Practical Stereology (2 SUB)

Practical Stereology (2 SUB)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 381 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780306464768
  • DDC分類 502.87

基本説明

Stereology is the science that relates three-dimensional structure to the two-dimensional images that can be measured. This book covers the applications and terminology of materials and biological tissue samples.

Full Description


Stereology is the science that relates three-dimensional structure to the two-dimensional images that can be measured. The most common field of application is in microscopy, both of man-made materials (metals, ceramics, composites, etc.) and of biological tissue samples. This book covers the applications and terminology of both fields. Recent emphasis in stereology is concerned with sampling strategies to avoid bias due to directionality and non-uniformity, and these methods are fully covered. So are the classic techniques that measure size distributions, surface curvature, etc., which are widely useful but not usually discussed. Finally, most stereology is taught as manual procedures using counting and grids, but this text also covers the use of modern desktop computers for image analysis and processing to obtain and interpret the stereological data.

Table of Contents

  Introduction                                     1  (18)
Elements of microstructure 1 (3)
Geometric properties of features 4 (2)
Typical stereological procedures 6 (2)
Fundamental relationships 8 (2)
Intercept length and grain size 10 (3)
Curvature 13 (1)
Second order stereology 14 (2)
Stereology of single objects 16 (3)
Basic Stereological Procedures 19 (10)
What stereology is 19 (1)
How stereology works 20 (4)
Why stereology works 24 (3)
Ground rules for applying stereology 27 (2)
Geometry of Microstructures 29 (16)
The qualitative microstructural state 31 (4)
The quantitative microstructural state 35 (4)
Metric properties 35 (2)
Topological properties 37 (2)
Ratios of global properties 39 (1)
The topographic microstructural state 39 (6)
Gradients: variation with position 39 (2)
Anisoptropies: variation with orientation 41 (1)
Associations 42 (3)
Classical Stereological Measures 45 (34)
Two-dimensional structures; area fraction 45 (6)
from the point count
Volume fraction from the point count 51 (5)
Two-dimensional structures; feature 56 (7)
perimeter from the line intercept count
Three-dimensional structures: surface are 63 (6)
and the line intercept count
Three-dimensional microstructures; line 69 (10)
length and the area point count
Less Common Stereological Measures 79 (32)
Three-dimensional features: topological 79 (9)
properties and the volume tangent count
Three-dimensional features: the mean 88 (2)
caliper diameter
Mean surface curvature and its integral 90 (9)
The sweeping line probe in two dimensions 99 (5)
Edges in three-dimensional Microstructures 104(7)
Sample Design in Stereology 111(16)
Population of point probes 111(4)
Population of lines in two dimensions 115(1)
Line probes in three dimensions 115(3)
Planes in three-dimensional space 118(1)
Disectors in three-dimensional space 118(1)
Sampling strategies in 3D 119(8)
Procedures for IUR Sampling 127(22)
Volume fraction 128(3)
Sampling planes 131(1)
Isotropic planes 132(4)
Isotropic line probes 136(6)
Volume probes--the Disector 142(3)
Networks 145(4)
Statistical Interpretation of Data 149(34)
Sources of variability in measurement 149(3)
Distributions of values 152(3)
The mean, median and mode 155(1)
The central limit theorem and the Gaussian 156(1)
distribution
Variance and standard deviation 157(3)
Testing distributions for normality--skew 160(1)
and kurtosis
Some other common distributions 161(4)
Comparing sets of measurements--the T-test 165(3)
Nonparametric comparisons 168(7)
Linear regression 175(4)
Nonlinear regression 179(4)
Computer-Assisted Methods 183(40)
Getting the image to the computer 183(4)
Display and storage 187(4)
Image processing 191(13)
Contrast manipulation 193(1)
Correcting nonuniform brightness 194(4)
Reducing image noise 198(2)
Rectifying image distortion 200(2)
Enhancement 202(2)
Overlaying grids onto images 204(6)
Basic stereological calculations 210(1)
Appendix 211(12)
Computer Measurement of Images 223(48)
Measurement using grids 223(6)
Measurement area with pixels 229(8)
Measurement parameters--size 237(9)
Other feature measurements: shape and 246(3)
position
Image processing to enable thresholding and 249(6)
measurement
Image processing to extract measurable 255(6)
information
Combining multiple images 261(10)
Geometric Modeling 271(26)
Methods: analytic and sampling 272(3)
Sphere intercepts 275(1)
Intercept lengths in other bodies 275(5)
Intercept lengths in three dimensions 280(6)
Intersections of planes with objects 286(1)
Bertrand's paradox 287(3)
The Buffon needle problem 290(3)
Appendix 293(4)
Unfolding Size Distributions 297(16)
Linear intercepts in spheres 298(2)
Plane intersections 300(3)
Other shapes 303(6)
Simpler methods 309(1)
Lamellae 310(3)
Anisotropy and Gradients 313(18)
Grain structures in rolled metals 313(7)
Boundary orientation 320(3)
Gradients and neighbor relationships 323(4)
Distances and irregular gradients 327(3)
Alignment 330(1)
Finite Section Thickness 331(14)
Projected images 331(6)
Bias in stereological measurements 337(3)
Measurements within sections 340(5)
Three-Dimensional Imaging 345(22)
Limitations of stereology 345(1)
Serial methods for acquiring 3D image data 345(2)
Inversion to obtain 3D data 347(2)
Stereoscopy as a 3D technique 349(3)
Visualization 352(6)
Processing 358(3)
Measurement 361(6)
References 367(6)
Index 373