor Theories
The Myths of Lamarck 170 (4)
Lamarck as a Source 174 (1)
Lamarck's Two-Factor Theory: Sources for 175 (1)
the Two Parts
The First Set: Environment and Adaptation 176 (3)
The Second Set: Progress and Taxonomy 179 (2)
Distinctness of the Two Sets 181
Lamarck's Two-Factor Theory: The 175 (14)
Hierarchy of Progress and Deviation
Antinomies of the Two-Factor Theory 189 (3)
An Interlude on Darwin's Reaction 192 (5)
No Allmacht without Hierarchy: Weissman on 197 (27)
Germinal Selection
The Allmacht of Selection 197 (4)
Weismann's Argument on Lamarck and the 201 (2)
Allmacht of Selection
The Problem of Degeneration and 203 (5)
Weismann's Impetus for Germinal Selection
Some Antecedents to Hierarchy in German 208 (1)
Evolutionary Thought
Haeckel's Descriptive Hierarchy in Levels 208 (2)
of Organization
Roux's Theory of Intracorporeal Struggle 210 (4)
Germinal Selection as a Helpmate to 214 (5)
Personal Selection
Germinal Selection as a Full Theory of 219 (5)
Hierarchy
Hints of Hierarchy in Supraorganismal 224 (25)
Selection: Darwin on the Principle of
Divergence
Divergence and the Completion of Darwin's 224 (8)
System
The Genesis of Divergence 232 (2)
Divergence as a Consequence of Natural 234 (2)
Selection
The Failure of Darwin's Argument and the 236 (2)
Need for Species Selection
The Calculus of Individual Success 238 (2)
The Causes of Trends 240 (6)
Species Selection Based on Propensity for 246 (2)
Extinction
Postscript: Solution to the Problem of 248 (1)
the ``Delicate Arrangement''
Coda 249 (2)
Internalism and Laws of Form: Pre-Darwinian 251 (91)
Alternatives to Functionalism
Prologue: Darwin's Fateful Decision 251 (9)
Two Ways to Glorify God in Nature 260 (21)
William Paley and British Functionalism: 262 (9)
Praising God in the Details of Design
Louis Agassiz and Continental Formalism: 271 (7)
Praising God in the Grandeur of Taxonomic
Order
An Epilog on the Dichotomy 278 (3)
Unity of Plan as the Strongest Version of 281 (49)
Formalism: The Pre-Darwinian Debate
Mehr Licht on Goethe's Leaf 281 (10)
Geoffroy and Cuvier 291 (1)
Cuvier and Conditions of Existence 291 (7)
Geoffroy's Formalist Vision 298 (6)
The Debate of 1830: Foreplay and Aftermath 304 (8)
Richard Owen and English Formalism: The 312 (1)
Archetype of Vertebrates
No Formalism Please, We're British 312 (4)
The Vertebrate Archetype: Constraint and 316 (10)
Nonadaptation
Owen and Darwin 326 (4)
Darwin's Strong but Limited Interest in 330 (12)
Structural Constraint
Darwin's Debt to Both Poles of the 330 (2)
Dichotomy
Darwin on Correlation of Parts 332 (7)
The ``Quite Subordinate Position'' of 339 (3)
Constraint to Selection
The Fruitful Facets of Galton's Polyhedron: 342 (125)
Channels and Saltations in Post-Darwinian
Formalism
Galton's Polyhedron 342 (9)
Orthogenesis as a Theory of Channels and 351 (45)
One-Way Streets: the Marginalization of
Darwinism
Misconceptions and Relative Frequencies 351 (4)
Theodor Eimer and the Ohnmacht of 355 (10)
Selection
Alpheus Hyatt: An Orthogenetic Hard Line 365 (18)
from the World of Mollusks
C.O. Whitman: An Orthogenetic Dove in 383 (13)
Darwin's World of Pigeons
Saltation as a Theory of Internal Impetus: 396 (71)
A Second Formalist Strategy for Pushing
Darwinism to a Causal Periphery
William Bateson: The Documentation of 396 (19)
Inherent Discontinuity
Hugo de Vries: A Most Reluctant 415 (1)
Non-Darwinian
Dousing the Great Party of 1909 415 (3)
The (Not So Contradictory) Sources of the 418 (7)
Mutation Theory
The Mutation Theory: Origin and Central 425 (14)
Tenets
Darwinism and the Mutation Theory 439 (1)
Confusing Rhetoric and the Personal Factor 439 (4)
The Logic of Darwinism and Its Different 443 (3)
