GISと科学(第3版)<br>Geographic Information Systems and Science (3RD)

GISと科学(第3版)
Geographic Information Systems and Science (3RD)

  • ただいまウェブストアではご注文を受け付けておりません。 ⇒古書を探す
  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 544 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470721445
  • DDC分類 621

基本説明

初版2万2千部以販売したベストセラーテキスト。5年振りの改訂版。GISの分布、地図作成、模型、GIS管理など最新情報を収録。

Full Description


The Third Edition of this bestselling textbook has been fully revised and updated to include the latest developments in the field and still retains its accessible format to appeal to a broad range of students. Now divided into five clear sections the book investigates the unique, complex and difficult problems that are posed by geographic information and together they build into a holistic understanding of the key principles of GIS. This is the most current, authoritative and comprehensive treatment of the field, that goes from fundamental principles to the big picture of: GIS and the New World Ordersecurity, health and well-beingdigital differentiation in GIS consumptionthe core organizing role of GIS in Geographythe greening of GISgrand challenges of GISciencescience and explanation Key features: Four-colour throughoutAssociated website with free online resourcesTeacher s manual available for lecturersA complete learning resource, with accompanying instructor links, free online lab resources and personal syllabiIncludes learning objectives and review boxes throughout each chapter New in this edition: Completely revised with a new five part structure: Foundations; Principles; Techniques; Analysis; Management and PolicyAll new personality boxes of current GIS practitionersNew chapters on Distributed GIS, Map Production, Geovisualization, Modeling, and Managing GIS

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           x
Dedication xi
Preface xii
List of Acronyms xvii
1 Introduction 1 (72)
1 Systems, Science, and Study 3 (36)
1.1 Introduction: Why Does GIS Matter? 4 (7)
1.1.1 Spatial is Special 11 (1)
1.2 Data, Information, Knowledge, 11 (2)
Evidence, Wisdom
1.3 Systems and Science 13 (4)
1.3.1 The Science of Problem Solving 13 (3)
1.3.2 The Technology of Problem Solving 16 (1)
1.4 A Brief History of GIS 17 (1)
1.5 Views of GIS 18 (8)
1.5.1 Anatomy of a GIS 22 (4)
1.6 The Business of GIS 26 (4)
1.6.1 The Software Industry 26 (1)
1.6.2 The Data Industry 26 (1)
1.6.3 The GIServices Industry 27 (1)
1.6.4 The GeoWeb Services Industry 27 (1)
1.6.5 The Publishing Industry 28 (1)
1.6.6 GIS Education 29 (1)
1.7 GISystems, GIScience, and GIStudies 30 (4)
1.8 GIS and the Study of Geography 34 (5)
Questions for Further Study 36 (1)
Further Reading 37 (2)
2 A Gallery of Applications 39 (34)
2.1 Introduction 40 (3)
2.1.1 One Day of Life with GIS 40 (3)
2.1.2 Why GIS? 43 (1)
2.2 Science, Geography, and Applications 43 (2)
2.2.1 Scientific Questions and GIS 43 (1)
Operations
2.2.2 GIScience Applications 44 (1)
2.3 Representative Application Areas and 45 (26)
