電力系統の動特性・安定性・制御(第2版)<br>Power System Dynamics, Stability and Control

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電力系統の動特性・安定性・制御(第2版)
Power System Dynamics, Stability and Control

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 632 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470725580
  • DDC分類 621.3191

Full Description


This book is the fully revised and updated second edition of Power System Dynamics and Stability published in 1997 . The modified title Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control reflects a slight shift in focus from solely describing power system dynamics to the means of dealing with them. The book has been expanded by about a third to include: a new chapter on wind power generation; a new section on wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) and their application for real-time control; an overview of lessons learned from wide-spread blackouts affecting North America and Europe in 2003, 2004 and 2006; enhanced treatment of voltage stability and control, and frequency stability and control; application of Lyapunov direct method to analyse and enhance stability of multi-machine power systems; expanded coverage of steady-state stability using eigenvalue analysis, including modal analysis of dynamic equivalents. The book continues the successful approach of the first edition by progressing from simplicity to complexity. It places the emphasis first on understanding the underlying physical principles before proceeding to more complex models and algorithms.The reader will appreciate the authors' accessible approach as the book is illustrated by over 400 diagrams and a large number of examples. Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, Second Edition is an essential resource for graduates of electrical engineering. It is also a clear and comprehensive reference text for undergraduate students, and for practising engineers and researchers who are working in electricity companies or in the development of power system technologies.

Table of Contents

About the Authors                                  xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgements xix
List of Symbols xxi
PART I INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEMS
Introduction 3 (12)
Stability and Control of a Dynamic System 3 (2)
Classification of Power System Dynamics 5 (2)
Two Pairs of Important Quantities: 7 (2)
Reactive Power/Voltage and Real
Power/Frequency
Stability of a Power System 9 (1)
Security of a Power System 9 (3)
Brief Historical Overview 12 (3)
Power System Components 15 (50)
Introduction 15 (1)
Reliability of Supply 15 (1)
Supplying Electrical Energy of Good 16 (1)
Quality
Economic Generation and Transmission 16 (1)
Environmental Issues 16 (1)
Structure of the Electrical Power System 16 (3)
Generation 18 (1)
Transmission 18 (1)
Distribution 19 (1)
Demand 19 (1)
Generating Units 19 (16)
Synchronous Generators 20 (1)
Exciters and Automatic Voltage 21 (4)
Regulators
Turbines and their Governing Systems 25 (10)
Substations 35 (1)
Transmission and Distribution Network 35 (19)
Overhead Lines and Underground Cables 35 (1)
Transformers 36 (5)
Shunt and Series Elements 41 (2)
FACTS Devices 43 (11)
Protection 54 (4)
Protection of Transmission Lines 54 (2)
Protection of Transformers 56 (1)
Protection of Busbars 57 (1)
Protection of Generating Units 57 (1)
Wide Area Measurement Systems 58 (7)
WAMS and WAMPAC Based on GPS Signal 58 (1)
Phasors 59 (2)
Phasor Measurement Unit 61 (1)
Structures of WAMS and WAMPAC 62 (3)
