標準水質検査法(第22版)<br>Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater) (22ND)

標準水質検査法(第22版)
Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater) (22ND)

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  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780875530130
  • DDC分類 628

基本説明

40%以上をアップデートした7年ぶりの改訂版。

Table of Contents

    Part 1000 Introduction
1010 Introduction 1 (5)
A Scope and Application of Methods 1 (1)
B Statistics 1 (3)
C Glossary 4 (1)
D Dilution/Concentration Operations 5 (1)
1020 Quality Assurance 6 (10)
A Introduction 6 (1)
B Quality Control 7 (8)
C Quality Assessment 15 (1)
1030 Data Quality 16 (8)
A Introduction 16 (1)
B Measurement Uncertainty 16 (4)
C Method Detection Level 20 (1)
D Data Quality Objectives 21 (2)
E Checking Analyses' Correctness 23 (1)
1040 Method Development and Evaluation 24 (3)
A Introduction 24 (1)
B Method Validation 25 (1)
C Collaborative Testing 26 (1)
1050 Expression of Results 27 (10)
A Units 27 (7)
B Significant Figures 34 (2)
C Other Considerations 36 (1)
1060 Collection and Preservation of 37 (9)
Samples
A Introduction 37 (2)
B Collection of Samples 39 (4)
C Sample Storage and Preservation 43 (3)
1080 Reagent Water 46 (3)
A Introduction 46 (1)
B Methods for Preparing Reagent-Grade 47 (1)
Water
C Reagent Water Quality 48 (1)
1090 Laboratory Occupational Health and 49 (17)
Safety
A Introduction 49 (1)
B Safe Laboratory Practices 50 (5)
C Laboratory Facility/Fixed Equipment 55 (1)
D Hazard Evaluation 56 (1)
E Personal Protective Equipment 57 (3)
F Worker Protection Medical Program 60 (1)
G Provisions for Work with Particularly 61 (1)
Hazardous Substances
H Biological Safety 61 (1)
I Radiological Safety 62 (3)
J Chemical Hygiene Plan 65 (1)
K Mercury Use Avoidance in Laboratory 66 (1)
1100 Waste Minimization and Disposal 66
A Introduction 66 (1)
B Waste Minimization 66 (1)
C Waste Treatment and Disposal 67
Part 2000 Physical And Aggregate Properties
2010 Introduction 1 (1)
2020 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 1 (4)
A Introduction 1 (1)
B Quality Control Practices 1 (4)
2110 Appearance 5 (1)
2120 Color 5 (7)
A Introduction 5 (1)
B Visual Comparison Method 6 (1)
C Spectrophotometry---Single-Wavelength 7 (1)
Method (PROPOSED)
D Spectrophotometric---Multi-Wavelength 8 (1)
Method
E Tristimulus Spectrophotometric Method 9 (2)
F ADMI Weighted-Ordinate 11 (1)
Spectrophotometric Method
2130 Turbidity 12 (3)
A Introduction 12 (1)
B Nephelometric Method 13 (2)
2150 Odor 15 (4)
A Introduction 15 (1)
B Threshold Odor Test 16 (3)
2160 Taste 19 (4)
A Introduction 19 (1)
B Flavor Threshold Test (FTT) 20 (2)
C Flavor Rating Assessment (FRA) 22 (1)
2170 Flavor Profile Analysis 23 (8)
A Introduction 23 (1)
B Flavor Profile Analysis 24 (7)
2310 Acidity 31 (3)
A Introduction 31 (1)
B Titration Method 31 (3)
2320 Alkalinity 34 (3)
A Introduction 34 (1)
B Titration Method 34 (3)
2330 Calcium Carbonate Saturation 37 (7)
A Introduction 37 (1)
B Indices Indicating Tendency of a 38 (3)
Water to Precipitate or Dissolve CaCO3
C Indices Predicting the Quantity of 41 (1)
CaCO3 That Can Be Precipitated or
Dissolved
D Graphical and Computer Methods for 42 (2)
CaCO3 Indices
2340 Hardness 44 (3)
A Introduction 44 (1)
B Hardness by Calculation 44 (1)
