分子から見た植物<br>The Molecular Life of Plants

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分子から見た植物
The Molecular Life of Plants

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  • Blackwell Pub(2012/11発売)
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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 742 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470870112
  • DDC分類 572.82928

基本説明

Intergrates physiology and biochemistry with genetics and cell and molecular biology. Beautifully presented with over 700 full colour illustrations.

Full Description


A stunning landmark co-publication between the American Society of Plant Biologists and Wiley-Blackwell. The Molecular Life of Plants presents students with an innovative, integrated approach to plant science. It looks at the processes and mechanisms that underlie each stage of plant life and describes the intricate network of cellular, molecular, biochemical and physiological events through which plants make life on land possible. Richly illustrated, this book follows the life of the plant, starting with the seed, progressing through germination to the seedling and mature plant, and ending with reproduction and senescence. This "seed-to-seed" approach will provide students with a logical framework for acquiring the knowledge needed to fully understand plant growth and development. Written by a highly respected and experienced author team The Molecular Life of Plants will prove invaluable to students needing a comprehensive, integrated introduction to the subject across a variety of disciplines including plant science, biological science, horticulture and agriculture.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xxiii
Part I Origins
1 Plant life: a primer 3 (39)
1.1 An introduction to plant biology 3 (1)
1.2 Plant systematics 3 (3)
1.2.1 Each species has a unique 3 (1)
scientific name that reflects its
phylogeny
1.2.2 Modern classification schemes 4 (2)
attempt to establish evolutionary
relationships
1.3 The origin of land plants 6 (2)
1.3.1 The green plant clade, 6 (1)
viridophytes, includes the green algae
and land plants
1.3.2 Unlike their green algal 6 (2)
ancestors, embryophytes have evolved
adaptations to life on land
1.4 Bryophytes 8 (3)
1.4.1 Bryophytes have adapted to a 9 (1)
range of environments and show a
limited degree of differentiation into
tissues and organs
1.4.2 Gametophytes dominate the 9 (2)
bryophyte life cycle
1.4.3 Many features of bryophytes 11 (1)
suggest a link to the vascular plants
1.5 Vascular plants 11 (4)
1.5.1 Lycophytes were among the first 11 (1)
tracheophytes to evolve
1.5.2 Ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns 12 (1)
constitute a single monophyletic clade,
the monilophytes
1.5.3 Although adapted to land, ferns 12 (1)
require water for reproduction
1.5.4 Seed plants are successful 13 (1)
conquerors of land
1.5.5 Seeds encase the embryo and its 13 (2)
food, facilitating dispersal of the new
sporophyte generation
1.6 Gymnosperm phylogeny and reproduction 15 (3)
1.6.1 Gymnosperm phylogeny reveals five 15 (1)
lineages
1.6.2 Conifers constitute an important 15 (1)
natural resource
1.6.3 Sporangia and gametophytes of 15 (1)
pines and other conifers are produced
in cones
1.6.4 Pine reproduction is 16 (1)
characterized by a long delay between
pollination and fertilization
1.6.5 Pine seeds contain both diploid 17 (1)
and haploid tissues
1.7 Angiosperm phylogeny and reproduction 18 (5)
1.7.1 The flower is the defining 19 (1)
feature of angiosperms
1.7.2 Gametophytes of angiosperms are 20 (1)
much smaller than those of gymnosperms
1.7.3 Double fertilization in 20 (3)
angiosperms leads to the formation of a
diploid embryo and polyploid endosperm
1.7.4 In angiosperms, fruits promote 23 (1)
seed dispersal
1.8 The seed plant body plan I. 23 (4)
Epidermis, ground tissue and vascular
system
1.8.1 Epidermal tissue covers the 24 (3)
outside of a plant while ground tissue
makes up the bulk of a plant
1.8.2 Vascular tissues are specialized 27 (1)
for long-distance transport
1.8.3 Long-distance transport of water 27 (1)
occurs in tracheary elements
1.8.4 Long-distance transport of 27 (1)
organic solutes occurs in sieve tubes
1.9 The seed plant body plan II. Form and 27 (6)
function of organ systems
1.9.1 The root system acquires water 28 (2)
and minerals
1.9.2 Primary tissues of the root 30 (1)
consist of the central stele surrounded
by the cortex and epidermis
1.9.3 The shoot system is organized 31 (1)
into repeating modules
1.9.4 The tissues of an angiosperm leaf 31 (1)
consist of an epidermis with stomata,
photosynthetic mesophyll cells and veins
1.9.5 Primary tissues of the stem are 32 (1)
organized differently in monocots and
eudicots
1.10 The seed plant body plan III. Growth 33 (9)
and development of new organs
1.10.1 Apical meristems produce the 34 (1)
primary plant body
1.10.2 The root apex consists of the 35 (1)
meristem covered by the root cap, and
lateral roots originate as primordia in
the pericycle
1.10.3 The shoot apical bud is the 35 (1)
source of leaves, axillary buds and
floral organs
1.10.4 Secondary growth is for the long 35 (1)
haul, up to thousands of years
1.10.5 Lateral meristems allow for 35 (3)
expansion in girth
1.10.6 Wood morphology is influenced by 38 (4)
environmental and endogenous factors
2 Molecules, metabolism and energy 42 (32)
2.1 Introduction to biological chemistry 42 (1)
and energetics
2.2 Biological molecules 42 (17)
2.2.1 Molecules consist of atoms linked 42 (1)
by chemical bonds
2.2.2 Chemical structures are 43 (1)
represented in a variety of ways
2.2.3 Water is an essential constituent 44 (2)
of living cells
2.2.4 Biological molecules have 46 (1)
carbon-carbon backbones
2.2.5 Monomers are linked to form 46 (1)
macromolecules
2.2.6 Carbohydrates include simple 47 (3)
sugars and complex polysaccharides
2.2.7 Lipids include oils, fats, waxes 50 (4)
and sterols
2.2.8 Proteins function as catalysts, 54 (3)
structural and mechanical entities, and
signaling molecules
2.2.9 Nucleic acids contain the genetic 57 (2)
information of an organism
2.3 Energy 59 (5)
2.3.1 Biological systems obey the laws 60 (1)
of thermodynamics
2.3.2 Change in free energy can be used 60 (1)
to predict the direction of a chemical
reaction
2.3.3 Electrons are transferred in 61 (1)
oxidation/reduction reactions
2.3.4 Energy in cells flows through 62 (1)
phosphorylated intermediates
2.3.5 ATP is the central player in 63 (1)
cellular energy flow
2.3.6 Synthesis of ATP occurs by two 64 (1)
distinct mechanisms
