The Manual of Photography : Photographic and Digital Imaging (9TH)

The Manual of Photography : Photographic and Digital Imaging (9TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 459 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780240515748
  • DDC分類 771

Table of Contents

Preface to the first edition of The Ilford         ix
Manual of Photography (1890)
Preface to the ninth edition xi
Imaging systems 1 (8)
Ralph E. Jacobson
The production of images 1 (1)
Photographic and digital imaging 2 (3)
General characteristics of reproduction 5 (1)
systems
Imaging chains 6 (1)
The reproduction of tone and colour 6 (1)
Image quality expectations 7 (2)
Fundamentals of light and vision 9 (7)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Light waves and particles 9 (1)
Optics 10 (1)
The electromagnetic spectrum 10 (1)
The eye and vision 11 (5)
Photographic light sources 16 (23)
Sidney F. Ray
Characteristics of light sources 16 (5)
Light output 21 (4)
Daylight 25 (1)
Tungsten-filament lamps 25 (1)
Tungsten-halogen lamps 26 (1)
Fluorescent lamps 27 (1)
Metal-halide lamps 27 (1)
Pulsed xenon lamps 27 (1)
Expendable flashbulbs 28 (1)
Electronic flash 29 (9)
Other sources 38 (1)
The geometry of image formation 39 (22)
Sidney F. Ray
Interaction of light with matter 39 (2)
Image formation 41 (1)
The simple lens 42 (1)
Image formation by a compound lens 43 (2)
Graphical construction of images 45 (1)
The lens conjugate equation 45 (3)
Field angle of view 48 (1)
Covering power of a lens 49 (1)
Geometric distortion 49 (1)
Depth of field 50 (3)
Depth of field equations 53 (3)
Depth of focus 56 (1)
Perspective 57 (4)
The photometry of image formation 61 (11)
Sidney F. Ray
Stops and pupils 61 (1)
Aperture 62 (1)
Mechanical vignetting 62 (1)
Image illumination 63 (3)
Image illuminance with wide-angle lenses 66 (1)
Exposure compensation for close-up 67 (1)
photography
Light losses and lens transmission 68 (1)
Flare and its effects 68 (1)
T-numbers 69 (1)
Anti-reflection coatings 69 (3)
Optical aberrations and lens performance 72 (11)
Sidney F. Ray
Introduction 72 (1)
Axial chromatic aberration 72 (2)
Lateral chromatic aberration 74 (1)
Spherical aberration 75 (1)
Coma 76 (1)
Curvature of field 77 (1)
Astigmatism 77 (1)
Curvilinear distortion 78 (1)
Diffraction 79 (1)
Resolution and resolving power 80 (1)
Modulation transfer function 81 (2)
Camera lenses 83 (21)
Sidney F. Ray
Simple lenses 83 (1)
Compound lenses 83 (2)
Development of the photographic lens 85 (3)
Modern camera lenses 88 (3)
Wide-angle lenses 91 (2)
Long-focus lenses 93 (2)
Zoom and varifocal lenses 95 (3)
Macro lenses 98 (1)
Teleconverters 99 (1)
Optical attachments 100(2)
Special effects 102(2)
Types of camera 104(27)
Sidney F. Ray
Survey of development 104(3)
Camera types 107(6)
Special purpose cameras 113(2)
Automatic cameras 115(5)
Digital cameras 120(5)
Architecture of the digital camera 125(6)
Camera features 131(32)
Sidney F. Ray
Shutter systems 131(5)
The iris diaphram 136(2)
Viewfinder systems 138(5)
Flash synchronization 143(1)
Focusing systems 144(7)
Autofocus systems 151(3)
Exposure metering systems 154(6)
Battery power 160(1)
Data imprinting 161(2)
Camera movements 163(13)
Sidney F. Ray
Introduction 163(2)
Translational movements 165(1)
Rotational movements 165(1)
Lens covering power 166(2)
Control of image sharpness 168(2)
Limits to lens tilt 170(1)
Control of image shape 171(2)
Perspective control lenses 173(1)
Shift cameras 174(2)
Optical filters 176(15)
Sidney F. Ray
Optical filters 176(2)
Filter sizes 178(1)
Filters and focusing 178(1)
Colour filters for black-and-white 179(3)
photography
Colour filters for colour photography 182(1)
