熱赤外線センサー<br>Thermal Infrared Sensors : Theory, Optimisation and Practice

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熱赤外線センサー
Thermal Infrared Sensors : Theory, Optimisation and Practice

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 302 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470871928
  • DDC分類 621.362

基本説明

An essential reference for practicing design and optical engineers and users of infrared sensors and infrared cameras. With this book they will be able to transform the demonstrated solutions to their own problems, find ways to match their commercial IR sensors and cameras to their measurement conditions, and to tailor and optimise sensors and set-ups to particular IR measurement problems.

Full Description


The problems involved in designing optimal infrared (IR) measuring systems under given conditions are commensurately complex. The optical set-up and radiation conditions, the interaction between sensor and irradiation and the sensor itself, determine the operation of the sensor system. Simple calculations for solving these problems without any understanding of the causal relationships are not possible. Thermal Infrared Sensors offers a concise explanation of the basic physical and photometric fundamentals needed for the consideration of these interactions. It depicts the basics of thermal IR sensor systems and explains the manifold causal relationships between the most important effects and influences, describing the relationships between sensor parameters such as thermal and special resolution, and application conditions.This book covers: * various types of thermal sensors, like thermoelectric sensor, pyroelectric sensors, microbolometers, micro-Golay cells and bimorphous sensors; * basic applications for thermal sensors; * noise - a limiting factor for thermal resolution and detectivity - including an outline of the mathematics and noise sources in thermal infrared sensors; * the properties of IR sensor systems in conjunction with the measurement environment and application conditions; *60 examples showing calculations of real problems with real numbers, as they occur in many practical applications. This is an essential reference for practicing design and optical engineers and users of infrared sensors and infrared cameras. With this book they will be able to transform the demonstrated solutions to their own problems, find ways to match their commercial IR sensors and cameras to their measurement conditions, and to tailor and optimise sensors and set-ups to particular IR measurement problems. The basic knowledge outlined in this book will give advanced undergraduate and graduate students a thorough grounding in this technology.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
List of Examples xiii
List of Symbols xv
Indices xix
Abbreviations xxi
1 Introduction 1 (14)
1.1 Infrared Radiation 1 (4)
1.1.1 Technical Applications 1 (2)
1.1.2 Classification of Infrared 3 (2)
Radiation
1.2 Historical Development 5 (2)
1.3 Advantages of Infrared Measuring 7 (1)
Technology
1.4 Comparison of Thermal and Photonic 7 (5)
Infrared Sensors
1.5 Temperature and Spatial Resolution of 12 (1)
Infrared Sensors
1.6 Single-Element Sensors Versus Array 13 (2)
Sensors
References 14 (1)
2 Radiometric Basics 15 (26)
2.1 Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation 15 (12)
on Solid-State Bodies
2.1.1 Propagation of Radiation 15 (3)
