Hydrocarbons and their transformations play major roles in chemistry as raw materials and sources of energy. Diminishing petroleum supplies, regulatory problems, and environmental concerns constantly challenge chemists to rethink and redesign the industrial applications of hydrocarbons. Written by Nobel Prize-winner George Olah and hydrocarbon expert Arpad Molnar, the completely revised and expanded Second Edition of Hydrocarbon Chemistry provides an unparalleled contemporary assessment of the field, presenting basic concepts, current research, and future applications. Hydrocarbon Chemistry begins by discussing the general aspects of hydrocarbons, the separation of hydrocarbons from natural sources, and the synthesis from C1 precursors with recent developments for possible future applications. Each successive chapter deals with a specific type of hydrocarbon transformation. The Second Edition includes a new section on the chemical reduction of carbon dioxide-focusing on catalytic, ionic, electrocatalytic, photocatalytic, and ezymatic reductions-as well as a new chapter on new catalysts and activation methods, combinatorial chemistry, and environmental chemistry.Other topics covered include:* Major processes of the petrochemical industry, such as cracking, reforming, isomerization, and alkylation * Derivation reactions to form carbon-heteroatom bonds * Hydrocarbon oxidations * Metathesis * Oligomerization and polymerization of hydrocarbons All chapters have been updated by adding sections on recent developments to review new advances and results. Essential reading for practicing scientists in industry, polymer and catalytic chemists, as well as researchers and graduate students, Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Second Edition remains the benchmark text in its field.
Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Introduction. Chapter 1. General Aspects. 1.1. Hydrocarbons and Their Classes. 1.2. Energy-Hydrocarbon Relationship. 1.3. Hydrocarbon Sources and Separation. 1.4. Petroleum Refining and Upgrading. 1.5. Finite, Nonrenewable Hydrocarbon Resources. 1.6. Hydrocarbon Synthesis. 1.7. Chemical Nature of Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions. 1.8. Use of Hydrocarbons. References and Notes. Chapter 2. Hydrocarbon from Petroleum and Natural Gas. 2.1. Cracking. 2.2. Reforming. 2.3. Dehydrogenation with Olefin Production. 2.4. Upgrading of Natural-Gas Liquids. 2.5. Aromatics Production. 2.6. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 3. Synthesis from C1 Sources. 3.1. Nature's C1 Chemistry. 3.2. The Chemical Reduction and Recycling of CO2. 3.3. Fischer-Tropsch Chemistry. 3.4. Direct Coupling of Methane. 3.5. Hydrocarbons through Methane Derivatives. 3.6. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 4. Isomerization. 4.1. Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization. 4.2. Base-Catalyzed Isomerization. 4.3. Metal-Catalyzed Isomerization. 4.4. Pericyclic Rearrangements. 4.5. Practical Applications. 4.6. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 5.1 Alkylation. 5.1. Acid-Catalyzed Alkylation. 5.2. Base-Catalyzed Alkylation. 5.3. Alkylation through Organometallics. 5.4. Miscellaneous Alkylations. 5.5. Practical Applications. 5.6. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 6. Addition. 6.1. Hydration. 6.2. HX addition. 6.3. Halogen Addition. 6.4. Ammonia and Amine Addition. 6.5. Hydrometallation. 6.6. Halometallation. 6.7. Solvometallation. 6.8. Carbometallation. 6.9. Cycloaddition. 6.10. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 7. Carbonylation. 7.1. Hydroformylation. 7.2. Carboxylation. 7.3. Aminomethylation. 7.4. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 8. Acylation. 8.1. Acylation of Aromatics. 8.2. Related Acylations. 8.3. Acylation of Aliphatic Compounds. References. Chapter 9. Oxidation-Oxygenation. 9.1. Oxidation of Alkanes. 9.2. Oxidation of Alkenes. 9.3. Oxidation of Alkynes. 9.4. Oxidation of Aromatics. 9.5. Practical Applications. 9.6. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 10. Heterosubstitution. 10.1. Electrophilic (Acid-Catalyzed) Substitution. 10.2. Free-Radical Substitution. 10.3. Amination. 10.4. Heterosubstitution through Organometallics. 10.5. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 11. Reduction-Hydrogenation. 11.1. Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation. 11.2. Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation. 11.3. Chemical and Electrochemical Reduction. 11.4. Ionic Hydrogenation. 11.5. Hydrogenolysis of Saturated Hydrocarbons. 11.6. Practical Applications. 11.7. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 12. Metathesis. 12.1. Acyclic Alkenes. 12.2. Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization. 12.3. Practical Applications. 12.4. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 13. Oligomerization and Polymerization. 13.1. Oligomerization. 13.2. Polymerization. 13.3. Recent Developments. References. Chapter 14. Emerging Areas and Trends. 14.1. Green Chemistry. 14.2 Carbon Dioxide Recycling to Hydrocarbons References. Index.