2.4 Enzymes 64 (10)
2.4.1 Enzymes often require cofactors 64 (3)
2.4.2 Catalysis greatly increases the 67 (1)
rates of thermo-dynamically feasible
reactions by reducing energy barriers
2.4.3 A number of factors determine the 68 (2)
rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
2.4.4 Enzyme activity is under tight 70 (4)
regulation
3 Genome organization and expression 74 (40)
3.1 Introduction to genes and genomes 74 (1)
3.2 Organization of plant genomes I. 74 (8)
Plastid, mitochondrial and nuclear genomes
3.2.1 Plastid genomes do not contain 74 (1)
all the genes required for plastid
function
3.2.2 Plant mitochondrial genomes vary 75 (3)
greatly in size between different plant
species
3.2.3 Some plant nuclear genomes are 78 (1)
much larger than the human genome,
others are much smaller
3.2.4 Repetitive DNA makes up much of 79 (2)
the genome in many plants
3.2.5 Related plant species show 81 (1)
conserved organization of gene content
and order
3.3 Organization of plant genomes II. 82 (9)
Chromosomes and chromatin
3.3.1 Chromosome arms are gene-rich 83 (1)
3.3.2 Each chromosome arm terminates in 84 (1)
a telomere
3.3.3 The centromere is a complex 85 (1)
structure visible as a constriction in
the chromosome
3.3.4 Chromosomes have other 86 (1)
distinctive structural features
3.3.5 DNA in the nucleus is packaged 87 (1)
with histones to form chromatin
3.3.6 Each species has a characteristic 88 (1)
chromosome number
3.3.7 Polyploidy and genome duplication 89 (2)
are common in plants
3.4 Expression of the plant genome I. 91 (9)
Transcription of DNA to RNA
3.4.1 Plant nuclear genes have complex 91 (1)
structures
3.4.2 Histones and chromatin 92 (1)
organization play important roles in
gene expression
3.4.3 Higher-order chromatin structure 92 (1)
also regulates gene expression
3.4.4 Promoters and other regulatory 93 (1)
elements control the timing and extent
of gene transcription
3.4.5 RNA polymerases catalyze 93 (3)
transcription
3.4.6 Transcription factors bind to DNA 96 (1)
regulatory sequences
3.4.7 Homeobox proteins are important 96 (1)
in regulating development and
determining cell fate
3.4.8 The MADS-box family includes 97 (1)
homeotic genes and regulators of
flowering time
3.4.9 Many genes are named after mutant 98 (1)
phenotypes
3.4.10 Transcription proceeds via 98 (1)
initiation, elongation and termination
3.4.11 Messenger RNA molecules undergo 99 (1)
post-transcriptional modifications
3.4.12 Micro RNAs are regulators of 100 (1)
gene expression at the
post-transcriptional level
3.5 Expression of the plant genome II. 100 (1)
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression
3.5.1 DNA methylation is an important 100 (1)
mediator of epigenetic regulation of
gene expression
3.5.2 Epigenetic changes through 100 (1)
paramutation can be passed on from one
generation to the next
3.5.3 Transgenes can silence a plant's 101 (1)
own genes by cosuppression
3.5.4 Imprinting occurs only at certain 101 (1)
stages in plant development
3.6 Expression of the plant genome III. 101 (10)
Translation of RNA to protein
3.6.1 Transfer RNAs are the link 103 (1)
between mRNA codons and amino acids
3.6.2 Protein biosynthesis takes place 104 (1)
on ribosomes
3.6.3 Protein synthesis is initiated 105 (1)
from the 5 End of the mRNA
3.6.4 Polypeptide chain elongation 106 (3)
occurs by the sequential addition of
amino acid residues to the growing
polypeptide chain
3.6.5 Protein synthesis terminates when 109 (1)
a stop codon is reached
3.6.6 Most proteins undergo 109 (2)
post-transcriptional modifications
3.7 Expression of organellar genes 111 (3)
3.7.1 The machinery of chloroplast gene 111 (1)
expression resembles that of bacteria
more than that of nuclear genes
3.7.2 Transcripts encoded by the 112 (2)
plastid genome are often polycistronic
and are translated by prokaryotic-type
mechanisms
4 Cell architecture 114 (35)
4.1 Introduction to cell structure 114 (1)
4.2 The cell wall 114 (8)
4.2.1 Cellulose is a major component of 116 (1)
the fundamental framework of primary
cell walls
4.2.2 Cross-linking glycans interlock 116 (1)
the cellulosic scaffold
4.2.3 Pectin matrix polymers can form a 117 (1)
second network in primary cell walls
4.2.4 Non-polysaccharide constituents 118 (2)
form a third structural network in
primary cell walls
4.2.5 Biosynthesis and assembly of 120 (1)
primary cell walls occurs during cell
expansion
4.2.6 Secondary walls are produced 120 (2)
after growth of the primary wall has
stopped
4.3 Membranes of the cell 122 (3)
4.3.1 Biological membranes have common 122 (2)
structural and functional properties
4.3.2 The plasma membrane is the 124 (1)
boundary between living protoplast and
the external environment
4.4 The nucleus 125 (1)
4.5 The endomembrane system 125 (7)
4.5.1 The endoplasmic reticulum is a 126 (1)
membrane system that is continuous with
the nuclear envelope
4.5.2 Many proteins are synthesized on 126 (2)
the rough endoplasmic reticulum
4.5.3 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 128 (1)
participates in fatty acid
modification, lipid synthesis and the
production of oil bodies
4.5.4 The Golgi apparatus processes and 129 (2)
packages newly synthesized
macromolecules
4.5.5 Transport through the Golgi is 131 (1)
directional
4.5.6 Vesicles exchange materials with 131 (1)
the cell exterior by exocytosis and
endocytosis
4.5.7 Vacuoles are multifunctional 131 (1)
compartments
4.6 Plastids 132 (4)
4.6.1 Plastids are bounded by two 132 (1)
membranes and possess prokaryotic-type
genomes and protein synthesis
machineries
4.6.2 Different types of plastids are 133 (2)
developmentally related to one another
4.6.3 Plastids reproduce by division of 135 (1)
existing plastids and are inherited
differently in angiosperms and
gymnosperms
4.7 Mitochondria and peroxisomes 136 (1)
4.8 The cytoskeleton 137 (12)
4.8.1 The cytoskeleton consists of a 137 (2)
network of fibrous proteins
4.8.2 Microtubules and actin filaments 139 (1)
have an intrinsic polarity
4.8.3 Spontaneous assembly of 139 (3)
cytoskeletal components occurs in three
steps
4.8.4 Accessory proteins regulate the 142 (1)
assembly and function of the
cytoskeleton
4.8.5 Cytoplasmic streaming and 142 (1)
movement and anchoring of organelles
require actin
4.8.6 Actin filaments participate in 143 (2)
secretion
4.8.7 Cortical microtubules help 145 (4)
orientate cell expansion by aligning
cellulose microfibrils
Part II Germination
5 Membrane transport and intracellular 149 (32)
protein trafficking
5.1 Introduction to the movement of 149 (2)
solutes and macromolecules