The Power System in the Steady State 65 (62)
Transmission Lines 65 (7)
Line Equations and the π-Equivalent 66 (1)
Circuit
Performance of the Transmission Line 67 (5)
Underground Cables 72 (1)
Transformers 72 (4)
Equivalent Circuit 72 (2)
Off-Nominal Transformation Ratio 74 (2)
Synchronous Generators 76 (28)
Round-Rotor Machines 76 (7)
Salient-Pole Machines 83 (6)
Synchronous Generator as a Power Source 89 (2)
Reactive Power Capability Curve of a 91 (4)
Round-Rotor Generator
Voltage-Reactive Power Capability 95 (5)
Characteristic V(Q)
Including the Equivalent Network 100 (4)
Impedance
Power System Loads 104 (9)
Lighting and Heating 105 (1)
Induction Motors 106 (4)
Static Characteristics of the Load 110 (1)
Load Models 111 (2)
Network Equations 113 (5)
Power Flows in Transmission Networks 118 (9)
Control of Power Flows 118 (4)
Calculation of Power Flows 122 (5)
PART II INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS
Electromagnetic Phenomena 127 (42)
Fundamentals 127 (2)
Three-Phase Short Circuit on a 129 (23)
Synchronous Generator
Three-Phase Short Circuit with the 129 (4)
Generator on No Load and Winding
Resistance Neglected
Including the Effect of Winding 133 (1)
Resistance
Armature Flux Paths and the Equivalent 134 (6)
Reactances
Generator Electromotive Forces and 140 (6)
Equivalent Circuits
Short-Circuit Currents with the 146 (3)
Generator Initially on No Load
Short-Circuit Currents in the Loaded 149 (1)
Generator
Subtransient Torque 150 (2)
Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit 152 (11)
Short-Circuit Current and Flux with 153 (3)
Winding Resistance Neglected
Influence of the Subtransient Saliency 156 (3)
Positive- and Negative-Sequence 159 (1)
Reactances
Influence of Winding Resistance 160 (2)
Subtransient Torque 162 (1)
Synchronization 163 (3)
Currents and Torques 164 (2)
Short-Circuit in a Network and its 166 (3)
Clearing
Electromechanical Dynamics - Small 169 (38)
Disturbances
Swing Equation 169 (3)
Damping Power 172 (4)
Damping Power at Large Speed Deviations 175 (1)
Equilibrium Points 176 (1)
Steady-State Stability of Unregulated 177 (19)
System
Pull-Out Power 177 (2)
Transient Power-Angle Characteristics 179 (5)
Rotor Swings and Equal Area Criterion 184 (2)
Effect of Damper Windings 186 (1)
Effect of Rotor Flux Linkage Variation 187 (4)
Analysis of Rotor Swings Around the 191 (4)
Equilibrium Point
Mechanical Analogues of the 195 (1)
Generator-Infinite Busbar System
Steady-State Stability of the Regulated 196 (11)
System
Steady-State Power-Angle Characteristic 196 (4)
of Regulated Generator
Transient Power-Angle Characteristic of 200 (2)
the Regulated Generator
Effect of Rotor Flux Linkage Variation 202 (3)
Effect of AVR Action on the Damper 205 (1)
Windings
Compensating the Negative Damping 206 (1)
Components
Electromechanical Dynamics - Large 207 (58)
Disturbances
Transient Stability 207 (13)
Fault Cleared Without a Change in the 207 (5)
Equivalent Network Impedance
Short-Circuit Cleared with/without 212 (3)
Auto-Reclosing
Power Swings 215 (1)
Effect of Flux Decrement 215 (1)
Effect of the AVR 216 (4)
Swings in Multi-Machine Systems 220 (2)
Direct Method for Stability Assessment 222 (15)
Mathematical Background 223 (2)
Energy-Type Lyapunov Function 225 (2)
Transient Stability Area 227 (1)
Equal Area Criterion 228 (2)
Lyapunov Direct Method for a 230 (7)
Multi-Machine System
Synchronization 237 (2)
Asynchronous Operation and 239 (5)
Resynchronization
Transition to Asynchronous Operation 240 (1)
Asynchronous Operation 241 (1)