Place in de Vries' System
De Vries on Macroevolution 446 (5)
Richard Goldschmidt's Appropriate Role as 451 (16)
a Formalist Embodiment of All that Pure
Darwinism Must Oppose
Pattern and Progress on the Geological Stage 467 (36)
Darwin and the Fruits of Biotic Competition 467 (12)
A Geological License for Progress 467 (3)
The Predominance of Biotic Competition 470 (9)
and Its Sequelae
Uniformity on the Geological Stage 479 (24)
Lyell's Victory in Fact and Rhetoric 479 (5)
Catastrophism as Good Science: Cuvier's 484 (8)
Essay
Darwin's Geological Need and Kelvin's 492 (4)
Odious Spectre
A Question of Time (Too Little Geology) 496 (1)
A Question of Direction (Too Much Geology) 497 (6)
The Modern Synthesis as a Limited Consensus 503 (92)
Why Synthesis? 503 (2)
Synthesis as Restriction 505 (13)
The Initial Goal of Rejecting Old 505 (3)
Alternatives
R. A. Fisher and the Darwinian Core 508 (6)
J. B. S. Haldane and the Initial 514 (2)
Pluralism of the Synthesis
J. S. Huxley: Pluralism of the Type 516 (2)
Synthesis as Hardening 518 (25)
The Later Goal of Exalting Selection's 518 (6)
Power
Increasing Emphasis on Selection and 524 (4)
Adaptation between the First (1937) and
Last (1951) Edition of Dobzhansky's
Genetics and the Origin of Species
The Shift in G. G. Simpson's Explanation 528 (3)
of ``Quantum Evolution'' from Drift and
Nonadaptation (1944) to the Embodiment of
Strict Adaptation (1953)
Mayr at the Inception (1942) and 531 (10)
Codification (1963): Shifting from the
``Genetic Consistency'' to the
``Adaptationist'' Paradigm
Why Hardening? 541 (2)
Hardening on the Other Two Legs of the 543 (23)
Darwinian Tripod
Levels of Selection 544 (12)
Extrapolation into Geological Time 556 (10)
From Overstressed Doubt to Overextended 566 (29)
Certainty
A Tale of Two Centennials 566 (10)
All Quiet on the Textbook Front 576 (1)
Adaptation and Natural Selection 577 (2)
Reduction and Trivialization of 579 (6)
Macroevolution
Segue to Part II 585 (10)
Part II: Towards a Revised and Expanded
Evolutionary Theory
Species as Individuals in the Hierarchical 595 (150)
Theory of Selection
The Evolutionary Definition of Individuality 595 (18)
An Individualistic Prolegomenon 595 (2)
The Meaning of Individuality and the 597 (5)
Expansion of the Darwinian Research
Program
Criteria for Vernacular Individuality 602 (6)
Criteria for Evolutionary Individuality 608 (5)
The Evolutionary Definition of Selective 613 (31)
Agency and the Fallacy of Selfish Genes
A Fruitful Error of Logic 613 (1)
Hierarchical vs. Genic Selectionism 614 (1)
The Distinction of Replicators and 615 (1)
Interactors as a Framework for Discussion
Faithful Replication as the Central 616 (3)
Criterion for the Gene-Centered View of
Evolution
Sieves, Plurifiers, and the Nature of 619 (3)
Selection: The Rejection of Replication
as a Criterion of Agency
Interaction as the Proper Criterion for 622 (3)
Identifying Units of Selection
The Internal Incoherence of Gene 625 (7)
Selectionism
Bookkeeping and Causality: The 632 (5)
Fundamental Error of Gene Selectionism
Gambits of Reform and Retreat by Gene 637 (7)
Selectionists
Logical and Empirical Foundations for the 644 (70)
Theory of Hierarchical Selection
Logical Validation and Empirical 644 (1)
Challenges
R. A. Fisher and the Compelling Logic of 644 (2)
Species Selection
The Classical Arguments against Efficacy 646 (2)
of Higher-Level Selection
Overcoming These Classical Arguments, in 648 (4)
Practice for Interdemic Selection, but in
Principle for Species Selection
Emergence and the Proper Criterion for 652 (1)
Species Selection
Differential Proliferation or Downward 652 (4)
Effect?