5.2 Physical principles 151 (3)
5.2.1 Diffusion is a spontaneous 151 (1)
process and obeys Fick's law
5.2.2 The chemical potential of a 151 (1)
solute is expressed as free energy per
mole
5.2.3 Differences in chemical potential 152 (1)
drive solute movement
5.2.4 Unequal distributions of charged 153 (1)
solutes across membranes give rise to a
membrane potential
5.2.5 The Nernst equation predicts 153 (1)
internal and external ion
concentrations for a given membrane
potential
5.3 Regulation of solute movement by 154 (3)
membranes and their associated
transporters
5.4 Pumps 157 (5)
5.4.1 Plasma membrane H+-ATPase plays a 158 (1)
key role in membrane transport
5.4.2 Plasma membrane H+-ATPase is 159 (1)
regulated predominantly through enzyme
activity rather than gene expression
5.4.3 A Ca2+ pumping ATPase on 159 (1)
endomembranes regulates cytosolic Ca2
concentrations
5.4.4 V-type H+-ATPases in plants are 160 (1)
related to F-type ATPases
5.4.5 Two types of H+ pumping 161 (1)
pyrophosphatase are found in plants
5.4.6 ABC transporters are P-type 162 (1)
ATPases that facilitate solute transport
5.5 Channels 162 (5)
5.5.1 Ion channel activity is studied 163 (1)
using patch clamping
5.5.2 The movement of ions through 164 (1)
channels results in current flow
5.5.3 Opening and closing of channels 164 (1)
is tightly regulated
5.5.4 Aquaporins are a class of 165 (1)
channels facilitating water movement
5.5.5 Flux of water through aquaporins 166 (1)
is regulated by many factors
5.6 Carriers and co-transporters, 167 (1)
mediators of diffusion and secondary
active transport
5.7 Intracellular transport of proteins 168 (5)
5.7.1 Protein transport requires 169 (1)
peptide address labels and
protein-sorting machinery
5.7.2 To reach its destination, a 169 (1)
protein often crosses at least one
membrane
5.7.3 Transport into chloroplasts and 170 (2)
mitochondria involves translocation
through several membrane barriers
5.7.4 Passage across a single membrane 172 (1)
is required for proteins to enter
peroxisomes
5.7.5 Proteins enter the nucleus 172 (1)
through the nuclear pore
5.8 The protein secretory pathway 173 (4)
5.8.1 Signal peptides target proteins 173 (2)
to the endoplasmic reticulum
5.8.2 Post-translational modification 175 (1)
of proteins begins in the endoplasmic
reticulum
5.8.3 Coat proteins govern the 176 (1)
shuttling of vesicles between the
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
5.8.4 Proteins are transported from the 177 (1)
Golgi to a range of destinations
5.9 Protein turnover and the role of the 177 (4)
ubiquitin-proteasome system
5.9.1 Ubiquitin targets proteins for 178 (1)
degradation
5.9.2 The 26S proteasome is a molecular 178 (1)
machine that breaks down ubiquitinated
proteins
5.9.3 Cytosolic and endoplasmic 179 (2)
reticulum localized proteins are
degraded by the UbPS
6 Seed to seedling: germination and 181 (37)
mobilization of food reserves
6.1 Introduction to seeds and their 181 (1)
germination
6.2 Seed structure 182 (4)
6.2.1 Seeds contain an embryonic plant 182 (1)
6.2.2 Seed coats, made of layers of 183 (1)
dead cells, protect the embryo
6.2.3 Endosperm, a tissue unique to 184 (2)
angiosperms, contains stored food
6.3 Use of seed storage reserves by the 186 (16)
germinating embryo
6.3.1 Starch is the major carbohydrate 188 (3)
reserve of plants
6.3.2 Cell walls are also an important 191 (1)
store of polysaccharides in many seeds
6.3.3 Storage proteins in eudicot seeds 192 (1)
include globulins and albumins
6.3.4 Storage proteins in cereal grains 193 (1)
differ from those found in eudicot seeds
6.3.5 The amino acid content of seed 194 (1)
proteins affects their nutritional
value for humans and livestock
6.3.6 Seed storage proteins may act as 195 (1)
antinutrients
6.3.7 Unlike most plant tissues, seeds 196 (1)
often contain storage lipids
6.3.8 The fatty acid content of seed 197 (3)
oil is important for human uses
6.3.9 Seeds store the bulk of mineral 200 (1)
elements in a complexed form
6.3.10 Phytate is another antinutrient 201 (1)
in seeds
6.3.11 Seed maturation produces seeds 202 (1)
that can survive for long periods
6.4 Germination and early seedling growth 202 (7)
6.4.1 Imbibition of water is necessary 203 (1)
for seed germination
6.4.2 Dormant seeds do not germinate 203 (2)
after imbibition
6.4.3 Environmental signals may trigger 205 (1)
the breaking of dormancy
6.4.4 Light can be an important trigger 205 (2)
for germination
6.4.5 Plant hormones play important 207 (2)
roles in the maintenance and breaking
of seed dormancy
6.5 Mobilization of stored reserves to 209 (9)
support seedling growth
6.5.1 Mobilization of protein involves 209 (1)
the enzymatic breakdown of proteins to
amino acids
6.5.2 Stored protein mobilization in 210 (1)
eudicots takes place in living cells
6.5.3 Mobilization of stored starch may 211 (1)
be catalyzed by phosphorolytic enzymes
6.5.4 Amylases also play a role in 212 (1)
starch breakdown
6.5.5 Cell walls are another source of 213 (1)
carbohydrates
6.5.6 Mobilization of stored lipids 213 (2)
involves breakdown of triacylglycerols
6.5.7 Stored minerals are mobilized by 215 (3)
breaking down phytic acid
7 Metabolism of reserves: respiration and 218 (33)
gluconeogenesis
7.1 Introduction to catabolism and 218 (1)
anabolism
7.2 Anaerobic phase of carbohydrate 219 (4)
breakdown
7.2.1 Glycolysis converts glucose to 220 (2)
pyruvate
7.2.2 Alcoholic fermentation allows 222 (1)
glycolysis to continue in the absence
of oxygen
7.3 The tricarboxylic acid cycle 223 (5)
7.3.1 Pyruvate is converted to 223 (1)
acetyl-CoA in preparation for entry to
the TCA cycle
7.3.2 The TCA cycle completes the 224 (2)
breakdown of pyruvate to carbon dioxide
and reduced electron carriers
7.3.3 Amino acids and acylglycerols are 226 (1)
oxidized by glycolysis and the TCA cycle
7.3.4 The TCA cycle and glycolysis 227 (1)
provide carbon skeletons for
biosynthesis
7.4 Mitochondrial electron transport and 228 (9)
ATP synthesis
7.4.1 Mitochondrial electron transport 228 (1)
and oxidative phosphorylation generate
ATP
7.4.2 The electron transport chain 228 (3)
moves electrons from reduced electron
carriers to oxygen
7.4.3 Proton pumping at Complex III 231 (2)
occurs via the Q cycle
7.4.4 The F0F1-ATP synthase complex 233 (1)
couples proton gradient to ATP formation
7.4.5 An overall energy balance sheet 233 (1)
for oxidative phosphorylation can be
worked out from moles of NADH in and
ATP out
7.4.6 Bypass dehydrogenases are 234 (2)
associated with mitochondrial Complex I
7.4.7 Plant mitochondria have an 236 (1)
