Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management (Chapman & Hall Aquaculture Series)

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Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management (Chapman & Hall Aquaculture Series)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 700 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780412071812
  • DDC分類 639.8

Full Description


The efficient and profitable production of fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic organisms in aquaculture depends on a suitable environment in which they can reproduce and grow. Because those organisms live in water, the major environ- mental concern within the culture system is water quality. Water supplies for aquaculture systems may naturally be oflow quality or polluted by human activity, but in most instances, the primary reason for water quality impairment is the culture activity itself. Manures, fertilizers, and feeds applied to ponds to enhance production only can be partially converted to animal biomass. Thus, at moderate and high production levels, the inputs of nutrients and organic matter to culture units may exceed the assimilative capacity of the ecosystems. The result is deteriorating water quality which stresses the culture species, and stress leads to poor growth, greater incidence of disease, increased mortality, and low produc- tion. Effluents from aquaculture systems can cause pollution of receiving waters, and pollution entering ponds in source water or chemicals added to ponds for management purposes can contaminate aquacultural products. Thus, water quality in aquaculture extends into the arenas of environmental protection and food quality and safety. A considerable body of literature on water quality management in aquaculture has been accumulated over the past 50 years. The first attempt to compile this information was a small book entitled Water Quality in Warmwater Fish Ponds (Boyd I 979a).