Shall Emergent Characters or Emergent 656 (17)
Fitnesses Define the Operation of Species
Selection?
Hierarchy and the Sixfold Way 673 (1)
A Literary Prologue for the Two Major 673 (8)
Properties of Hierarchies
Redressing the Tyranny of the Organism: 681 (2)
Comments on Characteristic Features and
Differences among Six Primary Levels
The Gene-Individual 683 (1)
Motoo Kimura and the ``Neutral Theory of 684 (5)
Molecular Evolution''
True Genic Selection 689 (6)
The Cell-Individual 695 (5)
The Organism-Individual 700 (1)
The Deme-Individual 701 (2)
The Species-Individual 703 (1)
Species as Individuals 703 (1)
Species as Interactors 704 (5)
Species Selection as Potent 709 (3)
The Clade-Individual 712 (2)
The Grand Analogy: A Speciational Basis for 714 (31)
Macroevolution
Presentation of the Chart for 714 (2)
Macroevolutionary Distinctiveness
The Particulars of Macroevolutionary 716 (1)
Explanation
The Structural Basis 716 (4)
Criteria for Individuality 720 (1)
Contrasting Modalities of Change: The 721 (1)
Basic Categories
Ontogenetic Drive: The Analogy of 722 (2)
Lamarckism and Anagenesis
Reproductive Drive: Directional 724 (7)
Speciation as an Important and
Irreducible Macroevolutionary Mode
Separate from Species Selection
Species Selection, Wright's Rule, and the 731 (4)
Power of Interaction with Directional
Speciation
Species Level Drifts as More Powerful 735 (3)
than the Analogous Phenomena in
Microevolution
The Scaling of External and Internal 738 (3)
Environments
Summary Comments on the Strengths of 741 (4)
Species Selection and its Interaction
with Other Macroevolutionary Causes of
Change
Punctuated Equilibrium and the Validation of 745 (280)
Macroevolutionary Theory
What Every Paleontologist Knows 745 (20)
An Introductory Example 745 (4)
Testimonials to Common Knowledge 749 (6)
Darwinian Solutions and Paradoxes 755 (3)
The Paradox of Insulation from Disproof 758 (3)
The Paradox of Stymied Practice 761 (4)
The Primary Claims of Punctuated Equilibrium 765 (19)
Data and Definitions 765 (9)
Microevolutionary Links 774 (7)
Microevolutionary Implications 781 (1)
Tempo and the Significance of Stasis 782 (1)
Mode and the Speciational Foundation of 783 (1)
Macroevolution
The Scientific Debate on Punctuated 784 (38)
Equilibrium: Critiques and Responses
Critiques Based on the Definability of 784 (1)
Paleontological Species
Empirical Affirmation 784 (5)
Reasons for a Potential Systematic 789 (1)
Underestimation of Biospecies by
Paleospecies
Reasons for a Potential Systematic 789 (4)
Overestimation of Biospecies by
Paleospecies
Reasons Why an Observed Punctuational 793 (3)
Pattern Might Not Represent Speciation
Critiques Based on Denying Events of 796 (6)
Speciation as the Primary Locus of Change
Critiques Based on Supposed Failures of 802 (1)
Empirical Results to Affirm Predictions
of Punctuated Equilibrium
Claims for Empirical Refutation by Cases 802 (1)
Phenotypes 802 (8)
Genotypes 810 (2)
Empirical Tests of Conformity with Models 812 (10)
Sources of Data for Testing Punctuated 822 (52)
Equilibrium
Preamble 822 (2)
The Equilibrium in Punctuated 824 (15)
Equilibrium: Quantitatively Documented
Patterns of Stasis in Unbranched Segments
of Lineages
The Punctuations of Punctuated 839 (1)
Equilibrium: Tempo and Mode in the Origin
of Paleospecies
The Inference of Cladogenesis by the 840 (10)