alternative oxidase that transfers
electrons to oxygen
7.5 The oxidative pentose phosphate 237 (2)
pathway
7.5.1 The pentose phosphate pathway has 237 (1)
oxidative and regenerative phases
7.5.2 The pentose phosphate pathway is 237 (2)
a source of intermediates for a number
of biosynthetic pathways
7.6 Lipid breakdown linked to 239 (3)
carbohydrate biosynthesis
7.6.1 The glyoxylate cycle converts 239 (1)
acetyl-CoA to succinate
7.6.2 Mitochondria convert succinate to 239 (2)
malate, a precursor of carbohydrates
7.6.3 Gluconeogenesis converts 241 (1)
phosphoenolpyruvate to hexoses
7.7 Control and integration of 242 (9)
respiratory carbon metabolism
7.7.1 Fine control of respiration is 243 (1)
exercised through metabolic regulation
of enzyme activities
7.7.2 Respiration interacts with other 244 (1)
carbon and redox pathways
7.7.3 Coarse control of respiratory 245 (6)
activity is exerted through regulation
of gene expression
Part III Emergence
8 Light perception and transduction 251 (33)
8.1 Introduction to light and life 251 (5)
8.1.1 Visible light is part of the 252 (1)
electromagnetic spectrum
8.1.2 Light interacts with matter in 253 (2)
accordance with the principles of
quantum physics
8.1.3 Photobiology is the study of the 255 (1)
interaction of light with living
organisms
8.2 Phytochrome 256 (7)
8.2.1 Light acts through isomerization 256 (1)
of the phytochrome chromophore
8.2.2 Phytochrome protein has a complex 257 (2)
multidomain structure
8.2.3 Different forms of phytochrome 259 (2)
are encoded by multiple genes
8.2.4 Phytochrome regulates gene 261 (2)
expression by interacting with a number
of proteins
8.3 Physiological responses to blue and 263 (7)
ultraviolet light
8.3.1 Cryptochromes are responsible for 264 (2)
regulating several blue light
responses, including photomorphogenesis
and flowering
8.3.2 Phototropins are blue light 266 (1)
receptors that contribute to optimizing
growth, tropic responses and plastid
orientation
8.3.3 Other phototropin-like LOV 267 (1)
receptor proteins act as photoreceptors
in a wide range of species and plant
processes
8.3.4 Wavelengths of light that are 268 (1)
reflected or transmitted by leaves may
be used to detect the presence of
neighboring plants
8.3.5 Plants respond to wavelengths of 269 (1)
light in addition to blue, red and far
red
8.4 Biosynthesis of chlorophyll and other 270 (5)
tetrapyrroles
8.4.1 Aminolevulinic acid is the 270 (2)
precursor of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis
8.4.2 Cyclic intermediates in 272 (1)
tetrapyrrole metabolism are potential
photosensitizers
8.4.3 Protoporphyrin stands at the 272 (1)
branch point leading to chlorophyll or
heme
8.4.4 The chromophore of phytochrome is 273 (1)
synthesized from heme
8.4.5 Conversion of protochlorophyllide 273 (2)
to chlorophyllide in seed plants is
light-dependent
8.4.6 Phytol is added to chlorophyllide 275 (1)
to make chlorophylls a and b
8.5 Circadian and photoperiodic control 275 (9)
8.5.1 The circadian rhythm and 276 (1)
day-night cycle must be synchronized in
order to regulate biological functions
correctly
8.5.2 Genetically controlled 277 (2)
interlocking feedback loops underlie
the circadian clock mechanism
8.5.3 Plants are classified as 279 (2)
long-day, short-day or day-neutral
according to their developmental
responses to photoperiod
8.5.4 The gene FT, which encodes a 281 (1)
mobile floral inducer, is regulated by
the transcription factor CO
8.5.5 The CO-FT system is regulated by 282 (2)
the circadian clock, photoperiod and
light quality
9 Photosynthesis and photorespiration 284 (45)
9.1 Introduction to photosynthesis 284 (3)
9.1.1 Photosynthesis in green plants is 284 (1)
a redox process with water as the
electron donor and carbon dioxide as
the electron acceptor
9.1.2 Photosynthesis in green plants 285 (1)
takes place in chloroplasts
9.1.3 Thylakoids convert light energy 285 (2)
to ATP and NADPH utilized in the stroma
for carbon reduction
9.2 Pigments and photosystems 287 (5)
9.2.1 Light energy used in 288 (2)
photosynthesis is captured by
chlorophylls, carotenoids and in
certain algae and cyanobacteria,
phycobilins
9.2.2 Reaction centers are the sites of 290 (2)
the primary photochemical events of
photosynthesis
9.2.3 Antenna pigments and their 292 (1)
associated proteins form
light-harvesting complexes in the
thylakoid membrane
9.3 Photosystem II and the 292 (6)
oxygen-evolving complex
9.3.1 The PSII reaction center is an 293 (1)
integral membrane multiprotein complex
containing P680 and electron transport
components
9.3.2 The light-harvesting antenna 294 (1)
complex of PSII accounts for half of
total thylakoid protein
9.3.3 Oxidation of water and reduction 295 (1)
of PSII electron acceptors requires
four photons per molecule of oxygen
released
9.3.4 Plastoquinone is the first stable 296 (2)
acceptor of electrons from PSII
9.4 Electron transport through the 298 (2)
cytochrome b6f complex
9.4.1 The cytochrome b6f complex 298 (1)
includes three electron carriers and a
quinone-binding protein
9.4.2 The cytochrome b6f complex 299 (1)
generates a proton gradient through the
operation of a Q cycle
9.4.3 Plastocyanin is a soluble protein 299 (1)
that carries electrons from cytochrome
b6f to PSI
9.5 Photosystem I and the formation of 300 (3)
NADPH
9.5.1 PSI reaction center subunits are 301 (1)
associated with plastocyanin docking,
P700 and primary and secondary electron
acceptors
9.5.2 The PSI antenna consists of four 302 (1)
light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding
proteins
9.5.3 Ferredoxin, the PSI electron 302 (1)
acceptor, is a reductant in
photosynthetic NADPH formation and many
other redox reactions
9.6 Photophosphorylation 303 (2)
9.6.1 The products of non-cyclic 304 (1)
electron transport are ATP, oxygen and
NADPH
9.6.2 ATP is the sole product of cyclic 304 (1)
electron flow around PSI
9.6.3 CF0CF1 is a multiprotein ATP 305 (1)
synthase complex that uses the proton
gradient across the thylakoid membrane
to phosphorylate ADP
9.7 Carbon dioxide fixation and the 305 (10)
photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle
9.7.1 Rubisco catalyzes the first 307 (1)
reaction in the Calvin-Benson cycle
9.7.2 Rubisco is a complex enzyme with 307 (3)
subunits encoded in both the nuclear
and the plastid genomes
9.7.3 The two-step reduction phase of 310 (1)
the Calvin-Benson cycle uses ATP and
NADPH
9.7.4 During the regeneration phase of 311 (1)
the Calvin-Benson cycle, ten enzyme
reactions convert five 3-carbon to
three 5-carbon intermediates
9.7.5 Photosynthesis is dependent on 312 (1)