C EDTA Titrimetric Method 44 (3)
2350 Oxidant Demand/Requirement 47 (5)
A Introduction 47 (1)
B Chlorine Demand/Requirement 48 (1)
C Chlorine Dioxide Demand/Requirement 49 (1)
D Ozone Demand/Requirement---Batch 50 (1)
Method
E Ozone Demand/Requirement---Semi-Batch 50 (2)
Method
2510 Conductivity 52 (3)
A Introduction 52 (2)
B Laboratory Method 54 (1)
2520 Salinity 55 (3)
A Introduction 55 (1)
B Electrical Conductivity Method 56 (1)
C Density Method 57 (1)
D Algorithm of Practical Salinity 58 (1)
2530 Floatables 58 (4)
A Introduction 58 (1)
B Particulate Floatables 59 (2)
C Trichlorotrifluoroethane-Soluble 61 (1)
Floatable Oil and Grease
2540 Solids 62 (7)
A Introduction 62 (2)
B Total Solids Dried at 103-105°C 64 (1)
C Total Dissolved Solids Dried at 65 (1)
180°C
D Total Suspended Solids Dried at 66 (1)
103-105°C
E Fixed and Volatile Solids Ignited at 67 (1)
550°C
F Settleable Solids 67 (1)
G Total, Fixed, and Volatile Solids in 68 (1)
Solid and Semisolid Samples
2550 Temperature 69 (1)
A Introduction 69 (1)
B Laboratory and Field Methods 69 (1)
2560 Particle Counting and Size 70 (8)
Distribution
A Introduction 70 (5)
B Electrical Sensing Zone Method 75 (1)
C Light-Blockage Methods 76 (1)
D Light-Scattering Method 77 (1)
2570 Asbestos 78 (6)
A Introduction 78 (1)
B Transmission Electron Microscopy 79 (5)
Method
2580 Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) 84 (4)
A Introduction 84 (1)
B Oxidation-Reduction Potential 84 (4)
Measurement in Clean Water
2710 Tests On Sludges 88 (7)
A Introduction 88 (1)
B Oxygen-Consumption Rate 88 (1)
C Settled Sludge Volume 89 (1)
D Sludge Volume Index 90 (1)
E Zone Settling Rate 90 (1)
F Specific Gravity 91 (1)
G Capillary Suction Time 92 (1)
H Time-to-Filter 93 (1)
I Modified Settled Sludge Volume 94 (1)
2720 Anaerobic Sludge Digester Gas 95 (5)
Analysis
A Introduction 95 (1)
B Volumetric Method 96 (1)
C Gas Chromatographic Method 97 (3)
2810 Dissolved Gas Supersaturation 100
A Introduction 100(1)
B Direct-Sensing Membrane-Diffusion 100
Method
Part 3000 Metals
3010 Introduction 1 (2)
A General Discussion 1 (1)
B Sampling and Sample Preservation 1 (2)
C General Precautions 3 (1)
3020 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 3 (3)
A Introduction 3 (1)
B Quality Control Practices 4 (2)
3030 Preliminary Treatment of Samples 6 (8)
A Introduction 6 (1)
B Filtration for Dissolved and 6 (1)
Suspended Metals
C Treatment for Acid-Extractable Metals 7 (1)
D Digestion for Metals 7 (2)
E Nitric Acid Digestion 9 (1)
F Nitric Acid-Hydrochloric Acid 10 (1)
Digestion
G Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid Digestion 10 (1)
H Nitric Acid-Perchloric Acid Digestion 10 (1)
I Nitric Acid-Perchloric 11 (1)
Acid-Hydrofluoric Acid Digestion
J Dry Ashing 11 (1)
K Microwave-Assisted Digestion 11 (3)
3110 Metals by Atomic Absorption 14 (1)
Spectrometry
3111 Metals by Flame Atomic Absorption 14 (9)
Spectrometry
A Introduction 14 (4)
B Direct Air-Acetylene Flame Method 18 (2)
C Extraction/Air-Acetylene Flame Method 20 (1)
D Direct Nitrous Oxide-Acetylene Flame 21 (1)
Method
E Extraction/Nitrous Oxide-Acetylene 22 (1)
Flame Method
3112 Metals by Cold-Vapor Atomic 23 (2)
Absorption Spectrometry
A Introduction 23 (1)
B Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption 23 (2)