Criterion of Ancestral Survival
The ``Dissection'' of Punctuations to 850 (1)
Infer Both Existence and Modality
Time 851 (1)
Geography 852 (1)
Morphometric Mode 852 (2)
Proper and Adequate Tests of Relative 854 (1)
Frequencies: The Strong Empirical
Validation of Punctuated Equilibrium
The Indispensability of Data on Relative 854 (2)
Frequencies
Relative Frequencies for Higher Taxa in 856 (10)
Entire Biotas
Relative Frequencies for Entire Clades 866 (4)
Causal Clues from Differential Patterns 870 (4)
of Relative Frequencies
The Broader Implications of Punctuated 874 (98)
Equilibrium for Evolutionary Theory and
General Notions of Change
What Changes May Punctuated Equilibrium 874 (1)
Instigate in Our Views about Evolutionary
Mechanisms and the History of Life?
The Explanation and Broader Meaning of 874 (1)
Stasis
Frequency 875 (1)
Generality 876 (1)
Causality 877 (8)
Punctuation, the Origin of New 885 (1)
Macroevolutionary Individuals, and
Resulting Implications for Evolutionary
Theory
Trends 886 (7)
The Speciational Reformulation of 893 (4)
Macroevolution
Life Itself 897 (4)
General Rules 901 (4)
Particular Cases 905 (1)
Horses as the Exemplar of ``Life's Little 905 (3)
Joke''
Rethinking Human Evolution 908 (8)
Ecological and Higher-Level Extensions 916 (6)
Punctuation All the Way Up and Down? The 922 (1)
Generalization and Broader Utility of
Punctuated Equilibrium (in More Than a
Metaphorical Sense) at Other Levels of
Evolution, and for Other Disciplines In
and Outside the Natural Sciences
General Models for Punctuated Equilibrium 922 (6)
Punctuational Change at Other Levels and 928 (1)
Scales of Evolution
A Preliminary Note on Homology and 928 (3)
Analogy in the Conceptual Realm
Punctuation Below the Species Level 931 (5)
Punctuation Above the Species Level 936 (1)
Stasis Analogs: Trending and Non-Trending 936 (3)
in the Geological History of Clades
Punctuational Analogs in Lineages: The 939 (7)
Pace of Morphological Innovation
Punctuational Analogs in Faunas and 946 (6)
Ecosystems
Punctuational Models in Other 952 (1)
Disciplines: Towards a General Theory of
Change
Principles for a Choice of Examples 952 (1)
Examples from the History of Human 952 (5)
Artifacts and Cultures
Examples from Human Institutions and 957 (5)
Theories about the Natural World
Two Concluding Examples, a General 962 (10)
Statement, and a Coda
Appendix: A Largely Sociological (and Fully 972 (53)
Partisan) History of the Impact and
Critique of Punctuated Equilibrium
The Entrance of Punctuated Equilibrium 972 (7)
into Common Language and General Culture
An Episodic History of Punctuated 979 (1)
Equilibrium
Early Stages and Future Contexts 979 (7)
Creationist Misappropriation of 986 (4)
Punctuated Equilibrium
Punctuated Equilibrium in Journalism and 990 (9)
Textbooks
The Personal Aspect of Professional 999 (1)
Reaction
The Case Ad Hominem against Punctuated 1000(10)
Equilibrium
An Interlude on Sources of Error 1010(4)
The Wages of Jealousy 1014(1)
The Descent to Nastiness 1014(5)
The Most Unkindest Cut of All 1019(2)
The Wisdom of Agassiz's and von Baer's 1021(1)
Threefold History of Scientific Ideas
A Coda on the Kindness and Generosity of 1022(3)
Most Colleagues
The Integration of Constraint and Adaptation 1025(154)
(Structure and Function) in Ontogeny and
Phylogeny: Historical Constraints and the
Evolution of Development