Their Foundations
2.3.1 Introduction and Overview 45 (1)
2.3.2 Government and Public Service 46 (5)
2.3.3 Business and Service Planning 51 (9)
2.3.4 Logistics and Transportation 60 (6)
2.3.5 Environment 66 (5)
2.4 Concluding Comments 71 (2)
Questions for Further Study 71 (1)
Further Reading 71 (2)
2 Principles 73 (106)
3 Representing Geography 75 (24)
3.1 Introduction 76 (1)
3.2 Digital Representation 77 (2)
3.3 Representation of What and for Whom? 79 (2)
3.4 The Fundamental Problem 81 (2)
3.5 Discrete Objects and Continuous Fields 83 (4)
3.5.1 Discrete Objects 83 (2)
3.5.2 Continuous Fields 85 (2)
3.6 Rasters and Vectors 87 (3)
3.6.1 Raster Data 87 (1)
3.6.2 Vector Data 88 (1)
3.6.3 Representing Continuous Fields 89 (1)
3.7 The Paper Map 90 (2)
3.8 Generalization 92 (4)
3.8.1 Generalization about Places 92 (3)
3.8.2 Generalization about Properties 95 (1)
3.8.3 Representation using VGI 95 (1)
3.9 Conclusion 96 (3)
Questions for Further Study 97 (1)
Further Reading 97 (2)
4 The Nature of Geographic Data 99 (24)
4.1 Introduction 100 (1)
4.2 The Fundamental Problem Revisited 100 (2)
4.3 Spatial Autocorrelation and Scale 102 (3)
4.4 Spatial Sampling 105 (3)
4.5 Distance Decay 108 (5)
4.6 Measuring Distance Effects as Spatial 113 (5)
Autocorrelation
4.7 Taming Geographic Monsters 118 (1)
4.8 Induction and Deduction and How It 119 (4)
All Comes Together
Questions for Further Study 120 (1)
Further Reading 121 (2)
5 Georeferencing 123 (24)
5.1 Introduction 124 (1)
5.2 Place-names 125 (2)
5.3 Postal Addresses and Postal Codes 127 (2)
5.4 IP Addresses 129 (1)
5.5 Linear Referencing Systems 130 (1)
5.6 Cadasters and the U.S. Public Land 131 (1)
Survey System
5.7 Measuring the Earth: Latitude and 132 (3)
Longitude
5.8 Projections and Coordinates 135 (6)
5.8.1 The Plate Carree or Cylindrical 137 (1)
Equidistant Projection
5.8.2 The Universal Transverse Mercator 138 (1)
Projection
5.8.3 State Plane Coordinates and Other 139 (2)
Local Systems
5.9 Measuring Latitude, Longitude, and 141 (1)
Elevation: GPS
5.10 Converting Georeferences 141 (1)
5.11 Geotagging and Mashups 142 (1)
5.12 Georegistration 143 (2)
5.13 Summary 145 (2)
Questions for Further Study 145 (1)
Further Reading 145 (2)
6 Uncertainty 147 (32)
6.1 Introduction 148 (1)
6.2 Uncertainty in the Conception of 149 (10)
Geographic Phenomena
6.2.1 Conceptions of Place: Units of 149 (2)
Analysis
6.2.2 Conceptions of Attributes: 151 (6)
Vagueness and Ambiguity
6.2.3 Fuzzy Approaches to Attribute 157 (2)
Classification
6.3 Further Uncertainty in the 159 (7)
Representation of Geographic Phenomena
6.3.1 Representation of Place/Location 159 (2)
6.3.2 Statistical Models of Uncertainty 161 (4)
in Attribute Measures
6.3.3 Statistical Models of Uncertainty 165 (1)
in Location Measures
6.4 Further Uncertainty in the Analysis 166 (8)
of Geographic Phenomena
6.4.1 Internal and External Validation 166 (1)
through Spatial Analysis
6.4.2 Validation through 167 (3)
Autocorrelation: The Spatial Structure
of Errors
