After Adoption : Direct Contact and Relationships


After Adoption : Direct Contact and Relationships

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 192 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415282215
  • DDC分類 362.8298


Explores through interviews: participants' feelings about adoption and direct contact; their relationships with each other; what hinders and what helps.

Full Description

Few children nowadays are placed for adoption with no form of contact planned with birth relatives and it has become common professional practice to advocate direct rather than indirect contact. Practice has outstripped evidence in this respect and not enough is known about how contact arrangements actually work out, particularly for older children adopted from state care. Such children have often experienced neglect, and sometimes abuse, and have frequently been adopted without parental agreement. Based on research with a large number of adoptive parents, children and birth relatives, After Adoption considers the impact of direct post-adoption contact on all concerned in such cases. It also:* discusses the development of adoption policy and law, particularly with regard to the legal and social consequences * reviews the research evidence on adopted children's contact with their birth families* explores through interviews: participants' feelings about adoption and direct contact; their relationships with each other; what hinders and what helps.After Adoption challenges readers to re-think the relationship between adoption and the possibility of direct post-adoption contact and at the same time provides a comprehensive understanding of adoption issues. It is a timely and valuable addition to the literature on adoption, making a substantial contribution to policy and practice.

Table of Contents

List of illustrations                              ix
Acknowledgements xi
1 Adoption in context: social change and 1 (17)
Adoption: the pace and nature of change 1 (5)
Adoption practice: openness and secrecy in 6 (2)
adoption arrangements
The changing role of adoption: difference, 8 (4)
identity and 'telling'
Identity issues in context 12 (1)
The current debate: openness, contact and 13 (3)
Conclusion: the debate about contact and 16 (1)
new challenges
Summary 17 (1)
2 Openness in adoption: essential for 18 (18)
children's well-being?
The practice of open adoption and 18 (2)
arrangements for contact
Adoption and identity: the need for 20 (7)
information and contact
Further research: the impact of contact on 27 (3)
birth and adoptive parents
Further research: the impact of contact on 30 (2)
Conclusion: how much do we know about the 32 (2)
benefits of continuing contact?
Summary 34 (2)
3 Policy, law and openness in adoption 36 (17)
Policy issues: openness and access to 36 (5)
Policy issues: post-adoption contact 41 (3)
Judicial intervention in contact 44 (6)
Conclusion: policy development and judicial 50 (2)
Summary 52 (1)
4 The study: research issues, methods and 53 (16)
sample characteristics
The study in context 53 (1)
Ethical and methodological considerations 54 (5)
Gaining access to adopters, children and 59 (1)
birth relatives after adoption
Research instruments and data collection 60 (1)
Talking to the children 61 (1)
Children's characteristics and placements 62 (2)
Children's legal and 'looked-after' status 64 (1)
Birth parents' attitudes to adoption and 64 (1)
post-adoption contact
Direct contact: variability, frequency and 65 (2)
Conclusion: trials, tribulations and rewards 67 (1)
Summary 68 (1)
5 Preparation and planning for direct contact 69 (18)
Agencies, professional practice and contact 69 (1)
Preparation for direct contact 70 (2)
Adoptive parents' attitudes towards contact 72 (3)
Meeting birth relatives involved in direct 75 (1)
Planning for contact 76 (1)
Contact planning was agency led: adopters 77 (2)
agreed with the plan and felt involved
Contact planning was agency led: adopters 79 (1)
agreed with the plan although they were not
Planning was initiated by the adopters 80 (1)
Contact planning was led by the agency or 80 (2)
other professionals: adopters accepted the
plan but remained hostile to its
Frequency of contact arrangements 82 (1)
Agency involvement in post-adoption contact 83 (1)
Conclusion: agencies and planning for 84 (1)
direct contact
Summary 85 (2)
6 Adoptive parents: perspectives on adoption 87 (28)
and direct contact
Adoptive parents and adoption 87 (1)
Opposition to adoption: birth families and 88 (2)
Managing arrangements for contact: a 90 (1)
complicated business
Direct contact: losses and gains 91 (2)
Adoptive parents' perceptions: advantages 93 (5)
of direct contact
Adoptive parents' perceptions: comfort and 98 (7)
satisfaction with direct contact
Ownership, control and direct contact 105(6)
Conclusion 111(2)
Summary 113(2)
7 Birth relatives and direct contact 115(16)
Introduction: birth relatives, adoption and 115(1)
Birth relatives' attitudes to adoption and 116(5)
satisfaction with adoption outcome
Birth relatives' satisfaction with 121(2)
frequency and security of contact
Special Guardianship: an alternative to 123(1)
Direct contact: personal comfort, role 124(5)
comfort and satisfaction
Conclusion: birth relatives and direct 129(1)
post-adoption contact
Summary 129(2)
8 Children's thoughts and feelings: adoption 131(20)
and post-adoption contact
Introduction: the children 131(2)
Children and adoption 133(4)
Terminating contact: children's wishes and 137(3)
Direct contact: children's perceptions of 140(3)
comfort and satisfaction
Children's and adoptive parents' 143(1)
perceptions of contact
Contact and saying goodbye 143(2)
Sibling relationships: placement and contact 145(1)
Sibling contact: children's wishes and 146(3)
Conclusion: listening to Children and young 149(1)
Summary 150(1)
9 Views from the triangles 151(25)
Introduction: triangular relationships 151(1)
The sub-sample of adoption triangles 152(3)
Agreement to adoption and the enforcement 155(2)
of contact arrangements
Experiencing direct contact 157(1)
The development of relationships: respect 158(2)
and liking
The development of relationships: sympathy, 160(2)
acceptance and gratitude
Permission to parent 162(2)
The status of parenthood: conflict and 164(2)
Two kinship networks: the failure to 166(3)
develop a working relationship
The frequency of contact and changes over 169(3)
Conclusion: prospects for direct 172(2)
post-adoption contact
Summary 174(2)
10 Direct post-adoption contact: benefits, 176(9)
risks and uncertainties
Sixty-one adoptive families and direct 176(2)
Contact: factors relating to comfort, 178(2)
satisfaction and beneficial experiences
Direct contact; risk and uncertainty 180(2)
Conclusion: managing uncertainty in 182(3)
decisions about direct post-adoption contact
References 185(11)
Index 196