Possibility of Resynchronization 242 (2)
Out-of-Step Protection Systems 244 (9)
Impedance Loci During Power Swings 245 (3)
Power Swing Blocking 248 (1)
Pole-Slip Protection of Synchronous 249 (2)
Generator
Out-of-Step Tripping in a Network 251 (2)
Example of a Blackout 253 (1)
Torsional Oscillations in the Drive Shaft 253 (12)
The Torsional Natural Frequencies of 253 (6)
the Turbine-Generator Rotor
Effect of System Faults 259 (2)
Subsynchronous Resonance 261 (4)
Wind Power 265 (34)
Wind Turbines 265 (9)
Generator Systems 269 (5)
Induction Machine Equivalent Circuit 274 (3)
Induction Generator Coupled to the Grid 277 (3)
Induction Generators with Slightly 280 (2)
Increased Speed Range via External Rotor
Resistance
Induction Generators with Significantly 282 (8)
Increased Speed Range: DFIGs
Operation with the Injected Voltage in 284 (2)
Phase with the Rotor Current
Operation with the Injected Voltage out 286 (1)
of Phase with the Rotor Current
The DFIG as a Synchronous Generator 287 (2)
Control Strategy for a DFIG 289 (1)
Fully Rated Converter Systems: Wide Speed 290 (3)
Control
Machine-Side Inverter 291 (1)
Grid-Side Inverter 292 (1)
Peak Power Tracking of Variable Speed 293 (1)
Wind Turbines
Connections of Wind Farms 294 (1)
Fault Behaviour of Induction Generators 294 (2)
Fixed-Speed Induction Generators 294 (2)
Variable-Speed Induction Generators 296 (1)
Influence of Wind Generators on Power 296 (3)
System Stability
Voltage Stability 299 (36)
Network Feasibility 299 (6)
Ideally Stiff Load 300 (3)
Influence of the Load Characteristics 303 (2)
Stability Criteria 305 (5)
The dΔQ/dV Criterion 305 (3)
The dE/dV Criterion 308 (1)
The dQG/dQL Criterion 309 (1)
Critical Load Demand and Voltage Collapse 310 (8)
Effects of Increasing Demand 311 (3)
Effect of Network Outages 314 (1)
Influence of the Shape of the Load 315 (2)
Characteristics
Influence of the Voltage Control 317 (1)
Static Analysis 318 (3)
Voltage Stability and Load Flow 318 (2)
Voltage Stability Indices 320 (1)
Dynamic Analysis 321 (6)
The Dynamics of Voltage Collapse 321 (2)
Examples of Power System Blackouts 323 (3)
Computer Simulation of Voltage Collapse 326 (1)
Prevention of Voltage Collapse 327 (2)
Self-Excitation of a Generator Operating 329 (6)
on a Capacitive Load
Parametric Resonance in RLC Circuits 329 (1)
Self-Excitation of a Generator with 330 (2)
Open-Circuited Field Winding
Self-Excitation of a Generator with 332 (2)
Closed Field Winding
Practical Possibility of Self-Excitation 334 (1)
Frequency Stability and Control 335 (48)
Automatic Generation Control 336 (14)
Generation Characteristic 336 (3)
Primary Control 339 (2)
Secondary Control 341 (4)
Tertiary Control 345 (1)
AGC as a Multi-Level Control 346 (1)
Defence Plan Against Frequency 347 (2)
Instability
Quality Assessment of Frequency Control 349 (1)
Rotor Swings in the Generators 350 (3)
Frequency Drop 353 (1)
Primary Control 354 (6)
The Importance of the Spinning Reserve 356 (2)
Frequency Collapse 358 (2)
Underfrequency Load Shedding 360 (1)
Secondary Control 360 (10)
Islanded Systems 361 (3)
Interconnected Systems and Tie-Line 364 (6)
Oscillations
FACTS Devices in Tie-Lines 370 (13)
Incremental Model of a Multi-Machine 371 (4)
System
State-Variable Control Based on 375 (3)
Lyapunov Method
Example of Simulation Results 378 (1)
Coordination Between AGC and Series 379 (4)
FACTS Devices in Tie-Lines
Stability Enhancement 383 (50)
Power System Stabilizers 383 (4)
PSS Applied to the Excitation System 384 (3)
PSS Applied to the Turbine Governor 387 (1)
Fast Valving 387 (4)
