言語類型論と統語論的記述(第2版)3:文法範疇とレクシコン<br>Language Typology and Syntactic Description : Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon 〈3〉 (2ND)

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言語類型論と統語論的記述(第2版)3:文法範疇とレクシコン
Language Typology and Syntactic Description : Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon 〈3〉 (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 426 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521588553
  • DDC分類 415

基本説明

Contents: 1. Typological distinctions in word formation Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald; 2. Lexical typologies Leonard Talmy; 3. Inflectional morphology Balthasar Bickel and Johanna Nichols; 4. Gender and noun classes Greville G. Corbett; 5. Aspect, tense, mood Alan Timberlake; 6. Lexical nominalization Bernard Comrie.

Full Description


This three-volume survey brings together a team of leading scholars to explore the syntactic and morphological structures of the world's languages. Clearly organized and broad-ranging, it covers topics such as parts-of-speech, passives, complementation, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, inflectional morphology, tense, aspect, mood, and diexis. The contributors look at the major ways that these notions are realized, and provide informative sketches of them at work in a range of languages. Each volume is accessibly written and clearly explains each concept introduced. Although the volumes can be read independently, together they provide an indispensable reference work for all linguists and fieldworkers interested in cross-linguistic generalizations. Most of the chapters in the second edition are substantially revised - some on topics not covered by the first edition. Volume III covers typological distinctions in word formation, lexical typologies, inflectional morphology, gender and noun classes, aspect, tense, mood, and lexical nominalization.

