Exploring the Spanish Language

Exploring the Spanish Language

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 256 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780340719466
  • DDC分類 420

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xii
Acknowledgements xiii
Abbreviations xiv
1 Introduction 1 (6)
1.1 Prescription and description 1 (2)
1.2 Pedagogical rules 3 (1)
1.3 Standard language and prestige norms 3 (2)
1.4 Variation 5 (1)
1.5 The organisation of this book 6 (1)
2 The sounds of Spanish 7 (37)
2.1 How to describe and represent sounds 7 (14)
2.1.1 Vowels, consonants, semivowels and 16 (1)
liquids
2.1.2 Describing consonants 16 (3)
2.1.3 Describing vowels 19 (1)
2.1.4 Diphthongs and triphthongs 20 (1)
2.2 A comparison of features of English and 21 (2)
Spanish pronunciation
2.2.1 Vowels 21 (1)
2.2.2 Consonants 22 (1)
2.3 Sounds and phonemes 23 (5)
2.3.1 Phonemes and allophones 23 (1)
2.3.2 Phonemic status of the semivowels 24 (2)
2.3.3 Contextual neutralisations 26 (1)
2.3.4 Phonetic and phonemic changes in 27 (1)
progress in varieties of modern Spanish
2.4 The relation between pronunciation and 28 (3)
spelling
2.4.1 Spelling systems 28 (2)
2.4.2 Text messaging 30 (1)
2.5 Spanish syllable structure and the 31 (2)
phenomenon of sinalefa
2.5.1 Syllables 31 (1)
2.5.2 Hiatus 32 (1)
2.5.3 Sinalefa 32 (1)
2.6 Stress: the issue of 'predictability' 33 (3)
of word stress in Spanish
2.7 Some intonation patterns in Spanish 36 (8)
2.7.1 Stress 36 (4)
2.7.1.1 Contrastive stress 36 (2)
2.7.1.2 English stress and Spanish 38 (1)
adjective position
2.7.1.3 Stressed and unstressed 39 (1)
pronouns in Spanish and English
2.7.2 Pitch contours 40 (27)
2.7.2.1 Intonation and word order 40 (1)
2.7.2.2 Some differences between 41 (1)
Spanish and English
2.7.2.3 Regional variation 42 (1)
Exercises 43 (1)
3 Spanish words and their structure 44 (23)
3.1 Criteria for morphological analysis 45 (3)
3.2 Some patterns in derivational morphology 48 (4)
3.3 Spanish affective suffixes 52 (3)
3.4 Word meaning 55 (5)
3.5 Semantic fields and their structure 60 (5)
Exercises 65 (2)
4 Spanish sentences and their structure 67 (28)
4.1 What is a sentence? 67 (2)
4.1.1 Spanish as a 'pro-drop' language 68 (1)
4.1.2 Impersonal verbs 68 (1)
4.2 'Sentences' in the spoken language 69 (1)
4.3 The constituent elements of a sentence: 70 (10)
the valency of verbs
4.3.1 Syntactic relations 71 (2)
4.3.2 Semantic relations 73 (1)
4.3.3 Syntactic category 74 (1)
4.3.4 The interplay of syntax and 75 (3)
semantics in the valencies of verbs
4.3.4.1 Active and passive 76 (1)
4.3.4.2 Reflexive 77 (1)
4.3.5 Differing valencies in English and 78 (2)
Spanish
4.3.5.1 General 79 (1)
4.3.5.2 A case study 79 (1)
4.4 Other simple sentence types 80 (4)
4.4.1 Interrogative sentences 80 (1)
4.4.2 Imperative sentences 80 (1)
4.4.3 Word order in simple sentences 81 (3)
4.5 Complex sentence types 84 (11)
4.5.1 Complementation 84 (3)
