Money Laundering Control in the Caribbean (Studies in Comparative Corporate and Financial Law, V. 16)

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Money Laundering Control in the Caribbean (Studies in Comparative Corporate and Financial Law, V. 16)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 336 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9789041199058
  • DDC分類 345.7290268

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xiii
Preface xv
Table of Abbreviations xvii
Table of Cases xix
Table of Statutes and Statutory Instruments xxviii
Introduction 1 (268)
1. Money Laundering - Methods, Risks and
Consequences
Introduction 5 (1)
Vulnerabilities and Risks 5 (5)
(i) Geographic Location 5 (2)
(ii) Law Enforcement Constraints 7 (1)
(iii) Offshore Financial Industry 8 (1)
(iv) Gaming Industry 8 (1)
(v) US Dollar Circulation and Demand 8 (1)
(vi) Cash-oriented Societies 9 (1)
(vii) Free Trade 9 (1)
Emerging Threats 10 (4)
The Danger of Money Laundering 14 (8)
(i) The Perpetuation of Crime 14 (3)
(ii) 'Purchasing Power' 17 (3)
(iii) Facilitating Fiscal Abuses 20 (2)
Economic Impact of Money Laundering 22 (5)
Conclusion 27 (2)
2. Paradise Lost? Offshore Financial Havens
and Money Laundering
Introduction 29 (1)
Defining the Offshore Financial Industry 29 (1)
Emergence of the Region's Offshore 30 (4)
Financial Industry
The Facilitators of Money Laundering 34 (10)
Offshore Banks 34 (3)
Offshore Companies 37 (2)
Offshore Insurance 39 (1)
Offshore Trusts 39 (5)
Secrecy of Operations 44 (4)
Public Records 45 (1)
Banking/Financial Confidentiality 46 (2)
Penetrating the Wall of Secrecy 48 (4)
Conclusion 52 (3)
3. The Evolution of Money Laundering Control
- A Historical Examination of Regional And
International Initiatives
Introduction 55 (23)
United Nations 55 (3)
Basle Committee on Banking Regulations 58 (1)
and Supervisory Practices
Offshore Group of Banking Supervisors 59 (1)
Financial Action Task Force 60 (3)
Caribbean Financial Action Task Force 63 (3)
Commonwealth 66 (2)
Organisation of American States (OAS) 68 (3)
Caricom 71 (1)
Summit of the Americas 72 (1)
Council of Europe/European Union 73 (1)
ICPO/Interpol 74 (1)
World Customs Organisation 74 (1)
International Organisation of Securities 75 (1)
Commission
Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence 75 (1)
Units
Wolfsberg Group 76 (1)
Group of Eight (G-8) 76 (1)
International Monetary Fund and World Bank 77 (1)
Conclusion 78 (3)
4. Making Crime a Non-Profit Activity -
Confiscation and Forfeiture
Introduction 81 (1)
Scope of Laws - Crimes Covered 81 (1)
Forfeiture 82 (6)
Confiscation 88 (6)
Benefit 88 (2)
Presumptions 90 (2)
Realisable Amount 92 (1)
Enforcement 93 (1)
Ancillary Orders 94 (10)
1. Information Gathering Powers 94 (6)
2. Preserving Assets 100 (4)
Standard of Proof 104 (1)
Corporate Veil 104 (1)
Seizure/Forfeiture of Property Imported or 105 (2)
Exported
Dead or Absconding Offenders 107 (1)
Dealing with Forfeited/Confiscated Assets 107 (1)
Civil Proceedings 108 (2)
1. In Rem Forfeiture 108 (1)
2. Actions in the Public Interest 109 (1)
Conclusion 110 (3)
5. Criminal Liability for Money Laundering
Introduction 113 (1)
Money Laundering Legislation 114 (23)
Crimes Covered 114 (1)
Offence of Money Laundering 115 (1)
Actus Reus 115 (3)
Mens Rea 118 (3)
Proof of Illicit Source of Wealth 121 (2)
Defences 123 (4)
Corporate Criminal Liability 127 (4)
Accessory Liability 131 (1)
