Hadrons and Quark Gluon Plasma (Cambridge Monographs on Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Osmology, 18)

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Hadrons and Quark Gluon Plasma (Cambridge Monographs on Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Osmology, 18)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 397 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521385367
  • DDC分類 539.721

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was published in 2002.

Full Description


Before matter as we know it emerged, the universe was filled with the primordial state of hadronic matter called quark-gluon plasma. This hot soup of quarks and gluons is effectively an inescapable consequence of our current knowledge about the fundamental hadronic interactions: quantum chromodynamics. This book covers the ongoing search to verify the prediction experimentally and discusses the physical properties of this novel form of matter. It begins with an overview of the subject, followed by discussion of experimental methods and results. The second half of the book covers hadronic matter in confined and deconfined form, and strangeness as a signature of the quark-gluon phase. Covering the basics as well as more advanced material, it is ideal as an introduction for graduate students, as well as providing a valuable reference for researchers already working in this and related fields.

Table of Contents

Preamble                                           xi
I A new phase of matter? 1 (71)
Micro-bang and big-bang 1 (23)
Energy and time scales 1 (5)
Quarks and gluons 6 (2)
The hadronic phase transition in the early 8 (2)
Universe
Entropy-conserving (isentropic) expansion 10 (1)
The dynamic Universe 11 (3)
Looking for quark-gluon plasma: strangeness 14 (6)
Other probes of quark-gluon plasma 20 (4)
Hadrons 24 (13)
Baryons and mesons 24 (3)
Strange hadrons 27 (9)
Charm and bottom in hadrons 36 (1)
The vacuum as a physical medium 37 (17)
Confining vacuum in strong interactions 37 (3)
Ferromagnetic vacuum 40 (3)
Chiral symmetry 43 (3)
Phases of strongly interacting matter 46 (4)
The expanding fireball and phase 50 (2)
transformation
QGP and confined hadronic-gas phases 52 (2)
Statistical properties of hadronic matter 54 (18)
Equidistribution of energy 54 (3)
The grand-canonical ensemble 57 (1)
Independent quantum (quasi)particles 58 (3)
The Fermi and Bose quantum gases 61 (3)
Hadron gas 64 (4)
A first look at quark-gluon plasma 68 (4)
II Experiments and analysis tools 72 (58)
Nuclei in collision 72 (28)
Heavy-ion research programs 72 (6)
Reaction energy and collision geometry 78 (3)
Rapidity 81 (4)
Pseudorapidity and quasirapidity 85 (5)
Stages of evolution of dense matter 90 (5)
Approach to local kinetic equilibrium 95 (2)
The approach to chemical equilibrium 97 (3)
Understanding collision dynamics 100(12)
Cascades of particles 100(4)
Relativistic hydrodynamics 104(3)
The evolution of matter and temperature 107(1)
Longitudinal flow of matter 108(4)
Entropy and its relevance in heavy-ion 112(18)
collisions
Entropy and the approach to chemical 112(4)
equilibrium
Entropy in a glue-ball 116(4)
Measurement of entropy in heavy-ion 120(2)
collisions
The entropy content in 200A-GeV S-Pb 122(2)
interactions
Supersaturated pion gas 124(4)
Entropy in a longitudinally scaling solution 128(2)
III Particle production 130(57)
Particle spectra 130(29)
A thermal particle source: a fireball at 130(7)
rest
A dynamic fireball 137(7)
Incomplete stopping 144(4)
Transverse-mass fireball spectra 148(7)
Centrality dependence of m -spectra 155(4)
Highlights of hadron production 159(28)
The production of strangeness 159(6)
Hadron abundances 165(6)
Measurement of the size of a dense-matter 171(5)
fireball
Production of transverse energy 176(2)
RHIC results 178(9)
IV Hot hadronic matter 187(71)
Relativistic gas 187(20)
Relation of statistical and thermodynamic 187(4)
quantities
Statistical ensembles and fireballs of 191(2)
hadronic matter
The ideal gas revisited 193(2)
The relativistic phase-space integral 195(4)
Quark and gluon quantum gases 199(5)
Entropy of classical and quantum gases 204(3)
Hadronic gas 207(28)
Pressure and energy density in a hadronic 207(4)
resonance gas
Counting hadronic particles 211(4)
Distortion by the Coulomb force 215(2)
Strangeness in hadronic gas 217(2)
The grand-canonical conservation of 219(4)
strangeness
Exact conservation of flavor quantum numbers 223(5)
Canonical suppression of strangeness and 228(7)
charm
Hagedorn gas 235(23)
The experimental hadronic mass spectrum 235(6)
The hadronic bootstrap 241(6)
Hadrons of finite size 247(4)
Bootstrap with hadrons of finite size and 251(3)
baryon number
The phase boundary in the SBM model 254(4)
V QCD, hadronic structure and high temperature 258(58)
Hadronic structure and quantum chromodynamics 258(16)
Confined quarks in a cavity 258(4)
Confined quark quantum states 262(5)
Nonabelian gauge invariance 267(4)
Gluons 271(2)
The Lagrangian of quarks and gluons 273(1)
Perturbative QCD 274(13)
Feynman rules 274(3)
The running coupling constant 277(3)
The renormalization group 280(1)
Running parameters of QCD 281(6)
Lattice quantum chromodynamics 287(16)
The numerical approach 287(2)
Gluon fields on the lattice 289(1)
Quarks on the lattice 290(3)
From action to results 293(5)
A survey of selected lattice results 298(5)
Perturbative quark-gluon plasma 303(13)
An interacting quark-gluon gas 303(3)
The quark-gluon liquid 306(3)
Finite baryon density 309(2)
Properties of a quark-gluon liquid 311(5)
VI Strangeness 316(55)
Thermal production of flavor in a deconfined 316(24)
phase
The kinetic theory of chemical equilibration 316(6)
Evolution toward chemical equilibrium in QGP 322(4)
Production cross sections for strangeness 326(4)
and charm
Thermal production of flavor 330(7)
Equilibration of strangeness at the RHIC 337(3)
and SPS
The strangeness background 340(12)
The suppression of strange hadrons 340(3)
Thermal hadronic strangeness production 343(6)
The evolution of strangeness in hadronic 349(3)
phase
Hadron-freeze-out analysis 352(19)
Chemical nonequilibrium in hadronization 352(3)
Phase space and parameters 355(2)
SPS hadron yields 357(4)
Strangeness as a signature of deconfinement 361(10)
References 371(18)
Index 389