Volume VI of the new edition of The Cambridge Ancient History begins with Sparta attempting to consolidate its leadership of mainland Greece and ends with the death of Alexander the Great after he had conquered the Persian Empire and marched far into India. It is correspondingly wide-ranging in its treatment of the politics and economy, not only of old Greece, but of the Near East and the western Mediterranean. The century also saw the continued development of Classical Greek art and the moulding of Greek prose as an uniquely flexible means of expression. The formation of the great philosophical schools assured to Athens in her political decline a long future as a cultural centre, and established patterns of thought which dominated western civilization for two thousand years.
1. Sources and their uses Simon Hornblower; 2. Sparta as victor D. M. Lewis; 3. Persia Simon Hornblower; 4. The Corinthian war Robin Seager; 5. Sicily, 413-368 BC D. M. Lewis; 6. The King's Peace and the Second Athenian Confederacy Robin Seager; 7. Thebes in the 360s BC J. Roy; 8a. Asia Minor Simon Hornblower; 8b. Mesopotamia, 482-330 BC Matthew W. Stolper; 8c. Judah Hayim Tadmor; 8d. Cyprus and Phoenicia F. G. Maier; 8e. Egypt, 404-337 BC Alan B. Lloyd; 9a. Carthage from the battle at Himera to Agathocles' invasion, 480-308 BC G. Ch. Picard; 9b. South Italy in the fourth century BC Nicholas Purcell; 9c. Celtic Europe D. W. Harding; 9d. Illyrians and North-west Greeks N. G. L. Hammond; 9e. Thracians and Scythians Zofia H. Archibald; 9f. The Bosporan kingdom John Hind; 9g. Communications L. Casson; 10. Society and economy M. M. Austin; 11. The polis and the alternatives P. J. Rhodes; 12a. The growth of schools and the advance of knowledge M. Ostwald and John P. Lynch; 12b. Medicine G. E. R. Lloyd; 12c. Greek art: Classical to Hellenistic J. J. Pollitt; 12d. Greek agriculture in the Classical period Alison Burford; 12e. Warfare Y. Garlan; 13. Dion and Timoleon H. D. Westlake; 14. Macedon and North-west Greece J. R. Ellis; 15. Macedonian hegemony created J. R. Ellis; 16. Alexander the Great: part 1 the events of the reign A. B. Bosworth; 17. Alexander the Great: part 2 Greece and the conquered territories A. B. Bosworth; Epilogue Simon Hornblower; Chronological table; Bibliography.