Constraint as a Positive Concept 1025(36)
Two Kinds of Positivity 1025(1)
An Etymological Introduction 1025(2)
The First (Empirical) Positive Meaning of 1027(5)
Channeling
The Second (Definitional) Positive 1032(5)
Meaning of Causes outside Accepted
Mechanisms
Heterochrony and Allometry as the Locus 1037(3)
Classicus of the First Positive
(Empirical) Meaning. Channeled
Directionality by Constraint
The Two Structural Themes of Internally 1040(5)
Set Channels and Ease of Transformation
as Potentially Synergistic with
Functional Causality by Natural
Selection: Increasing Shell Stability in
the Gryphaea Heterochronocline
Ontogenetically Channeled Allometric 1045(6)
Constraint as a Primary Basis of
Expressed Evolutionary Variation: The
Full Geographic and Morphological Range
of Cerion uva
The Aptive Triangle and the Second 1051(1)
Positive Meaning: Constraint as a
Theory-Bound Term for Patterns and
Directions Not Built Exclusively (Or
Sometimes Even at All) by Natural
Selection
The Model of the Aptive Triangle 1051(2)
Distinguishing and Sharpening the Two 1053(1)
Great Questions
The Structural Vertex 1053(2)
The Historical Vertex 1055(2)
An Epitome for the Theory-Bound Nature of 1057(4)
Constraint Terminology
Deep Homology and Pervasive Parallelism: 1061(118)
Historical Constraint as the Primary
Gatekeeper and Guardian of Morphospace
A Historical and Conceptual Analysis of 1061(1)
the Underappreciated Importance of
Parallelism for Evolutionary Theory
A Context for Excitement 1061(8)
A Terminological Excursus on the Meaning 1069(1)
of Parallelism
The Nine Fateful Little Words of E. Ray 1069(7)
Lankester
The Terminological Origin and Debate 1076(13)
about the Meaning and Utility of
Parallelism
A Symphony in Four Movements on the Role 1089(1)
of Historical Constraint in Evolution:
Towards the Harmonious Rebalancing of
Form and Function in Evolutionary Theory
Movement One, Statement: Deep Homology 1089(1)
across Phyla: Mayr's Functional Certainty
and Geoffroy's Structural Vindication
Deep Homology, Archetypal Theories, and 1089(3)
Historical Constraint
Mehr Licht (More Light) on Goethe's 1092(3)
Angiosperm Archetype
Hoxology and Geoffroy's First Archetypal 1095(1)
Theory of Segmental Homology
An Epitome and Capsule History of Hoxology 1095(6)
Vertebrate Homologs in Structure and 1101(5)
Action
Segmental Homologies of Arthropods and 1106(1)
Vertebrates: Geoffroy's Vindication
Rediscovering the Vertebrate Rhombomeres 1107(2)
More Extensive Homologies throughout the 1109(3)
Developing Somites
Some Caveats and Tentative Conclusions 1112(5)
Geoffrey's Second Archetypal Theory of 1117(5)
Dorso-Ventral Inversion in the Common
Bilaterian Groundplan
Movement Two, Elaboration: Parallelism of 1122(1)
Underlying Generators: Deep Homology
Builds Positive Channels of Constraint
Parallelism All the Way Down: Shining a 1122(1)
Light and Feeding the Walk
Parallelism in the Large: Pax-6 and the 1123(1)
Homology of Developmental Pathways in
Homoplastic Eyes of Several Phyla
Data and Discovery 1123(4)
Theoretical Issues 1127(3)
A Question of Priority 1130(2)
Parallelism in the Small: The Origin of 1132(2)
Crustacean Feeding Organs
Pharaonic Bricks and Corinthian Columns 1134(8)
Movement Three, Scherzo: Does 1142(5)
Evolutionary Change Often Proceed by
Saltation Down Channels of Historical
Constraint?