Inchoate Offences 132 (1)
Property 132 (1)
Extra-territoriality 133 (1)
Presumptions and Reverse Onus of Proof 133 (3)
Penalties 136 (1)
Use of Non-Money Laundering Laws to 137 (1)
Prosecute Money Laundering Activity
Conspiracy to Defraud 138 (1)
Conclusion 139 (2)
6. The Civil Law Dimension
Introduction 141 (1)
Principal or Facilitator Liability 142 (1)
Common Law Restitution 142 (1)
Actions in Equity Against Intermeddlers 143 (12)
1. Third Party Recipients 144 (5)
2. Dishonest Assistance 149 (6)
The Fiduciary 'Fiction' and a New Basis for 155 (4)
Accessory Liability
Misuse of Information and Third Party 159 (1)
Liability
Quandary for Intermediaries 160 (1)
Corporate v. Personal Liability 161 (2)
Tracing 163 (4)
Remedies 167 (3)
Tools of the Civil Law 170 (5)
1. Information Gathering Powers 170 (3)
2. Preserving Assets for Judgment 173 (2)
Enforcement of Foreign Judgments 175 (1)
Funding Litigation 175 (1)
Conclusion 176 (3)
7. The Prevention and Detection of Money
Laundering
Introduction 179 (1)
Who Should be Responsible? 179 (4)
The Financial Services Industry 180 (2)
Non-Financial Sector 182 (1)
Transaction Reporting 183 (8)
Currency Transaction Reports 184 (3)
Suspicious Transaction Reports 187 (2)
Internal Reports 189 (1)
Legal Profession Exemption 190 (1)
Predicate Offences Triggering Reports 190 (1)
Consequences of Filing Reports 191 (6)
Immunities and Protection 191 (2)
Tipping Off 193 (4)
Monitoring Orders 197 (1)
Internal Controls 198 (4)
'Know Your Customer' 199 (1)
Record-Keeping 200 (1)
'Know Your Staff' 201 (1)
Preserving Financial Sector Integrity 202 (1)
Reporting Authority/Financial Intelligence 202 (3)
Units
External Controls: Supervision of the 205 (2)
Financial Services Industry
Civil Liberties Issues 207 (3)
Conclusion 210 (1)
8. International Co-operation
Introduction 211 (1)
Development of Mutual Assistance Mechanisms 211 (1)
Purpose of Mutual Legal Assistance 212 (1)
Agreements
Mutual Assistance Laws 213 (7)
A. Designated Countries 213 (1)
B. Central Authority 213 (1)
C. Types of Assistance Required 214 (2)
D. Limitations on Assistance Available 216 (4)
Co-operation v. Confidentiality 220 (1)
Enforcement of Foreign 221 (3)
Confiscation/Forfeiture Orders
Asset sharing 224 (1)
Private Litigants 225 (1)
Letters Rogatory 225 (1)
Use of Information Obtained in Civil 226 (1)
Proceedings for Foreign Criminal
Investigations
Improperly Obtained Evidence 227 (1)
Recovering Offenders 228 (1)
Non-traditional Areas of International 229 (1)
Co-operation
Universal Jurisdiction - The International 230 (2)
Criminal Court
Conclusion 232 (1)
9. The 'Long-Arm' of American Anti-Money
Laundering Initiatives
Introduction 233 (1)
Jurisdiction and Extra-territoriality 234 (1)
Liability for Money Laundering under US law 235 (4)
Jurisdiction Over the Potential Defendant 239 (2)
Venue 241 (1)
Obtaining Evidence Located Abroad 241 (6)
Forfeiture by US Courts of Assets Located 247 (4)
Abroad
Index of Forbidden Persons 251 (2)
Regulating Foreign Financial Intermediation 253 (2)
US Foreign Policy 255 (1)
New Good Neighbour Policy 256 (1)
Conclusion 257 (2)
10. The Phenomenon of Categorisation
Introduction 259 (1)
Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 259 (4)
Financial Stability Forum (FSF) 263 (2)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and 265 (1)
Development (OECD)
Conclusion 266 (3)
Conclusion 269 (6)
Annex 275 (2)
Bibliography 277 (18)
Index 295