Braking Resistors 391 (1)
Generator Tripping 392 (3)
Preventive Tripping 393 (1)
Restitutive Tripping 394 (1)
Shunt FACTS Devices 395 (21)
Power-Angle Characteristic 395 (2)
State-Variable Control 397 (3)
Control Based on Local Measurements 400 (4)
Examples of Controllable Shunt Elements 404 (2)
Generalization to Multi-Machine Systems 406 (8)
Example of Simulation Results 414 (2)
Series Compensators 416 (7)
State-Variable Control 417 (2)
Interpretation Using the Equal Area 419 (1)
Criterion
Control Strategy Based on the Squared 420 (1)
Current
Control Based on Other Local 421 (2)
Measurements
Simulation Results 423 (1)
Unified Power Flow Controller 423 (10)
Power-Angle Characteristic 424 (2)
State-Variable Control 426 (2)
Control Based on Local Measurements 428 (1)
Examples of Simulation Results 429 (4)
PART III ADVANCED TOPICS IN POWER SYSTEM
DYNAMICS
Advanced Power System Modelling 433 (58)
Synchronous Generator 433 (29)
Assumptions 434 (1)
The Flux Linkage Equations in the 434 (2)
Stator Reference Frame
The Flux Linkage Equations in the Rotor 436 (4)
Reference Frame
Voltage Equations 440 (3)
Generator Reactances in Terms of 443 (3)
Circuit Quantities
Synchronous Generator Equations 446 (7)
Synchronous Generator Models 453 (5)
Saturation Effects 458 (4)
Excitation Systems 462 (8)
Transducer and Comparator Model 462 (1)
Exciters and Regulators 463 (7)
Power System Stabilizer (PSS) 470 (1)
Turbines and Turbine Governors 470 (15)
Steam Turbines 471 (5)
Hydraulic Turbines 476 (5)
Wind Turbines 481 (4)
Dynamic Load Models 485 (3)
FACTS Devices 488 (3)
Shunt FACTS Devices 488 (1)
Series FACTS Devices 488 (3)
Steady-State Stability of Multi-Machine 491 (44)
System
Mathematical Background 491 (23)
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 491 (5)
Diagonalization of a Square Real Matrix 496 (4)
Solution of Matrix Differential 500 (9)
Equations
Modal and Sensitivity Analysis 509 (3)
Modal Form of the State Equation with 512 (1)
Inputs
Nonlinear System 513 (1)
Steady-State Stability of Unregulated 514 (9)
System
State-Space Equation 515 (2)
Simplified Steady-State Stability 517 (4)
Conditions
Including the Voltage Characteristics 521 (1)
of the Loads
Transfer Capability of the Network 522 (1)
Steady-State Stability of the Regulated 523 (12)
System
Generator and Network 523 (2)
Including Excitation System Model and 525 (3)
Voltage Control
Linear State Equation of the System 528 (1)
Examples 528 (7)
Power System Dynamic Simulation 535 (22)
Numerical Integration Methods 536 (5)
The Partitioned Solution 541 (12)
Partial Matrix Inversion 543 (4)
Matrix Factorization 547 (1)
Newton's Method 548 (3)
Ways of Avoiding Iterations and 551 (2)
Multiple Network Solutions
The Simultaneous Solution Methods 553 (1)
Comparison Between the Methods 554 (3)
Power System Model Reduction - Equivalents 557 (36)
Types of Equivalents 557 (2)
Network Transformation 559 (8)
Elimination of Nodes 559 (3)
Aggregation of Nodes Using Dimo's Method 562 (1)
Aggregation of Nodes Using Zhukov's 563 (2)
Method
Coherency 565 (2)
Aggregation of Generating Units 567 (1)
Equivalent Model of External Subsystem 568 (1)
Coherency Recognition 569 (4)
Properties of Coherency-Based Equivalents 573 (20)
Electrical Interpretation of Zhukov's 573 (2)
Aggregation
Incremental Equivalent Model 575 (4)
Modal Interpretation of Exact Coherency 579 (3)
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of the 582 (7)
Equivalent Model
Equilibrium Points of the Equivalent 589 (4)
Model
Appendix 593 (20)
References 613 (10)
Index 623