Spectrometric Method
3113 Metals by Electrothermal Atomic 25 (9)
Absorption Spectrometry
A Introduction 25 (3)
B Electrothermal Atomic Absorption 28 (6)
Spectrometric Method
3114 Arsenic and Selenium by Hydride 34 (6)
Generation/Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
A Introduction 34 (1)
B Manual Hydride Generation/Atomic 34 (4)
Absorption Spectrometric Method
C Continuous Hydride Generation/Atomic 38 (2)
Absorption Spectrometric Method
3120 Metals by Plasma Emission 40 (6)
Spectroscopy
A Introduction 40 (1)
B Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) 40 (6)
Method
3125 Metals by Inductively Coupled 46 (11)
Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
A Introduction 46 (1)
B Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass 47 (10)
Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Method
3130 Metals by Anodic Stripping 57 (4)
Voltammetry
A Introduction 57 (1)
B Determination of Lead, Cadmium, and 57 (4)
Zinc
3500-A1 Aluminum 61 (3)
A Introduction 61 (1)
B Eriochrome Cyanine R Method 61 (3)
3500-As Arsenic 64 (3)
A Introduction 64 (1)
B Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate Method 65 (2)
3500-Ca Calcium 67 (1)
A Introduction 67 (1)
B EDTA Titrimetric Method 67 (1)
3500-Cr Chromium 68 (5)
A Introduction 68 (1)
B Colorimetric Method 69 (2)
C Ion Chromatographic Method 71 (2)
3500-Cu Copper 73 (3)
A Introduction 73 (1)
B Neocuproine Method 74 (1)
C Bathocuproine Method 75 (1)
3500-Fe Iron 76 (4)
A Introduction 76 (1)
B Phenanthroline Method 77 (3)
3500-Pb Lead 80 (2)
A Introduction 80 (1)
B Dithizone Method 81 (1)
3500-Li Lithium 82 (2)
A Introduction 82 (1)
B Flame Emission Photometric Method 83 (1)
3500-Mg Magnesium 84 (1)
A Introduction 84 (1)
B Calculation Method 84 (1)
3500-Mn Manganese 85 (2)
A Introduction 85 (1)
B Persulfate Method 85 (2)
3500-K Potassium 87 (2)
A Introduction 87 (1)
B Flame Photometric Method 87 (1)
C Potassium-Selective Electrode Method 88 (1)
3500-Se Selenium 89 (7)
A Introduction 89 (2)
B Sample Preparation 91 (2)
C Colorimetric Method 93 (1)
D Determination of Volatile Selenium 94 (1)
E Determination of Nonvolatile Organic 95 (1)
Selenium Compounds
3500-Na Sodium 96 (2)
A Introduction 96 (1)
B Flame Emission Photometric Method 97 (1)
3500-Sr Strontium 98 (2)
A Introduction 98 (1)
B Flame Emission Photometric Method 99 (1)
3500-V Vanadium 100(2)
A Introduction 100(1)
B Gallic Acid Method 101(1)
3500-Zn Zinc 102(2)
A Introduction 102(1)
B Zincon Method 102(2)
3500 Other Metals 104(1)
3500-Sb Antimony 104(1)
3500-Ba Barium 104(1)
3500-Be Beryllium 104(1)
3500-Bi Bismuth 105(1)
3500-B Boron 105(1)
3500-Cd Cadmium 105(1)
3500-Cs Cesium 105(1)
3500-Co Cobalt 106(1)
3500-Ga Gallium 106(1)
3500-Ge Germanium 106(1)
3500-Au Gold 107(1)
3500-In Indium 107(1)
3500-Ir Iridium 107(1)
3500-Hg Mercury 107(1)
3500-Mo Molybdenum 108(1)
3500-Ni Nickel 108(1)
3500-Os Osmium 108(1)
3500-Pd Palladium 109(1)
3500-Pt Platinum 109(1)
3500-Re Rhenium 109(1)
3500-Rh Rhodium 109(1)
3500-Ru Ruthenium 110(1)
3500-Ag Silver 110(1)
3500-Te Tellurium 110(1)
3500-Tl Thallium 111(1)
3500-Th Thorium 111(1)
3500-Sn Tin 111(1)
3500-Ti Titanium 111(1)
3500-U Uranium 112
Part 4000 Inorganic Nonmetallic Constituents
4010 Introduction 1 (1)