the exchange of metabolites across the
chloroplast envelope
9.7.6 The Calvin-Benson cycle provides 313 (2)
the precursors of carbohydrates for
translocation and storage
9.8 Photorespiration 315 (5)
9.8.1 The initial step of 315 (2)
photorespiration is catalyzed by the
oxygenase activity of rubisco
9.8.2 Enzymatic reactions of 317 (2)
photorespiration are distributed
between chloroplasts, peroxisomes and
mitochondria
9.8.3 Ammonia produced during 319 (1)
photorespiration is efficiently
reassimilated
9.8.4 Energy costs and environmental 319 (1)
sensitivities of photorespiration are
significant for the impact of climate
change on the biosphere
9.9 Variations in mechanisms of primary 320 (9)
carbon dioxide fixation
9.9.1 C4 plants have two distinct 320 (2)
carbon dioxide-fixing enzymes and a
specialized leaf anatomy
9.9.2 The C4 pathway minimizes 322 (2)
photorespiration
9.9.3 In CAM plants, the processes of 324 (1)
CO2 capture and photosynthesis are
separated in time
9.9.4 The transpiration ratio relates 325 (1)
carbon dioxide fixation to water loss
9.9.5 Clues to the evolutionary origins 325 (4)
of C4 and CAM photosynthesis come from
studies of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase
Part IV Growth
10 Hormones and other signals 329 (42)
10.1 Introduction to plant hormones 329 (2)
10.2 Auxins 331 (6)
10.2.1 Both synthesis and catabolism of 331 (1)
IAA are important in auxin signaling
10.2.2 Polar transport of auxins plays 332 (2)
an important role in regulating
development
10.2.3 The auxin receptor is a 334 (3)
component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase
10.3 Gibberellins 337 (5)
10.3.1 The initial steps in gibberellin 339 (1)
biosynthesis are similar to those for
several other groups of hormones
10.3.2 Gibberellin concentration in 339 (1)
tissues is subject to feedback and
feed-forward control
10.3.3 The gibberellin receptor GID1 is 340 (2)
a soluble protein that promotes
ubiquitination of repressor proteins
10.4 Cytokinins 342 (6)
10.4.1 Cytokinin biosynthesis takes 342 (4)
place in plastids
10.4.2 There are two pathways for 346 (1)
cytokinin breakdown
10.4.3 The cytokinin receptor is 346 (2)
related to bacterial two-component
histidine kinases
10.5 Ethylene 348 (4)
10.5.1 Ethylene, a simple gas, is 349 (1)
synthesized in three steps from
methionine
10.5.2 Ethylene receptors have some 350 (1)
characteristics of histidine kinase
response regulators
10.5.3 Homologs of MAP kinases transmit 350 (2)
the ethylene signal from the receptor
to target proteins
10.6 Brassinosteroids 352 (4)
10.6.1 Brassinosteroid biosynthesis 353 (1)
from campesterol is controlled by
feedback loops
10.6.2 The brassinosteroid receptor is 354 (2)
a plasma membrane-localized
LRR-receptor serine/threonine kinase
10.7 Abscisic acid 356 (3)
10.7.1 Carotenoids are intermediates in 356 (2)
abscisic acid biosynthesis
10.7.2 There are several classes of 358 (1)
abscisic acid receptors
10.8 Strigolactones 359 (3)
10.8.1 Strigolactones were first 360 (1)
isolated from cotton root exudates
10.8.2 Strigolactones regulate lateral 360 (2)
bud dormancy
10.9 Jasmonates 362 (2)
10.9.1 Jasmonate biosynthesis begins in 363 (1)
the plastid and moves to the peroxisome
10.9.2 The jasmonate receptor is an 363 (1)
F-box protein that targets a repressor
of jasmonate-responsive genes
10.10 Polyamines 364 (3)
10.10.1 Polyamines are synthesized from 364 (3)
amino acids
10.10.2 Polyamines play roles in xylem 367 (1)
differentiation
10.11 Salicylic acid 367 (2)
10.11.1 There are two biosynthetic 367 (1)
pathways of salicylic acid biosynthesis
in plants
10.11.2 Salicylic acid induces 368 (1)
flowering and heat production in some
plants
10.11.3 Salicylic acid is involved in 369 (1)
localized and systemic disease
resistance
10.12 Nitric oxide 369 (2)
11 The cell cycle and meristems 371 (34)
11.1 Introduction to cell division and 371 (5)
meristems
11.1.1 The mitotic cell cycle consists 371 (3)
of four phases: M, G1, S and G2
11.1.2 Rigid plant cell walls impose 374 (1)
some unique features upon the plant
cell cycle
11.1.3 Meiosis is a specialized form of 374 (2)
the cell cycle that gives rise to
haploid cells
11.2 Molecular components of the cell 376 (7)
cycle: kinases, cyclins, phosphatases and
inhibitors
11.2.1 Specific kinase complexes push 376 (2)
the cell through the cell cycle
11.2.2 CDK-cyclin complexes can 378 (1)
phosphorylate protein substrates to
regulate cell cycle progression and
other cell processes
11.2.3 Binding of cyclins determines 379 (1)
three-dimensional structure,
specificity and subcellular
localization of cell-dependent kinases
11.2.4 Kinases, phosphatases and 380 (1)
specific inhibitors all have roles in
regulating the Activity of CDK-cyclin
complexes
11.2.5 Proteolysis by the 381 (2)
ubiquitin-proteasome system ensures
that the cell cycle is irreversible
11.3 Control of progress through the cell 383 (9)
cycle
11.3.1 Transition from G1 to S phase is 383 (2)
controlled by the interaction between
CDK-CYCD complexes and the RBR/E2F
pathway
11.3.2 S-phase progression is 385 (1)
controlled by many proteins
11.3.3 DNA replication is strictly 386 (1)
controlled during the cell cycle
11.3.4 The MSA element in plant B-type 387 (1)
cell-dependent kinases is important for
the G2 to M transition
11.3.5 Condensation of replicated 387 (1)
chromosomes marks the beginning of the
M phase
11.3.6 Chromatid separation and exit 388 (2)
from mitosis is mediated by
phosphorylation of the
anaphase-promoting complex by
cell-dependent kinases and proteolysis
of securin
11.3.7 DNA damage and incomplete cell 390 (2)
cycle progression are policed by
checkpoint controls
11.4 Cell cycle control during development 392 (6)
11.4.1 Cell division is tightly 392 (1)
regulated in meristems and during
organogenesis
11.4.2 Many plant cells remain 393 (2)
totipotent throughout the plant's life
cycle
11.4.3 Endopolyploidy is common in 395 (2)
differentiated plant cells
11.4.4 Plant cells must replicate and 397 (1)
maintain three genomes
11.5 The meiotic cell cycle 398 (7)
11.5.1 During meiotic prophase I 398 (1)
homologous chromosomes pair and
recombination usually occurs
11.5.2 Synapsis is the process of 399 (3)
pairing homologous chromosomes
11.5.3 Recombination is most commonly 402 (1)
initiated by double-stranded breaks in
the DNA
11.5.4 Recombination is followed by two 403 (2)
divisions to produce four haploid cells
12 Growth and development 405 (50)
12.1 Introduction to plant development 405 (1)
12.2 Cell origins and growth 406 (11)
12.2.1 Apical meristems are organized 407 (1)