Special filters 183(3)
Polarizing filters 186(3)
Filters for darkroom use 189(2)
Sensitive materials and image sensors 191(14)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Latent image formation in silver halides 191(2)
Image formation by charge-coupled devices 193(2)
Production of light-sensitive materials and 195(5)
sensors
Sizes and formats of photographic and 200(5)
electronic sensors and media
Spectral sensitivity of photographic materials 205(8)
Geoffrey G. Attridge
Response of photographic materials to 205(1)
short-wave radiation
Response of photographic materials to 206(1)
visible radiation
Spectral sensitization 207(1)
Orthochromatic materials 208(1)
Panchromatic materials 208(1)
Extended sensitivity materials 208(1)
Infrared materials 209(1)
Other uses of dye sensitization 209(1)
Determination of the colour sensitivity of 210(1)
an unknown material
Wedge spectrograms 210(1)
Spectral sensitivity of digital cameras 211(2)
Principles of colour photography 213(5)
Geoffrey G. Attridge
Colour matching 213(1)
The first colour photograph 214(1)
Additive colour photography 214(1)
Substractive colour photography 214(1)
Additive processes 215(2)
Substractive processes 217(1)
Integral tripacks 217(1)
Sensitometry 218(29)
Geoffrey G. Attridge
The subject 218(1)
Exposure 218(1)
Density 219(1)
Effect of light scatter in a negative 220(1)
Callier coefficient 220(1)
Density in practice 221(1)
The characteristic (H and D) curve 222(1)
Main regions of the negative characteristic 223(2)
curve
Variation of the characteristic curve with 225(1)
the material
Variation of the characteristic curve with 225(1)
development
Gamma-time curve 226(1)
Variation of gamma with wavelength 227(1)
Placing of the subject on the 227(1)
characteristic curve
Average gradient and G 228(1)
Contrast index 228(1)
Effect of variation in development on the 228(1)
negative
Effect of variation in exposure on the 229(1)
negative
Exposure latitude 230(1)
The response curve of a photographic paper 231(1)
Maximum black 231(1)
Exposure range of a paper 232(1)
Variation of the print curve with the type 232(1)
of emulsion
Variation of the print curve with 233(1)
development
Requirements in a print 234(1)
Paper contrast 234(1)
The problem of the subject of high contrast 235(1)
Tone reproduction 236(2)
Reciprocity law failure 238(1)
Sensitometric practice 239(1)
Sensitometers 240(1)
Densitometers 241(3)
Elementary sensitometry 244(1)
Sensitometry of a digital camera 245(2)
The reproduction of colour 247(26)
Geoffrey G. Attridge
Colours of the rainbow 247(1)
Colours of natural objects 247(1)
Effect of the light source on the 248(1)
appearance of colours
Response of the eye to colours 248(1)
Primary and complementary colours 249(1)
Complementary pairs of colours 250(1)
Low light levels 250(1)
Black-and-white processes 250(1)
Colour processes 251(3)
Formation of subtractive image dyes 254(1)
Colour sensitometry 254(4)
Imperfections of colour processes 258(1)
Correction of deficiencies of the 259(1)
substractive system
Masking of colour materials 260(1)
Problems of duplication 261(2)
The chemistry of colour image formation 263(1)
Chromogenic processes 263(5)
Silver-dye-bleach process 268(1)
Instant colour processes 269(2)
Alternative method for instant photography 271(2)
Photographic processing 273(29)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Developers and development 273(1)
Developing agents 273(3)
Preservatives 276(1)
Alkalis 276(1)
Restrainers (anti-foggants) 277(1)
Miscellaneous additions to developers 277(1)
Superadditivity (synergesis) 278(1)
Monochrome developer formulae in general use 279(3)
Changes in a developer with use 282(1)
Replenishment 283(1)