6.4.3 Validation through Investigating 170 (2)
the Effects of Aggregation and Scale
6.4.4 Validation with Reference to 172 (2)
External Sources: Data Integration and
Shared Lineage
6.4.5 Internal and External Validation; 174 (1)
Induction and Deduction
6.5 Consolidation 174 (5)
Questions for Further Study 177 (1)
Further Reading 177 (2)
3 Techniques 179 (116)
7 GIS Software 181 (26)
7.1 Introduction 182 (1)
7.2 The Evolution of GIS Software 182 (1)
7.3 Architecture of GIS Software 183 (6)
7.3.1 Project, Departmental, and 183 (1)
Enterprise GIS
7.3.2 The Three-Tier Architecture 184 (2)
7.3.3 Software Data Models and 186 (1)
Customization
7.3.4 GIS on the Desktop and on the Web 187 (2)
7.4 Building GIS Software Systems 189 (1)
7.5 GIS Software Vendors 189 (3)
7.5.1 Autodesk 189 (1)
7.5.2 Bentley 190 (1)
7.5.3 ESRI, Inc 191 (1)
7.5.4 Intergraph, Inc 192 (1)
7.6 Types of GIS Software Systems 192 (13)
7.6.1 Desktop GIS Software 193 (3)
7.6.2 Web Mapping 196 (1)
7.6.3 Server GIS 197 (3)
7.6.4 Virtual Globes 200 (2)
7.6.5 Developer GIS 202 (1)
7.6.6 Hand-Held GIS 203 (1)
7.6.7 Other Types of GIS Software 204 (1)
7.7 Conclusion 205 (2)
Questions for Further Study 205 (1)
Further Reading 206 (1)
8 Geographic Data Modeling 207 (22)
8.1 Introduction 208 (1)
8.1.1 Data Model Overview 208 (1)
8.1.2 Levels of Data Model Abstraction 208 (1)
8.2 GIS Data Models 209 (15)
8.2.1 CAD, Graphical, and Image GIS 210 (1)
Data Models
8.2.2 Raster Data Model 211 (3)
8.2.3 Vector Data Model 214 (7)
8.2.4 Object Data Model 221 (3)
8.3 Example of a Water-Facility Object 224 (2)
Data Model
8.4 Geographic Data Modeling in Practice 226 (3)
Questions for Further Study 228 (1)
Further Reading 228 (1)
9 GIS Data Collection 229 (22)
9.1 Introduction 230 (2)
9.1.1 Data Collection Workflow 231 (1)
9.2 Primary Geographic Data Capture 232 (4)
9.2.1 Raster Data Capture 232 (2)
9.2.2 Vector Data Capture 234 (2)
9.3 Secondary Geographic Data Capture 236 (7)
9.3.1 Raster Data Capture Using Scanners 236 (2)
9.3.2 Vector Data Capture 238 (5)
9.4 Obtaining Data from External Sources 243 (4)
(Data Transfer)
9.4.1 Geographic Data Formats 245 (2)
9.5 Capturing Attribute Data 247 (1)
9.6 Citizen-centric Web-Based Data 247 (1)
Collection
9.7 Managing a Data Collection Project 247 (4)
Questions for Further Study 249 (1)
Further Reading 249 (2)
10 Creating and Maintaining Geographic 251 (24)
Databases
10.1 Introduction 252 (1)
10.2 Database Management Systems 252 (4)
10.2.1 Types of DBMS 253 (1)
10.2.2 Geographic DBMS Extensions 254 (2)
10.3 Storing Data in DBMS Tables 256 (3)
10.4 SQL 259 (1)
10.5 Geographic Database Types and 260 (2)
Functions
10.6 Geographic Database Design 262 (2)
10.6.1 The Database Design Process 262 (2)
10.7 Structuring Geographic Information 264 (6)
10.7.1 Topology Creation 264 (2)
10.7.2 Indexing 266 (4)
10.8 Editing and Data Maintenance 270 (1)
10.9 Multiuser Editing of Continuous 271 (1)
Databases
10.9.1 Transactions 271 (1)
10.9.2 Versioning 271 (1)