into distinct regions
12.2.2 Morphogenesis is determined by 408 (2)
polarity and differential growth
12.2.3 Plant growth is described by the 410 (1)
universal S-shaped curve and is driven
by water
12.2.4 Growing structures exhibit 411 (4)
plastic growth at first and
subsequently develop elastic properties
as they mature and rigidify
12.2.5 Cells enlarge by tip growth or 415 (1)
diffuse growth
12.2.6 Cells of primary vascular 415 (2)
tissues originate in stem and root
apical meristems; cambium is the origin
of secondary vascular tissues
12.3 Embryogenesis 417 (6)
12.3.1 Pattern formation is the result 418 (3)
of polarity in the developmental fates
of embryo cells
12.3.2 Axis formation during 421 (1)
embryogenesis is the prelude to
differentiation into root and shoot
12.3.3 Many genes with functions in 422 (1)
pattern formation have been identified
by studies of embryogenesis mutants
12.4 Growth and differentiation of roots 423 (11)
12.4.1 Root architecture is important 423 (2)
for functions that include support,
nutrient acquisition, storage and
associations with other organisms
12.4.2 Lateral root initiation and 425 (2)
growth are under complex genetic and
hormonal control
12.4.3 Nutrients act as regulators of 427 (1)
root development
12.4.4 The formation of symbiotic 428 (5)
associations with nitrogen-fixing
bacteria modifies root development
12.4.5 Mycorrhizal symbioses also 433 (1)
modify root development
12.5 Growth and differentiation of leaves 434 (10)
12.5.1 The vegetative shoot meristem 436 (1)
produces leaf primordia at sites
determined by a morphogenetic field
12.5.2 During leaf epidermis 437 (3)
development, three cell types are
differentiated: pavement cells,
trichomes and stomates
12.5.3 Development of the internal 440 (2)
structure of the leaf involves vascular
and photosynthetic cell differentiation
12.5.4 Flattening, orientation and 442 (2)
outgrowth of the lamina determine
ultimate leaf size and shape
12.6 Shoot architecture and stature 444 (11)
12.6.1 Plant structure is modular 444 (1)
12.6.2 Branching is the result of 445 (2)
interactions between apical and lateral
growth
12.6.3 Crop breeding has exploited 447 (8)
genetic variation in stature to produce
dwarf and semi-dwarf `Green Revolution'
cereals
Part V Maturation
13 Mineral nutrient acquisition and 455 (49)
assimilation
13.1 Introduction to plant nutrition 455 (8)
13.1.1 Deficiency symptoms reflect the 455 (4)
function and mobility of an element
within the plant
13.1.2 Other organs in addition to 459 (1)
roots may function in nutrient
acquisition
13.1.3 Technologies used to study 460 (1)
mineral nutrition include hydroponics
and rhizotrons
13.1.4 The rhizosphere affects mineral 461 (2)
availability to plants
13.2 Nitrogen 463 (14)
13.2.1 In the biosphere nitrogen cycles 463 (2)
between inorganic and organic pools
13.2.2 Nitrogen fixation converts 465 (1)
dinitrogen gas into NH3
13.2.3 Biological nitrogen fixation is 465 (2)
catalyzed by nitrogenase
13.2.4 Dinitrogen fixation occurs via a 467 (2)
catalytic cycle
13.2.5 Uptake of ammonium into the 469 (1)
symplasm occurs via specific membrane
channels
13.2.6 Roots take up nitrate in 469 (2)
preference to other forms of nitrogen
13.2.7 Nitrate reduction is the first 471 (2)
step in nitrogen assimilation
13.2.8 Nitrate reduction is regulated 473 (2)
by controlling the synthesis and
activity of nitrate reductase
13.2.9 Nitrogen enters into organic 475 (2)
combination through the GS-GOGAT pathway
13.3 Phosphorus 477 (6)
13.3.1 Phosphorus enters the biosphere 478 (1)
as phosphate
13.3.2 Phosphate is actively 479 (2)
accumulated by root cells
13.3.3 Plants modify the rhizosphere 481 (2)
and form mycorrhizal associations to
improve phosphorus availability
13.4 Sulfur 483 (8)
13.4.1 The sulfur cycle involves the 484 (1)
interconversion of oxidized and reduced
sulfur species
13.4.2 Plants acquire sulfur mainly as 485 (2)
sulfate from the soil
13.4.3 The reduction of sulfate and its 487 (2)
assimilation is catalyzed by a series
of enzymes
13.4.4 Two enzymes catalyze the final 489 (2)
steps of sulfate assimilation into
cysteine
13.4.5 Sulfur assimilation shares some 491 (1)
features with nitrogen assimilation
13.5 Cationic macronutrients: potassium, 491 (5)
calcium and magnesium
13.5.1 Potassium is the most abundant 492 (2)
cation in plant tissues
13.5.2 Tightly regulated channels and 494 (2)
transporters ensure cytosolic calcium
is maintained at submicromolar
concentrations
13.5.3 Channels in the plasma membrane 496 (1)
deliver magnesium to the cytosol, and
an antiporter mediates transfer from
cytosol to vacuole
13.6 Micronutrients 496 (8)
13.6.1 Iron is an essential component 497 (2)
of biological electron transfer
processes
13.6.2 Several micronutrient elements 499 (1)
are toxic in excess
13.6.3 Aluminum is a non-nutrient 499 (3)
mineral responsible for toxic reactions
in many plants growing on acid soils
13.6.4 Heavy metal homeostasis is 502 (2)
mediated by metal-binding metabolites
and proteins
14 Intercellular and long-distance transport 504 (30)
14.1 Introduction to transport of water 504 (1)
and solutes
14.2 The concept of water potential 505 (2)
14.2.1 Solutes lower the water potential 506 (1)
14.2.2 Pressure can increase or 506 (1)
decrease water potential
14.2.3 Gravity increases water 507 (1)
potential and is a large component of
Ψw in trees
14.3 Water uptake by plant cells 507 (2)
14.3.1 The permeability of biological 507 (1)
membranes to water influences water
uptake by plant cells
14.3.2 Diffusion and bulk flow drive 508 (1)
movement of water and solute in plants
14.4 The role of plasmodesmata in solute 509 (5)
and water transport
14.4.1 Plasmodesmata increase the flow 510 (1)
of water and solutes between cells
14.4.2 Fluorescent probes provide an 511 (1)
estimate of the size exclusion limit of
plasmodesmata
14.4.3 Endogenous macromolecules move 512 (1)
from cell to cell via plasmodesmata
14.4.4 Viral RNA can move from cell to 513 (1)
cell via plasmodesmata
14.5 Translocation of photosynthate in 514 (4)
the phloem
14.5.1 Sieve elements and companion 514 (1)
cells are unique cell types in the
phloem of flowering plants
14.5.2 Sieve elements contain high 515 (1)
concentrations of solutes and have high
turgor pressure
14.5.3 Sieve elements have open sieve 516 (2)
plates that allow pressure-driven
solute flow
14.6 Phloem loading, translocation and 518 (3)
unloading
14.6.1 At the source, phloem loading 518 (1)
can occur from the apoplast or through
the symplasm
14.6.2 Sucrose and other non-reducing 519 (2)