Preparing developers 284(1)
Techniques of development 285(4)
Obtaining the required degree of development 289(3)
Quality control 292(1)
Processing following development 293(1)
Rinse and stop baths 293(1)
Fixers 294(2)
Silver recovery 296(2)
Bleaching of silver images 298(1)
Washing 299(1)
Tests for permanence 300(1)
Drying 301(1)
Speed of materials, sensors and systems 302(8)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Speed of photographic media 302(1)
Methods of expressing speed 302(3)
Speed systems and standards 305(1)
ISO speed ratings for colour materials 306(1)
Speed of digital systems 307(1)
Speed ratings in practice 308(2)
Camera exposure determination 310(26)
Sidney F. Ray
Camera exposure 310(1)
Optimum exposure criteria 311(1)
Exposure latitude 311(1)
Subject luminance ratio 312(1)
Development variations 313(1)
Exposure determination 313(2)
Practical exposure tests 315(1)
Light measurement 315(1)
Exposure meter calibration 316(2)
Exposure values 318(1)
Incident light measurements 318(2)
Exposure meters in practice 320(3)
Photometry units 323(1)
Spot meters 324(1)
In-camera metering systems 324(5)
Electronic flash exposure metering 329(4)
Automatic electronic flash 333(3)
Hard copy output media 336(12)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Hard copy output 336(1)
Photographic papers 336(1)
Type of silver halide emulsion 336(1)
Paper contrast 337(1)
Paper surface 338(1)
Paper base 339(1)
Colour photographic papers 339(1)
Processing photographic paper 340(4)
Pictrography and Pictrostat 344(1)
Dry Silver materials 345(1)
Cylithographic materials/Cycolor 346(1)
Thermal imaging materials 346(1)
Materials for ink-jet printing 347(1)
Production of hard copy 348(24)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Photographic printing and enlarging 349(1)
Types of enlargers 349(4)
Light sources for enlarging and printing 353(1)
Lenses for enlargers 354(1)
Ancillary equipment 355(1)
Exposure determination 355(3)
Conventional image manipulation 358(1)
Colour printing 359(3)
Colour enlarger design 362(1)
Types of colour enlarger 363(2)
Methods of evaluating colour negatives for 365(2)
printing
Digital output 367(3)
Evaluating the results 370(2)
Life expectancy of imaging media 372(11)
Ralph E. Jacobson
Life expectancy of photographic media 372(1)
Processing conditions 373(2)
Storage conditions 375(1)
Atmospheric gases 376(1)
Toning 377(1)
Light fading 378(1)
Life expectancy of digital media 379(4)
Colour matters 383(10)
Geoffrey G. Attridge
Specification by sample 383(1)
The physical specification of colour 384(1)
Specification of colour by synthesis 384(5)
Colour gamuts 389(3)
Summing up 392(1)
Theory of image formation 393(20)
Norman R. Axford
Sinusoidal waves 394(1)
Images and sine waves 395(2)
Imaging sinusoidal patterns 397(1)
Fourier theory of image formation 398(8)
Measuring modulation transfer functions 406(2)
(MTF)
Discrete transforms and sampling 408(3)
The MTF for a CCD imaging array 411(1)
Image quality and MTF 411(2)
Images and information 413(15)
Norman R. Axford
Image noise 413(1)
Photographic noise 413(4)
Quantifying image noise 417(2)
Practical considerations for the 419(1)
autocorrelation function and the noise
power spectrum
Signal-to-noise ratio 420(2)
Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) 422(4)
Information theory 426(2)
Digital image processing and manipulation 428(19)
Norman R. Axford
Linear spatial filtering (convolution) 428(1)
Frequency domain filtering 429(4)
Non-linear filtering 433(1)
Statistical operations (point, grey-level 434(4)
operations)
Image restoration 438(4)
Edge detection and segmentation 442(1)
Image data compression 443(4)
Index 447