10.10 Conclusion 272 (3)
Questions for Further Study 274 (1)
Further Reading 274 (1)
11 The GeoWeb 275 (20)
11.1 Introduction 276 (3)
11.2 Distributing the Data 279 (5)
11.2.1 Object-Level Metadata 280 (3)
11.2.2 Geolibraries and Geoportals 283 (1)
11.3 The Mobile User 284 (6)
11.3.1 Virtual Reality and Augmented 285 (3)
Reality
11.3.2 Location-Based Services 288 (2)
11.3.3 Issues in Mobile GIS 290 (1)
11.4 Distributing the Software: GIServices 290 (3)
11.4.1 Service-Oriented Architecture 291 (2)
11.5 Prospects 293 (2)
Questions for Further Study 293 (1)
Further Reading 294 (1)
4 Analysis 295 (130)
12 Cartography and Map Production 297 (26)
12.1 Introduction 298 (4)
12.2 Maps and Cartography 302 (4)
12.2.1 Maps and Media 304 (2)
12.3 Principles of Map Design 306 (9)
12.3.1 Map Composition 307 (1)
12.3.2 Map Symbolization 308 (7)
12.4 Map Series 315 (4)
12.5 Applications 319 (1)
12.6 Conclusion 320 (3)
Questions for Further Study 322 (1)
Further Reading 322 (1)
13 Geovisualization 323 (28)
13.1 Introduction: Uses, Users, Messages, 324 (3)
and Media
13.2 Geovisualization, Spatial Query, and 327 (7)
User Interaction
13.2.1 Overview 327 (5)
13.2.2 Spatial Query Online and the 332 (2)
GeoWeb
13.3 Geovisualization and Interactive 334 (5)
Transformation
13.3.1 Overview 334 (1)
13.3.2 Cartograms 335 (1)
13.3.3 Remodeling Spatial Distributions 336 (3)
as Dasymetric Maps
13.4 Participation, Interaction, and 339 (8)
Immersion
13.4.1 Public Participation in GIS 339 (1)
(PPGIS)
13.4.2 2.5-D and 3-D Representation 340 (4)
13.4.3 Hand-held Computing and 344 (1)
Augmented Reality
13.4.4 Scientific Visualization (ViSC) 344 (3)
and Virtual Reality
13.5 Consolidation 347 (4)
Questions for Further Study 348 (1)
Further Reading 349 (2)
14 Spatial Data Analysis 351 (30)
14.1 Introduction: What Is Spatial 352 (3)
Analysis?
14.1.1 Examples 353 (2)
14.2 Analysis Based on Location 355 (8)
14.2.1 Analysis of Attribute Tables 356 (4)
14.2.2 Spatial Joins 360 (1)
14.2.3 The Point-in-Polygon Operation 360 (1)
14.2.4 Polygon Overlay 361 (2)
14.2.5 Raster Analysis 363 (1)
14.3 Analysis Based on Distance 363 (15)
14.3.1 Measuring Distance and Length 364 (2)
14.3.2 Buffering 366 (2)
14.3.3 Cluster Detection 368 (2)
14.3.4 Dependence at a Distance 370 (1)
14.3.5 Density Estimation 371 (2)
14.3.6 Spatial Interpolation 373 (5)
14.4 Conclusion 378 (3)
Questions for Further Study 378 (1)
Further Reading 379 (2)
15 Spatial Analysis and Inference 381 (22)
15.1 The Purpose of Area-Based Analyses 382 (2)
15.1.1 Measurement of Area 382 (1)
15.1.2 Measurement of Shape 382 (2)
15.2 Centrality 384 (2)
15.2.1 Centers 384 (2)
15.2.2 Dispersion 386 (1)
15.3 Analysis of Surfaces 386 (7)
15.3.1 Slope and Aspect 387 (1)
15.3.2 Modeling Travel on a Surface 388 (1)
15.3.3 Computing Watersheds and Channels 389 (2)
15.3.4 Computing Visibility 391 (2)
15.4 Design 393 (4)
15.4.1 Point Location 393 (2)
15.4.2 Routing Problems 395 (2)
15.5 Hypothesis Testing 397 (4)
15.5.1 Hypothesis Tests on Geographic 398 (3)