sugars are translocated in the phloem
14.6.3 Long-distance pressure-flow in 521 (1)
the phloem is not energy-dependent
14.6.4 Phloem unloading involves a 521 (1)
series of short-distance transport
events
14.7 Water movement in the xylem 521 (4)
14.7.1 Water-conducting tissue of the 522 (1)
xylem consists of low-resistance
vessels and tracheids
14.7.2 Transpiration provides the 523 (1)
driving force for xylem transport
14.7.3 Under special circumstances 523 (1)
sucrose may be transported from roots
to shoots within the xylem
14.7.4 Cavitation in tracheary elements 524 (1)
interferes with water transport
14.7.5 Tracheary elements can be 525 (1)
refilled with water by root pressure
14.8 The path of water from soil to 525 (9)
atmosphere
14.8.1 There are two pathways by which 525 (1)
water enters the root
14.8.2 The uptake of solutes and 526 (1)
loading and unloading of the xylem are
active processes
14.8.3 A number of structural and 526 (1)
physiological features allow plants to
control evapotranspiration from their
shoots
14.8.4 Differences in water vapor 526 (2)
concentration and resistances in the
pathway drive evapotranspiration
14.8.5 Stomatal guard cells are key 528 (2)
regulators of water loss from leaves
14.8.6 Stomata open and close in 530 (2)
response to a variety of environmental
factors
14.8.7 The opening of stomata during 532 (2)
the day represents a physiological
compromise
15 Environmental interactions 534 (51)
15.1 Introduction to plant-environment 534 (1)
interactions
15.2 General principles of 534 (6)
plant-environment interactions
15.2.1 Environmental factors may have 535 (1)
both positive and negative effects
15.2.2 Plants are equipped with 536 (1)
mechanisms to avoid or tolerate stress
15.2.3 Plants respond to the 537 (2)
environment over the short term by
acclimation, and on an evolutionary
timescale by adaptation
15.2.4 Plants make a vast array of 539 (1)
secondary metabolites, many of which
are protective against biotic and
abiotic challenges
15.3 Metabolic responses to stress I. 540 (7)
Phenolics
15.3.1 Phenylalanine and tyrosine are 541 (2)
the metabolites that link primary
metabolism to the secondary pathways of
phenolic biosynthesis
15.3.2 Most phenolics are synthesized 543 (1)
from phenylalanine or tyrosine via the
phenylpropanoid pathway
15.3.3 The flavonoid pathway, leading 544 (1)
to flavones, flavonols and
anthocyanins, starts with chalcone
synthase and chalcone isomerase
15.3.4 Lignin precursors are the 545 (2)
products of a metabolic grid derived
from 4-coumaric and cinnamic acids
15.4 Metabolic responses to stress II. 547 (5)
Alkaloids
15.4.1 Tryptophan is the biosynthetic 549 (2)
precursor of indole alkaloids
15.4.2 Morphine and related 551 (1)
isoquinoline alkaloids are tyrosine
derivatives
15.5 Metabolic responses to stress III. 552 (8)
Terpenoids
15.5.1 Terpenoids are synthesized from 553 (3)
IPP and DMAPP, frequently in
specialized structures
15.5.2 Terpenoids of C10 and larger are 556 (1)
made by condensation of IPP units on an
initial DMAPP primer, catalyzed by
prenyltransferases
15.5.3 Squalene and phytoene are 557 (2)
precursors of phytosterols and
carotenoids
15.5.4 Secondary modification of 559 (1)
terpenoids results in a wide variety of
bioactive compounds
15.6 Responses to abiotic stresses 560 (17)
15.6.1 Plants acclimate to water 560 (4)
deficit and osmotic stress by
adjustments in compatible solutes,
transport processes and gene expression
15.6.2 Flooding deprives plants of 564 (2)
oxygen, affecting respiratory
processes, gene expression and
acclimatory changes in structure
15.6.3 Reactive oxygen species, common 566 (3)
factors in plant responses to a range
of stresses, regulate, and are
regulated by, antioxidant systems
15.6.4 Cold stresses are experienced 569 (1)
through similar sensitivity, tolerance
and acclimatory mechanisms to those of
other abiotic challenges
15.6.5 Plants respond to 570 (2)
high-temperature stress by making heat
shock proteins
15.6.6 Plants have photochemical, 572 (4)
acclimatory and adaptive mechanisms
that defend against potentially harmful
excess light
15.6.7 Gravity and touch are 576 (1)
directional mechanical stresses that
invoke tropic responses
15.7 Responses to biotic stresses 577 (8)
15.7.1 Plants deploy constitutive and 577 (2)
induced defenses against potential
pathogens
15.7.2 Plants compete by conducting 579 (1)
chemical warfare with allelopathic
secondary compounds
15.7.3 A range of generic local and 580 (5)
systemic stress responses are invoked
by herbivory, predation and wounding
Part VI Renewal
16 Flowering and sexual reproduction 585 (44)
16.1 Introduction to flowering 585 (1)
16.2 Induction of flowering 586 (6)
16.2.1 Floral induction requires both 586 (1)
the perceptive organ and the shoot apex
to acquire competence during plant
maturation
16.2.2 Determinacy of the reproductive 587 (2)
apex affects plant morphology and
annual/perennial growth habit
16.2.3 Different inductive pathways 589 (2)
lead to flowering
16.2.4 Regulation of floral induction 591 (1)
by vernalization is epigenetic in nature
16.3 Development of floral organs 592 (13)
16.3.1 Specification of floral 594 (1)
structures in Arabidopsis is explained
by the ABC model of gene expression
16.3.2 The original ABC model has been 595 (2)
enhanced to include E class factors
16.3.3 The ABCE model, or modifications 597 (2)
of it, applies to floral
differentiation across the range of
angiosperms
16.3.4 Floral symmetry is determined by 599 (1)
the interplay between TCP- and MYB-type
transcription factors
16.3.5 Inflorescence architecture can 600 (2)
be modeled using veg, a meristem
identity parameter
16.3.6 Colors of flower parts are due 602 (3)
to betalain, anthocyanin or carotenoid
pigments
16.4 Development of the male and female 605 (5)
gametophytes
16.4.1 The male gametophyte is the 605 (1)
pollen grain, which forms in the anther
16.4.2 Many genes are expressed in the 605 (2)
anther and nowhere else in the plant
16.4.3 Mutations in genes that are 607 (2)
active in the sporophyte can lead to
male sterility
16.4.4 The female gametophyte, or 609 (1)
embryo sac, is produced by one meiotic
division followed by several mitotic
divisions
16.5 Pollination and fertilization 610 (12)
16.5.1 Hydration and germination of the 611 (2)
pollen grain require specific
interaction between the pollen coat and
stigmatic surface
16.5.2 Pollen allergens, the cause of 613 (1)
hay fever, have a range of functions in
fertilization
16.5.3 Incompatibility mechanisms 614 (1)