Table of Contents

        List of figures                            xi
List of tables xii
List of contributors xiv
Acknowledgements xv
List of abbreviations and symbols xvii
Typological distinctions in word-formation 1 (65)
Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
Introduction 1 (1)
The word 1 (2)
Morphological typology and word-formation 3 (8)
Transparency of word-internal boundaries 3 (2)
Internal complexity of grammatical words 5 (3)
Integrating the two parameters 8 (1)
Word-formation and syntax in languages 9 (2)
of different types
Noun incorporation 11 (10)
Formal properties of incorporation 12 (1)
What material gets incorporated 12 (1)
Incorporation of a free form of a noun 12 (1)
Incorporation of a bare noun root 12 (1)
Incorporation of a suppletive or 13 (1)
reduced stem
Incorporation of the whole NP 13 (1)
The degree of formal cohesion between 14 (1)
components
Functional types of incorporation 15 (1)
Type 1. Lexical compounding 15 (1)
Type 2. The manipulation of case 16 (1)
Type 3. The regulation of information 17 (1)
flow
Type 4. Incorporation of modifiers 17 (1)
Type 5. Classificatory incorporation 17 (2)
Syntactic functions of incorporated 19 (2)
nouns, and their incorporability
Structure and iconicity in word-formation 21 (3)
Compounding 24 (11)
How to distinguish compounds from 24 (1)
phrases
Phonological criteria 25 (1)
Morphological criteria 26 (1)
Morphosyntactic criteria 27 (1)
Semantic criteria 28 (1)
Nominal compounds 28 (2)
Endocentric, exocentric and coordinate 30 (1)
compounds
Root compounds and synthetic compounds 31 (1)
Verbal compounds 32 (2)
Compounding in other word classes 34 (1)
Derivation 35 (14)
Inflection and derivation 35 (3)
Roots, stems and affixes 38 (2)
Types of derivational processes 40 (1)
Functional classification of 40 (4)
derivational devices
Formal classification of derivational 44 (5)
devices
Productivity and related phenomena in 49 (9)
word-formation
Determining productivity 50 (1)
Factors conditioning productivity 50 (1)
Factors restricting productivity 51 (1)
Phonological factors 52 (1)
Morphological and morphosyntactic 52 (1)
factors
Semantic and pragmatic factors 53 (1)
Lexical factors 53 (1)
Lexicalization and predictability 54 (2)
Loss and gain of productivity 56 (1)
Productivity and creativity: hierarchy 57 (1)
of productivity
Grammaticalization and lexicalization in 58 (3)
word-formation
Grammaticalization in word-formation 58 (2)
Lexicalization in word-formation 60 (1)
Conclusions 61 (1)
Suggestions for field workers in 62 (2)
describing types of word-formation
Questions to ask 63 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 64 (2)
Lexical typologies 66 (103)
Leonard Talmy
Introduction 66 (6)
Characteristics of lexicalization 68 (2)
Sketch of a motion event 70 (2)
The verb 72 (66)
Motion + Co-event 72 (2)
The pattern underlying Co-event 74 (1)
conflation
Properties of Co-event conflation 75 (1)
Two verb usages 75 (1)
The lexicalization account 76 (3)
Translational and self-contained Motion 79 (2)
Extensions of the Co-event conflation 81 (1)
pattern
Conflation onto mid-level verbs based 82 (1)
on BeLOC or Move
Conflation onto combinations of Move 83 (1)
with matrix verbs
Conflation onto metaphorically extended 84 (1)
Move
Conflation across the various relations 85 (2)
of the Co-event to the Motion event
Multiple conflation 87 (1)
Motion + Path 88 (8)
Motion + Figure 96 (3)
A typology for motion verbs 99 (1)
Motion + Co-event, Path, or Figure 99 (1)
Motion + Ground 99 (1)
Motion + two semantic components 100 (1)
Motion + no further semantic component 101 (1)
Motion + a minimally differentiated 102 (1)
semantic component
Split system of conflation 103 (1)
Parallel system of conflation 104 (1)
Intermixed system of conflation 105 (2)
Aspect 107 (1)
Causation 108 (9)
Interaction of aspect and causation 117 (6)
Consistency of patterns within a 123 (3)
language
Other aspect--causative types 126 (2)
Personation 128 (3)
Valence 131 (1)
General considerations 131 (3)
Valence in verbs of affect 134 (4)
Satellites 138 (25)
Path 141 (5)
Path + Ground 146 (3)
Patient: (Figure/)Ground 149 (1)
Manner 150 (1)
Cause 151 (2)
Motion-related satellites extending the 153 (1)
motion typology
Verb-framed and satellite-framed systems 153 (1)
Typological shift and maintenance 154 (1)
Aspect 155 (3)
Valence 158 (1)
Satellites determining the 158 (3)
Figure--Ground precedence pattern of
the verb
Satellites requiring Direct Object to 161 (2)
indicate `bounded Path'
Salience in the verb complex 163 (4)
Conclusion 167 (1)
Suggestion for further reading 168 (1)
Inflectional morphology 169 (72)
Balthasar Bickel
Johanna Nichols
Introduction 169 (3)
Formatives and morphological types 172 (21)
Words versus formatives 172 (2)
Clitics 174 (6)
Degree of fusion 180 (1)
Isolating 180 (1)
Concatenative (bound) 181 (1)
Nonlinear 182 (2)
Flexivity (variance, lexical 184 (4)
allomorphy, inflectional classes)
Semantic density 188 (1)
Exponence 188 (1)
Synthesis and wordhood 189 (4)
Locus 193 (4)
Position 197 (4)
Paradigms 201 (11)
Inflectional classes 202 (5)
Syncretism 207 (1)
Defectivity and suppletion 208 (1)
Deponence 208 (1)
Eidemic resonance 209 (1)
Case inventories and case terminology 210 (2)
Markedness and obligatoriness 212 (2)
Layered (hierarchical) versus templatic 214 (6)
morphology
Two examples of common inflectional 220 (9)
categories: person and number
Person 220 (1)
Exclusive versus inclusive 220 (3)
Conjunct/disjunct systems 223 (1)
Person and the indexability hierarchy 224 (3)
Number 227 (2)
Morphology in syntax 229 (10)
Agreement 229 (6)
Case spreading and stacking 235 (4)
Conclusions 239 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 239 (2)
Gender and noun classes 241 (39)
Greville G. Corbett
Introduction 241 (1)
Terms and analysis 242 (16)
Analysis based on agreement classes 243 (10)
Classifiers and complex systems 253 (5)
The speaker's problem: gender assignment 258 (8)
Semantic assignment 259 (1)
Predominantly semantic assignment 259 (2)
Morphological assignment 261 (3)
Phonological assignment 264 (2)
Default genders 266 (7)
Types of default 267 (1)
Defaults in gender systems 268 (5)
Gender resolution 273 (3)
Semantic gender resolution 273 (1)
Syntactic gender resolution 274 (1)
Mixed semantic and syntactic gender 275 (1)
resolution
The relation between resolution and 276 (1)
assignment
Prospects 276 (3)
Suggestions for further reading 279 (1)
Aspect, tense, mood 280 (54)
Alan Timberlake
Introduction 280 (4)
Aspect 284 (20)
Tense 304 (11)
Mood and modality 315 (15)
Aspect, tense, and modality, in text and 330 (2)
in general
Suggestions for further reading 332 (2)
Lexical nominalization 334 (48)
Bernard Comrie
Sandra A. Thompson
Introduction 334 (1)
Processes for forming nouns from lexical 335 (8)
verbs and adjectives
Action/state nominalization 335 (1)
Agentive nominalization 336 (2)
Instrumental nominalization 338 (1)
Manner nominalization 339 (1)
Locative nominalization 340 (1)
Objective nominalization 340 (2)
Reason nominalization 342 (1)
Predictability and productivity 342 (1)
Processes for forming Noun Phrases from 343 (36)
predicates and propositions
The `action nominal' 343 (2)
Verbal and nominal categories 345 (1)
Verbal categories 345 (1)
Tense 346 (1)
Aspect 347 (1)
Voice 348 (3)
Transitivity 351 (1)
Negation 352 (1)
Summary 353 (1)
Nominal categories 353 (2)
Syntactic collocation 355 (1)
Valency 355 (1)
Subjects and objects assimilate to NP 355 (7)
syntax
Subjects and objects retain sentence 362 (1)
syntax: Tamil and Avar
Subjects and objects only partially 363 (5)
assimilate to NP syntax
Unexpressed subjects 368 (1)
Idiosyncrasies in valency of action 369 (5)
nominals
Adverbs and adjectives 374 (2)
Nominalizations with no lexically 376 (1)
derived noun
Functions of nominalizations 377 (2)
Devices for forming nouns from nouns 379 (2)
Abstract nouns 379 (1)
Concrete nouns: 380 (1)
augmentative/pejorative/diminutive
Summary 381 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 381 (1)
Bibliography 382 (29)
Language index 411 (5)
Subject index 416