Data
15.6 Conclusion 401 (2)
Questions for Further Study 401 (1)
Further Reading 401 (2)
16 Spatial Modeling with GIS 403 (22)
16.1 Introduction 404 (3)
16.1.1 Why Model? 406 (1)
16.1.2 To Analyze or to Model? 406 (1)
16.2 Types of Models 407 (10)
16.2.1 Static Models and Indicators 407 (3)
16.2.2 Individual and Aggregate Models 410 (4)
16.2.3 Cellular Models 414 (1)
16.2.4 Cartographic Modeling and Map 414 (3)
Algebra
16.3 Technology for Modeling 417 (1)
16.3.1 Operationalizing Models in GIS 417 (1)
16.3.2 Model Coupling 417 (1)
16.3.3 Cataloging and Sharing Models 418 (1)
16.4 Multicriteria Methods 418 (2)
16.5 Accuracy and Validity: Testing the 420 (5)
Model
Conclusion 422 (1)
Questions for Further Study 422 (1)
Further Reading 423 (2)
5 Management and Policy 425 (101)
17 Managing GIS 427 (24)
17.1 Introduction 428 (1)
17.2 The Case for GIS: ROI 429 (5)
17.3 The Process of Developing a 434 (12)
Sustainable GIS
17.3.1 Choosing a GIS 436 (5)
17.3.2 Implementing a GIS 441 (2)
17.3.3 Managing a Sustainable, 443 (3)
Operational GIS
17.4 Sustaining a GIS---The People and 446 (2)
Their Competences
17.4.1 GIS Staff and the Teams Involved 446 (1)
17.4.2 Project Managers 447 (1)
17.4.3 Coping with Uncertainty 447 (1)
17.5 Conclusions 448 (3)
Questions for Further Study 448 (1)
Further Reading 449 (2)
18 Operating Safely with GIS 451 (26)
18.1 Introduction 452 (1)
18.2 GIS and Decision Making 452 (2)
18.3 Organizational Context 454 (1)
18.4 Geographic Information 454 (5)
18.4.1 The Characteristics of 454 (4)
Information
18.4.2 Additional Characteristics of GI 458 (1)
18.5 GIS, GI, and Key Management Issues 459 (16)
18.5.1 The Law 459 (6)
18.5.2 Trading in GI and the Role of 465 (4)
Government
18.5.3 GIS and Privacy 469 (3)
18.5.4 GIS Ethics and Decision Making 472 (2)
18.5.5 Public Trust 474 (1)
18.6 Conclusions 475 (2)
Questions for Further Study 476 (1)
Further Reading 476 (1)
19 GIS Partnerships 477 (24)
19.1 Introduction 478 (1)
19.2 Commercial Partnerships 478 (1)
19.3 Spatial Data Infrastructures 479 (15)
19.3.1 How It All Began 480 (2)
19.3.2 SDI Partnerships at the Global 482 (2)
Level
19.3.3 SDI Partnerships at the 484 (6)
Multicountry Level
19.3.4 SDI Partnerships at the National 490 (2)
Level
19.3.5 SDI Partnerships at the 492 (2)
Subnational or Local Level
19.4 Partnerships of Individual Volunteers 494 (1)
19.5 Have SDIs Been a Success? 495 (3)
19.6 Nationalism, Globalization, 498 (3)
Politics, and GIS
Questions for Further Study 499 (1)
Further Reading 499 (2)
20 Epilogue: GIS&S in the Service of 501 (25)
Humanity
20.1 Introduction 502 (1)
20.2 The Differentiated World 502 (1)
20.3 Grand Challenges 503 (15)
20.3.1 The Global View of Governments 503 (1)
20.3.2 Challenges Amenable to Use of 504 (14)
GIS&S
20.4 Seeking the Root Causes 518 (1)
20.5 Meeting the Challenges 519 (4)
20.5.1 Why GIS&S Should Enable Us to 520 (3)
Make a Difference
20.6 Conclusions 523 (3)
Questions for Further Study 525 (1)
Further Reading 525 (1)
Index 526