4020 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 1 (4)
A Introduction 1 (1)
B Quality Control Practices 1 (4)
4110 Determination of Anions by Ion 5 (8)
Chromatography
A Introduction 5 (1)
B Ion Chromatography with Chemical 5 (3)
Suppression of Eluent Conductivity
C Single-Column Ion Chromatography with 8 (1)
Direct Conductivity Detection
D Ion Chromatographic Determination of 9 (4)
Oxyhalides and Bromide
4120 Segmented Continuous Flow Analysis 13 (2)
A Introduction 13 (1)
B Segmented Flow Analysis Method 13 (2)
4130 Inorganic Nonmetals by Flow 15 (1)
Injection Analysis
A Introduction 15 (1)
B Quality Control 15 (1)
4140 Inorganic Anions by Capillary Ion 16 (9)
Electrophoresis
A Introduction 16 (1)
B Capillary Ion Electrophoresis with 16 (9)
Indirect UV Detection
4500-B Boron 25 (3)
A Introduction 25 (1)
B Curcumin Method 25 (2)
C Carmine Method 27 (1)
4500-Br Bromide 28 (2)
A Introduction 28 (1)
B Phenol Red Colorimetric Method 28 (1)
C (Reserved) 29 (1)
D Flow Injection Analysis 29 (1)
4500-CO2 Carbon Dioxide 30 (7)
A Introduction 30 (1)
B Nomographic Determination of Free 31 (1)
Carbon Dioxide and the Three Forms of
Alkalinity
C Titrimetric Method for Free Carbon 31 (5)
Dioxide
D Carbon Dioxide and Forms of 36 (1)
Alkalinity by Calculation
4500-CN Cyanide 37 (21)
A Introduction 37 (2)
B Preliminary Treatment of Samples 39 (2)
C Total Cyanide after Distillation 41 (2)
D Titrimetric Method 43 (1)
E Colorimetric Method 44 (1)
F Cyanide-Selective Electrode Method 45 (1)
G Cyanides Amenable to Chlorination 46 (2)
after Distillation
H Cyanides Amenable to Chlorination 48 (1)
without Distillation (Short-Cut Method)
I Weak Acid Dissociable Cyanide 49 (1)
J Cyanogen Chloride 50 (1)
K Spot Test for Sample Screening 51 (1)
L Cyanates 52 (1)
M Thiocyanate 53 (2)
N Total Cyanide after Distillation, by 55 (2)
Flow Injection Analysis
O Total Cyanide and Weak Acid 57 (1)
Dissociable Cyanide by Flow Injection
Analysis
4500-Cl Chlorine (Residual) 58 (14)
A Introduction 58 (2)
B Iodometric Method I 60 (2)
C Iodometric Method II 62 (2)
D Amperometric Titration Method 64 (2)
E Low-Level Amperometric Titration 66 (1)
Method
F DPD Ferrous Titrimetric Method 66 (3)
G DPD Colorimetric Method 69 (1)
H Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method 70 (1)
I Iodometric Electrode Technique 71 (1)
4500-Cl Chloride 72 (7)
A Introduction 72 (1)
B Argentometric Method 72 (1)
C Mercuric Nitrate Method 73 (2)
D Potentiometric Method 75 (1)
E Automated Ferricyanide Method 76 (1)
F (Reserved) 77 (1)
G Mercuric Thiocyanate Flow Injection 77 (2)
Analysis
4500-C1O2 Chlorine Dioxide 79 (4)
A Introduction 79 (1)
B Iodometric Method 79 (1)
C Amperometric Method I 80 (1)
D (Reserved) 81 (1)
E Amperometric Method II 81 (2)
4500-F Fluoride 83 (8)
A Introduction 83 (1)
B Preliminary Distillation Step 84 (1)
C Ion-Selective Electrode Method 85 (2)
D SPADNS Method 87 (1)
E Complexone Method 88 (1)
F (Reserved) 89 (1)
G Ion-Selective Electrode Flow 89 (2)
Injection Analysis
4500-H+ pH Value 91 (5)
A Introduction 91 (1)
B Electrometric Method 92 (4)
4500-I Iodine 96 (3)
A Introduction 96 (1)
B Leuco Crystal Violet Method 97 (1)
C Amperometric Titration Method 98 (1)
4500-I Iodide 99 (4)
A Introduction 99 (1)
B Leuco Crystal Violet Method 99 (1)