2.7.2 Propagation in Lossy Media 18 (3)
2.1.3 Fields at Interfaces 21 (1)
2.1.4 Transmission Through Thin 22 (5)
Dielectric Layers
2.2 Radiation Variables 27 (6)
2.2.7 Radiation-Field-Related Variables 27 (1)
2.2.2 Emitter-Side Variables 28 (1)
2.2.3 Receiver-Related Variables 28 (1)
2.2.4 Spectral Variables 29 (1)
2.2.5 Absorption, Reflection and 30 (2)
Transmission
2.2.6 Emissivity 32 (1)
2.3 Radiation Laws 33 (8)
References 39 (2)
3 Photometric Basics 41 (26)
3.1 Solid Angle 41 (8)
3.1.1 Definition 41 (1)
3.1.2 Solid Angle Calculations 42 (7)
3.2 Basic Law of Photometry 49 (18)
3.2.1 Definition 49 (6)
3.2.2 Calculation Methods and Examples 55 (6)
3.2.3 Numerical Solution of the 61 (4)
Projected Solid Angle
References 65 (2)
4 Noise 67 (36)
4.1 Mathematical Basics 67 (23)
4.1.1 Introduction 67 (5)
4.1.2 Time Functions 72 (2)
4.7.3 Probability Functions 74 (5)
4.7.4 Correlation Functions 79 (2)
4.7.5 Spectral Functions 81 (5)
4.7.6 Noise Analysis of Electronic 86 (4)
Circuits
4.2 Noise Source in Thermal Infrared 90 (13)
Sensors
4.2.1 Thermal Noise and tan δ 90 (3)
4.2.2 Current Noise 93 (1)
4.2.3 1/f Noise 93 (3)
4.2.4 Radiation Noise 96 (2)
4.2.5 Temperature Fluctuation Noise 98 (4)
References 102 (1)
5 Sensor Parameters 103 (46)
5.1 Responsivity 103 (10)
5.1.1 Introduction 103 (1)
5.1.2 Black Responsivity 104 (4)
5.1.3 Spectral Responsivity 108 (1)
5.1.4 Signal Transfer Function 108 (4)
5.1.5 Uniformity 112 (1)
5.2 Noise-Equivalent Power NEP 113 (2)
5.3 Detectivity 115 (2)
5.4 Noise-Equivalent Temperature 117 (5)
Difference
5.5 Optical Parameters 122 (5)
5.6 Modulation Transfer Function 127 (22)
5.6.7 Definition 128 (4)
5.6.2 Contrast 132 (1)
5.6.3 Modulation Transfer Function of a 133 (10)
Sensor
5.6.4 Measuring the Modulation Transfer 143 (5)
Function
References 148 (1)
6 Thermal Infrared Sensors 149 (104)
6.1 Operating Principles 149 (6)
6.2 Thermal Models 155 (17)
6.2.1 Simple Thermal Model 155 (9)
6.2.2 Thermal Layer Model 164 (8)
6.3 Network Models for Thermal Sensors 172 (4)
6.4 Thermoelectric Radiation Sensors 176 (15)
6.4.1 Principle 176 (7)
6.4.2 Thermal Resolution 183 (3)
6.4.3 Design of Thermoelectric Sensors 186 (5)
6.5 Pyroelectric Sensors 191 (28)
6.5.1 Principle 191 (17)
6.5.2 Thermal Resolution 208 (7)
6.5.3 Design of Pyroelectric Sensors 215 (4)
6.6 Microbolometers 219 (17)
6.6.1 Principle 219 (2)
6.6.2 Thermal Resolution 221 (6)
6.6.3 Design of a Microbolometer Array 227 (3)
6.6.4 Read-Out Electronics of 230 (6)
Microbolometers
6.7 Other Thermal Infrared Sensors 236 (12)
6.7.1 Bimorphous Infrared Sensors 236 (6)
6.7.2 Micro-Golay Cells 242 (6)
6.8 Comparison of Thermal Sensors 248 (5)
References 250 (3)
7 Applications of Thermal Infrared Sensors 253 (32)
7.1 General Considerations 253 (1)
7.2 Pyrometry 254 (6)
7.2.1 Design 255 (2)
7.2.2 Emissivity of Real Emitters 257 (3)
7.3 Thermal Imaging Cameras 260 (10)
7.3.1 Design 261 (5)
7.3.2 Calibration of Thermal Imaging 266 (4)
Cameras
7.4 Passive Infrared Motion Detector 270 (4)
7.4.1 Design 270 (2)
7.4.2 Infrared Optics 272 (1)
7.4.3 Signal Processing 273 (1)
7.5 Infrared Spectrometry 274 (7)
7.5.1 Radiation Absorption of Gases 214 (63)
7.5.2 Design of an Infrared Spectrometer 277 (4)
7.6 Gas Analysis 281 (4)
References 283 (2)
Appendix A Constants 285 (2)
Appendix B Planck's Law of Radiation and 287 (8)
Derived Laws
Appendix C Calculation of the Solid Angle of a 295 (4)
Rectangular Area
Further Reading and Sources 299 (2)
Index 301