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi  (2)
Selected Atomic Weights xiii(2)
Customary Metric Conversion Factors xv
1. Water Quality and Aquaculture: 1 (7)
Preliminary considerations
1.1. Introduction 1 (1)
1.2. The Role of Pond Aquaculture 2 (1)
1.3. Water Quality Restraints 3 (2)
1.4. Water Quality Management 5 (1)
1.5. Water Quality Measurement 6 (1)
1.6. Prospectus 7 (1)
2. Ecology of Aquaculture Ponds 8 (79)
2.1. Introduction 8 (1)
2.2. Food Webs and Aquaculture Production 9 (4)
2.3. Aquaculture Production in Pond 13 (2)
Culture Systems
2.4. Phytoplankton Communities 15 (22)
2.5. Carbon in Aquaculture Ponds 37 (9)
2.6. Nitrogen in Aquaculture Ponds 46 (16)
2.7. Phosphorus in Aquaculture Ponds 62 (8)
2.8. Fate of Nutrients and Organic Matter 70 (5)
2.9. Dissolved Oxygen in Aquaculture Ponds 75 (12)
3. Water Quality Requirements 87 (67)
3.1. Introduction 87 (1)
3.2. Aquatic Toxicology 87 (1)
3.3. Water Temperature 88 (6)
3.4. Salinity 94 (6)
3.5. pH 100 (6)
3.6. Total Alkalinity 106 (3)
3.7. Total Hardness and Calcium 109 (4)
3.8. Dissolved Oxygen 113 (8)
3.9. Carbon Dioxide 121 (3)
3.10. Dissolved Gas Supersaturation 124 (7)
3.11. Ammonia 131 (5)
3.12. Nitrite 136 (7)
3.13. Nitrate 143 (1)
3.14. Hydrogen Sulfide 144 (3)
3.15. Copper and Other Heavy Metals 147 (4)
3.16. Chlorine 151 (1)
3.17. Turbidity 152 (2)
4. Water Use 154 (24)
4.1. Introduction 154 (1)
4.2. Types of Ponds 154 (3)
4.3. Water Budgets 157 (11)
4.4. Water Requirement for Aquaculture 168 (1)
4.5. Water Exchange 168 (6)
4.6. Water Conservation Techniques 174 (4)
5. Liming 178 (48)
5.1. Introduction 178 (1)
5.2. Liming Materials 178 (12)
5.3. Effects on Water Quality and Fish 190 (4)
Production
5.4. Identification of Ponds Needing Lime 194 (4)
5.5. Soil Characteristics and Liming 198 (8)
5.6. Lime Requirement 206 (10)
5.7. Liming Practices 216 (8)
5.8. Acid Rain 224 (2)
6. Fertilization 226 (80)
6.1. Introduction 226 (1)
6.2. Chemical Fertilizers 226 (19)
6.3. Manures 245 (2)
6.4. Principles of Pond Fertilization 247 (29)
6.5. Review of Fertilization Trials 276 (19)
6.6. The Practice of Pond Fertilization 295 (11)
7. Aeration 306 (48)
7.1. Introduction 306 (1)
7.2. Aeration and Production 306 (6)
7.3. Mechanical Aerators 312 (8)
7.4. Gravity Aeration 320 (4)
7.5. Aerator Performance 324 (6)
7.6. Improved Design for Paddle-Wheel 330 (3)
Aerators
7.7. Practical Considerations 333 (11)
7.8. Predicting Dissolved Oxygen 344 (10)
Concentrations
8. Water Circulation 354 (20)
8.1. Introduction 354 (1)
8.2. Temperature and Stratification 354 (5)
8.3. Devices for Circulating Pond Water 359 (7)
8.4. Measurement of Water Circulation 366 (5)
8.5. Effects of Water Circulation 371 (3)
9. Turbidity and Appearance of Water 374 (20)
9.1. Introduction 374 (1)
9.2. Measurements of the Appearance of 375 (4)
Water
9.3. Enhancing Turbidity 379 (1)
9.4. Sources of Turbidity 380 (1)
9.5. Sedimentation in Ponds 380 (2)
9.6. Settling Basins and Erosion Control 382 (2)
9.7. Turbidity Removal from Pond Waters 384 (10)
10. Aquatic Weed Control 394 (45)
10.1. Introduction 394 (1)
10.2. Common Aquatic Weeds 394 (12)
10.3. The Occurrence of Weed Problems 406 (2)
10.4. Management of Aquatic Weed Problems 408 (1)
10.5. General Pond Management Practices 408 (1)
10.6. Biological Control 409 (4)
10.7. Chemical Control 413 (10)
10.8. Control of Phytoplankton Blooms 423 (16)
11. Off-Flavors and Harmful Algae 439 (33)
11.1. Introduction 439 (1)
11.2. Off-Flavors 439 (22)
11.3. Harmful Algae 461 (11)
12. Pollution 472 (26)
12.1. Introduction 472 (1)
12.2. Toxicity Tests 472 (6)
12.3. Types of Pollution 478 (12)
12.4. Toxicity Investigations 490 (7)
12.5. Protection from Pollution 497 (1)
13. Chemical, Physical, and Biological 498 (43)
Treatments
13.1. Introduction 498 (1)
13.2. Oxidants 498 (14)
13.3. Piscicides 512 (4)
13.4. Toxic Metabolites and pH 516 (8)
13.5. Therapeutants 524 (1)
13.6. Probiotics 525 (3)
13.7. Bactericides 528 (1)
13.8. Miscellaneous Treatments 528 (2)
13.9. Registration of Chemicals 530 (1)
13.10. Application of Chemicals to Ponds 531 (10)
14. Waste Management 541 (35)
14.1. Introduction 541 (1)
14.2. Source of Nutrients and Organic 541 (3)
Matter
14.3. Fate of Nutrients and Organic Matter 544 (2)
14.4. Sources of Suspended Solids 546 (1)
14.5. Volume of Effluents 547 (1)
14.6. Composition of Pond Effluents 548 (3)
14.7. Water Quality Improvement through 551 (7)
Pond Management
14.8. Effluent Treatment 558 (5)
14.9. Environmental Effects 563 (4)
14.10. Solid Wastes 567 (3)
14.11. Effluent Regulations 570 (3)
14.12. Best Management Practices 573 (3)
15. Measurement of Water Quality 576 (25)
15.1. Introduction 576 (1)
15.2. Variability of Water Quality 576 (9)
15.3. Types of Water Assessment Programs 585 (2)
15.4. Guidelines for Sampling Programs 587 (4)
15.5. Water Samplers and Sample Storage 591 (4)
15.6. Water Analysis Kits and Portable 595 (4)
Meters
15.7. Data Analysis and Records 599 (2)
16. Sustainability and Environmental Issues 601 (24)
16.1. Introduction 601 (1)
16.2. Environmental Concerns 602 (7)
16.3. Food Safety Considerations 609 (7)
16.4. Social Concerns 616 (2)
16.5. Sustainability 618 (2)
16.6. Environmental Impact Assessment 620 (1)
16.7. Impact Mitigation 621 (1)
16.8. Rehabilitation 622 (1)
16.9. Demonstration and Education 622 (1)
16.10. Industry Efforts 623 (2)
References 625 (60)
Index 685