4.5.2 Adjectival clause functions 87 (4)
4.5.2.1 Full clauses 87 (2)
4.5.2.2 The infinitive 89 (1)
4.5.2.3 The gerund 90 (1)
4.5.3 Adverbial clause functions 91 (2)
Exercises 93 (2)
5 Themes in form and meaning: the 'genius' of 95 (34)
Spanish
5.1 Gender 95 (5)
5.2 The 'personal' a 100 (5)
5.3 Modality and the subjunctive 105 (6)
5.3.1 Subjunctive use determined by 105 (2)
context
5.3.2 The subjunctive associated with 107 (2)
particular contexts
5.3.2.1 Conditional sentences 107 (1)
5.3.2.2 The subjunctive in temporal 107 (1)
clauses
5.3.2.3 Other idiosyncrasies of Spanish 108 (1)
5.3.3 Meaningful uses of the subjunctive 109 (2)
5.3.3.1 Possibility 109 (1)
5.3.3.2 Relative clauses 109 (1)
5.3.3.3 Extending the rules 110 (1)
5.4 The reflexive 111 (7)
5.4.1 The versatility of the Spanish 111 (5)
reflexive
5.4.1.1 Pragmatic considerations 114 (1)
5.4.1.2 The valency of verbs 115 (1)
5.4.1.3 Overlap of functions 115 (1)
5.4.2 Further exploitation of the 116 (2)
reflexive in Spanish
5.5 Being and becoming 118 (11)
5.5.1 Ser and estar 118 (7)
5.5.1.1 Ser and estar with adjectives 119 (1)
5.5.1.2 Ser with nouns 120 (2)
5.5.1.3 Ser and estar with locative 122 (1)
complements
5.5.1.4 Ser and estar with past 122 (3)
participles
5.5.2 Becoming 125 (2)
Exercises 127 (2)
6 Regional and social variation 129 (39)
6.1 Standard written language 129 (1)
6.1.1 Standardisation 129 (1)
6.1.2 The spoken language 130 (1)
6.2 Regional variation 130 (32)
6.2.1 Linguistic atlases 131 (2)
6.2.2 'Dialects' 133 (4)
6.2.3 Spain 137 (18)
6.2.3.1 The characteristics of Castilian 138 (1)
6.2.3.1.1 Castilian in contrast with 138 (1)
other Peninsular Romance varieties
6.2.3.1.2 'Innovating' and 140 (1)
'conservative' varieties
6.2.3.1.3 Differences between the 141 (3)
modern standard and the speech of Old
and New Castile
6.2.3.2 Further variation in spoken 144 (1)
Peninsular Castilian: Andalusia
6.2.3.2.1 Phonetic features 144 (1)
6.2.3.2.2 Phonemic consequences of 147 (1)
Andalusian phonetic changes
6.2.3.2.3 Morphological and syntactic 148 (1)
features
6.2.3.2.4 Vocabulary 150 (1)
6.2.3.2.5 An example of Andalusian 150 (1)
speech
6.2.3.2.6 The' Andalusianisation' of 151 (1)
Castilian
6.2.3.3 The Spanish of the Canary 152 (1)
Islands
6.2.3.4 The Castilian of non-Castilian 153 (1)
regions
6.2.3.5 Stereotypes 154 (1)
6.2.4 Latin America 155 (7)
6.2.4.1 Isogloss patterning 155 (1)
6.2.4.2 The formation of the 155 (1)
Latin-American varieties
6.2.4.2.1 The Andalusian base 155 (1)
6.2.4.2.2 Correlation with external 156 (1)
factors
6.2.4.2.3 Levelling 158 (1)
6.2.4.2.4 Substrate influence 159 (1)
6.2.4.2.5 Regional norms 161 (1)
6.3 Sociolinguistic variation 162 (6)
6.3.1 Social class 163 (1)
6.3.2 Age 164 (1)
6.3.3 Sex 164 (1)
6.3.4 Other factors 164 (1)
6.3.5 Covariation 165 (1)
Exercises 166 (2)
7 Register 168 (27)
7.1 Register variation in the spoken 169 (11)
language
7.1.1 Politeness 171 (2)
7.1.1.1 Second person pronouns 172 (1)