prevent self-pollination and promote
outbreeding
16.5.4 In gametophytic 615 (1)
self-incompatibility growth of the
pollen tube is arrested by
ribonucleases or programmed cell death
16.5.5 Sporophytic self-incompatibility 616 (1)
in the Brassicaceae is mediated by
receptor kinases in the female and
peptide ligands in the pollen coat
16.5.6 The growing pollen tube is 617 (2)
actively guided toward the embryo sac
16.5.7 Double fertilization completes 619 (1)
the alternation of generations
16.5.8 Apomixis, asexual reproduction 620 (2)
through seeds, occurs in a large number
of taxa and is a target trait for crop
breeding
16.6 Seed and fruit development 622 (7)
16.6.1 Genomics analysis reveals tissue 623 (2)
specificities and changes with time in
gene expression patterns during seed
development
16.6.2 The development of nuclear 625 (2)
endosperm comprises phases of syncytium
formation, cellularization,
endoreduplication and programmed cell
death
16.6.3 Differentiation of fruit tissues 627 (2)
is associated with the activities of
MADS-box transcription factors
17 Development and dormancy of resting 629 (35)
structures
17.1 Introduction to resting structures 629 (1)
in the plant life cycle
17.2 Forms and functions of resting organs 629 (7)
17.2.1 Dormancy of the embryo is 630 (1)
conditioned by the associated storage
tissue and seed coat
17.2.2 Terminal buds consist of leaf or 631 (1)
flower primordia and unexpanded
internodes enclosed in protective scales
17.2.3 Tree rings, the results of 632 (1)
annual periods of vascular cambium
growth and quiescence, are a historical
record of environmental conditions
17.2.4 Corms, rhizomes, stolons and 633 (2)
tubers are modified stems
17.2.5 Bulbs are vegetative resting 635 (1)
organs in monocots and each consists of
swollen reserve-storing leaf bases
surrounding a compressed shoot
17.2.6 Tuberous roots and swollen 636 (1)
taproots are forms of underground
perennating storage organs
17.3 Synthesis and deposition of reserves 636 (13)
17.3.1 Starch is synthesized in 637 (3)
plastids as semicrystalline granules by
starch synthase and starch branching
enzyme
17.3.2 Fructans are storage polymers 640 (2)
accumulated in the resting structures
and other vegetative organs of species
from a number of taxa
17.3.3 Fatty acids are biosynthesized 642 (1)
from acetyl-CoA in plastids and stored
as triacylglycerols in oil bodies
derived from the endoplasmic reticulum
17.3.4 Seed and vegetative storage 643 (5)
proteins are synthesized in response to
the supply of sugars or nitrogen and
accumulate in vesicles and vacuoles
17.3.5 Mass transfer of mobile mineral 648 (1)
elements to perennating structures
occurs during dieback and ultimate
desiccation of above-ground biomass
17.4 Dormancy 649 (3)
17.4.1 The relationship between embryo 650 (1)
immaturity and capacity to germinate,
which varies widely between species, is
influenced by abscisic acid
17.4.2 Many organs need to experience a 650 (1)
period of low temperature to break
dormancy
17.4.3 Weed seeds in the soil seed bank 651 (1)
may be released from dormancy by
exposure to light
17.4.4 In ecosystems adapted to 652 (1)
frequent fires, the chemical products
of combustion act as dormancy-breaking
signaling compounds
17.5 Regulation of development and 652 (6)
dormancy of resting organs
17.5.1 The cell cycle is arrested in 653 (1)
dormant meristems
17.5.2 Dormancy of apical buds is 653 (2)
regulated by photoperiod in many
temperate species
17.5.3 Resting structures are formed by 655 (1)
modification of vegetative development
17.5.4 Dormancy is controlled by the 656 (2)
antagonistic actions of abscisic acid
and gibberellin
17.6 Adaptive and evolutionary 658 (6)
significance of the resting phase
17.6.1 Most resting structures are 658 (1)
propagules
17.6.2 Phenology, the study of the 659 (1)
timing of growth and quiescence phases
in the annual life cycle, provides
information on environmental change
17.6.3 Different life forms have 660 (3)
evolved through changes in integration
of component developmental processes
17.6.4 The consumption of plant resting 663 (1)
organs has influenced the course of
human evolution
18 Senescence, ripening and cell death 664 (43)
18.1 Introduction to terminal events in 664 (4)
the life of a plant and its parts
18.1.1 The different categories of cell 664 (1)
death share some features
18.1.2 Cell viability is maintained 665 (1)
during the developmental program
leading to death
18.1.3 Autolysis is a common form of 666 (2)
cell death
18.2 Cell death during growth and 668 (6)
morphogenesis
18.2.1 Cell death is an essential 669 (4)
process in the formation of vascular
and mechanical tissues
18.2.2 Lysigeny, schizogeny and 673 (1)
abscission are responsible for the
formation of tubes and cavities, and
the shedding of organs
18.2.3 Organs may be shaped by 673 (1)
selective death of cells and tissues
18.3 Leaf senescence 674 (15)
18.3.1 Cell structures and metabolism 676 (1)
undergo characteristic changes during
senescence
18.3.2 Leaves change color during 677 (3)
senescence
18.3.3 During senescence macromolecules 680 (2)
are broken down and nutrients are
salvaged
18.3.4 Energy and oxidative metabolism 682 (2)
are modified during senescence
18.3.5 Senescence is genetically 684 (5)
regulated and under hormonal control
18.4 Programmed senescence and death in 689 (3)
the development of reproductive
structures and seeds
18.4.1 Selective death of reproductive 689 (1)
structures occurs during the
development of unisexual flowers
18.4.2 Petals and sepals undergo 689 (1)
senescence
18.4.3 Specific cells undergo 690 (1)
senescence and death during gamete and
embryo formation
18.4.4 Programmed senescence and death 691 (1)
occur during seed development and
germination
18.5 Fruit ripening 692 (7)
18.5.1 A respiratory burst occurs 693 (1)
during fruit ripening in some species
18.5.2 Fruits change color during 693 (1)
ripening
18.5.3 Fruit texture changes during 694 (1)
ripening
18.5.4 Flavors and fragrances intensify 695 (2)
during fruit ripening
18.5.5 Fruit ripening is subject to 697 (2)
genetic and hormonal regulation
18.6 Environmental influences on 699 (8)
programmed senescence and death
18.6.1 Senescence varies with the 699 (2)
seasons
18.6.2 Programmed senescence and death 701 (1)
are common responses to abiotic stresses
18.6.3 Senescence and cell death are 701 (4)
adaptive and pathological responses to
biotic interactions
18.6.4 The relationships between 705 (2)
programmed senescence, death and aging
are complex
Acknowledgments, credits and sources 707 (6)
Index 713