Movement Four, Recapitulation and 1147(1)
Summary: Early Establishment of Rules and
the Inhomogenous Population of
Morphospace: Dobzhansky's Landscape as
Primarily Structural and Historical, Not
Functional and Immediate
Bilaterian History as Top-Down by 1147(8)
Tinkering of an Initial Set of Rules, Not
Bottom-Up by Adding Increments of
Complexity
Setting of Historical Constraints in the 1155(6)
Cambrian Explosion
Channeling the Subsequent Directions of 1161(12)
Bilaterian History from the Inside
An Epilog on Dobzhansky's Landscape and 1173(6)
the Dominant Role of Historical
Constraint in the Clumped Population of
Morphospace
The Intergration of Constraint and Adaptation 1179(117)
(Structure and Function) in Ontogeny and
Phylogeny: Structural Constraints, Spandrels,
and the Centrality of Exaptation in
Macroevolution
The Timeless Physics of Evolved Function 1179(35)
Structuralism's Odd Man Outside 1179(3)
D'Arcy Thompson's Science of Form 1182(1)
The Structure of an Argument 1182(7)
The Tactic and Application of an Argument 1189(7)
The Admitted Limitation and Ultimate 1196(4)
Failure of An Argument
Odd Man In (D'Arcy Thompson's 1200(7)
Structuralist Critique of Darwinism) and
Odd Man Out (His Disparagement of
Historicism)
An Epilog to an Argument 1207(1)
Order for Free and Realms of Relevance 1208(6)
for Thompsonian Structuralism
Exapting the Rich and Inevitable Spandrels 1214(56)
of History
Nietzsche's Most Important Proposition of 1214(4)
Historical Method
Exaptation and the Principle of Quirky 1218(1)
Functional Shift: The Restricted
Darwinian Version as the Ground of
Contingency
How Darwin Resolved Mivart's Challenge of 1218(6)
Incipient Stages
The Two Great Historical and Structural 1224(5)
Implications of Quirky Functional Shift
How Exaptation Completes and Rationalizes 1229(5)
the Terminology of Evolutionary Change by
Functional Shifting
Key Criteria and Examples of Exaptation 1234(12)
The Complete Version, Replete with 1246(1)
Spandrels: Exaptation and the Terminology
of Nonadaptative Origin
The More Radical Category of Exapted 1246(3)
Features with Truly Nonadaptive Origins
as Structural Constraints
Defining and Defending Spandrels: A 1249(9)
Revisit to San Marco
Three Major Reasons for the Centrality of 1258(12)
Spandrels, and Therefore of
Nonadaptation, in Evolutionary Theory
The Exaptive Pool: The Proper Conceptual 1270(26)
Formula and Ground of Evolvability
Resolving the Paradox of Evolvability and 1270(7)
Defining the Exaptive Pool
The Taxonomy of the Exaptive Pool 1277(1)
Franklins and Miltons, or Inherent 1277(3)
Potentials vs. Available Things
Choosing a Fundamentum Divisionis for a 1280(6)
Taxonomy: An Apparently Arcane and
Linguistic Matter That Actually Embodies
a Central Scientific Decision
Cross-Level Effects as Miltonic 1286(8)
Spandrels, Not Franklinian Potentials:
The Nub of Integration and Radical
Importance
A Closing Comment to Resolve the 1294(2)
Macroevolutionary Paradox that Constraint
Ensures Flexibility Whereas Selection
Crafts Restriction
Tiers of Time and Trials of Extrapolationism, 1296(1)
With an Epilog on the Interaction of General
Theory and Contingent History
Failure of Extrapolationism in the 1296(1)
Non-Isotropy of Time and Geology
The Specter of Catastrophic Mass 1296(24)
Extinction: Darwin to Chicxulub
The Paradox of the First Tier: Towards a 1320(12)
General Theory of Tiers of Time
An Epilog on Theory and History in Creating 1332
the Grandeur of This View of Life