7.1.1.2 Imperatives 173 (1)
7.1.2 Conventionalised and real spoken 173 (3)
language
7.1.2.1 Spoken language transcribed 174 (1)
from a recording
7.1.2.2 Spoken language based on a 175 (1)
written text
7.1.3 Jargon and slang, special language 176 (4)
and cryptolects
7.2 Register variation in the written 180 (15)
language
7.2.1 Journalism 181 (5)
7.2.1.1 Headlines 181 (1)
7.2.1.2 News reports 182 (3)
7.2.1.3 Sports reports 185 (1)
7.2.2 Legal and administrative language 186 (3)
7.2.3 The language of advertising 189 (31)
7.2.3.1 Personal advertisements 191 (2)
Exercises 193 (2)
8 Style 195 (24)
8.1 'Good' style 195 (3)
8.2 Rhetorical style and figures of speech 198 (7)
8.3 Literary style - some examples 205 (3)
8.4 Statistics and the use of concordances 208 (9)
Exercises 217 (2)
9 Spanish or not? 219 (40)
9.1 Judeo-Spanish 220 (8)
9.1.1 The relation of Judeo-Spanish to 220 (2)
Castilian
9.1.2 Judeo-Spanish communities 222 (1)
9.1.3 Judeo-Spanish today 223 (2)
9.1.4 The linguistic characteristics of 225 (3)
Judeo-Spanish
9.1.4.1 Phonology 225 (1)
9.1.4.2 Morphology 226 (1)
9.1.4.3 Vocabulary 227 (1)
9.1.4.4 An example of Judeo-Spanish 227 (1)
9.2 Vestigial Spanish varieties 228 (3)
9.2.1 Isleno 229 (2)
9.3 Afro-Hispanic varieties 231 (2)
9.4 Spanish creoles 233 (18)
9.4.1 The historical background to the 235 (3)
formation and present-day use of the
Spanish creoles
9.4.2 Linguistic characteristics of the 238 (12)
Spanish creoles
9.4.2.1 Phonology 238 (2)
9.4.2.2 Morphology 240 (1)
9.4.2.2.1 Nouns 241 (1)
9.4.2.2.2 Verbs 241 (1)
9.4.2.2.3 Suffixation 243 (1)
9.4.2.2.4 Personal pronouns 243 (1)
9.4.2.2.5 Demonstratives 245 (1)
9.4.2.2.6 The articles 245 (1)
9.4.2.3 Syntax 246 (1)
9.4.2.3.1 Word order and basic 246 (1)
constituent functions
9.4.2.3.2 Questions 247 (1)
9.4.2.3.3 Negation 248 (1)
9.4.2.3.4 Reflexive 248 (1)
9.4.2.3.5 Complex sentences 248 (2)
9.4.2.4 Other features 250 (1)
9.4.2.4.1 Copulas 250 (1)
9.4.3 A written creole text 250 (1)
9.5 Code-switching 251 (6)
9.5.1 Spanglish: Spanish - English 251 (4)
code-switching in the US
9.5.2 Fronteirico: Spanish - Portuguese 255 (2)
code-switching in Uruguay
Exercises 257 (2)
10 Towards the future 259 (1)
10.1 Linguistic forecasting 259 (1)
10.2 Internal forecasting 259 (1)
10.2.1 Forecasting on the basis of 259 (2)
structure
10.2.2 Forecasting on the basis of 261 (1)
variation
10.3 External forecasting 262 (1)
10.3.1 Spanish as a native language 263 (1)
10.3.2 Spanish as an international 264 (1)
language
10.3.3 Will the unity of Spanish be 265 (2)
preserved?
10.4 What will the impact of English on 267 (1)
Spanish be?
10.4.1 External factors 268 (1)
10.4.2 Internal factors 268 (1)
10.4.3 Assessment of the status quo 269 (1)
10.4.3.1 Vocabulary 269 (2)
10.4.3.2 Phonetics 271 (1)
10.4.3.3 Morphology and syntax 272 (2)
Exercises 274 (2)
Notes to the exercises 276 (14)
Glossary of basic grammatical terms 290 (2)
Bibliographical references 292 (10)
Index 302