C Catalytic Reduction Method 100(1)
D Voltammetric Method 101(2)
4500-IO3 Iodate 103(1)
A Introduction 103(1)
B Polarographic Method 103(1)
4500-N Nitrogen 104(6)
A Introduction 104(1)
B In-Line UV/Persulfate Digestion and 105(2)
Oxidation with Flow Injection Analysis
C Persulfate Method 107(1)
D Conductimetric Determination of 108(2)
Inorganic Nitrogen
4500-NH3 Nitrogen (Ammonia) 110(10)
A Introduction 110(1)
B Preliminary Distillation Step 110(2)
C Titrimetric Method 112(1)
D Ammonia-Selective Electrode Method 113(1)
E Ammonia-Selective Electrode Method 114(1)
Using Known Addition
F Phenate Method 115(1)
G Automated Phenate Method 116(2)
H Flow Injection Analysis 118(2)
4500-NO2 Nitrogen (Nitrite) 120(2)
A Introduction 120(1)
B Colorimetric Method 120(2)
4500-NO3 Nitrogen (Nitrate) 122(9)
A Introduction 122(1)
B Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric 122(1)
Screening Method
C Second-Derivative Ultraviolet 123(1)
Spectrophotometric Method (PROPOSED)
D Nitrate Electrode Method 124(1)
E Cadmium Reduction Method 125(2)
F Automated Cadmium Reduction Method 127(1)
G (Reserved) 128(1)
H Automated Hydrazine Reduction Method 128(1)
I Cadmium Reduction Flow Injection 129(2)
Method
4500-Norg Nitrogen (Organic) 131(6)
A Introduction 131(1)
B Macro-Kjeldahl Method 132(2)
C Semi-Micro-Kjeldahl Method 134(1)
D Block Digestion and Flow Injection 135(2)
Analysis
4500-O Oxygen (Dissolved) 137(8)
A Introduction 137(1)
B Iodometric Methods 137(2)
C Azide Modification 139(1)
D Permanganate Modification 140(2)
E Alum Flocculation Modification 142(1)
F Copper Sulfate-Sulfamic Acid 142(1)
Flocculation Modification
G Membrane Electrode Method 143(2)
4500-O3 Ozone (Residual) 145(3)
A Introduction 145(1)
B Indigo Colorimetric Method 145(3)
4500-P Phosphorus 148(16)
A Introduction 148(3)
B Sample Preparation 151(2)
C Vanadomolybdophosphoric Acid 153(1)
Colorimetric Method
D Stannous Chloride Method 154(1)
E Ascorbic Acid Method 155(1)
F Automated Ascorbic Acid Reduction 156(1)
Method
G Flow Injection Analysis for 157(2)
Orthophosphate
H Manual Digestion and Flow Injection 159(1)
Analysis for Total Phosphorus
I In-line UV/Persulfate Digestion and 160(2)
Flow Injection Analysis for Total
Phosphorus
J Persulfate Method for Simultaneous 162(2)
Determination of Total Nitrogen and
Total Phosphorus
4500-KMnO4 Potassium Permanganate 164(1)
A Introduction 164(1)
B Spectrophotometric Method 164(1)
4500-SiO2 Silica 165(7)
A Introduction 165(2)
B (Reserved) 167(1)
C Molybdosilicate Method 167(2)
D Heteropoly Blue Method 169(1)
E Automated Method for 170(1)
Molybdate-Reactive Silica
F Flow Injection Analysis for 171(1)
Molybdate-Reactive Silicate
4500-S2 Sulfide 172(13)
A Introduction 172(2)
B Separation of Soluble and Insoluble 174(1)
Sulfides
C Sample Pretreatment to Remove 175(1)
Interfering Substances or to
Concentrate the Sulfide
D Methylene Blue Method 175(2)
E Gas Dialysis, Automated Methylene 177(1)
Blue Method
F Iodometric Method 178(1)
G Ion-Selective Electrode Method 179(2)
H Calculation of Un-ionized Hydrogen 181(2)
Sulfide
I Distillation, Methylene Blue Flow 183(1)
Injection Analysis Method
J Acid-Volatile Sulfide 184(1)
4500-SO32 Sulfite 185(3)
A Introduction 185(1)
B Iodometric Method 186(1)
C Phenanthroline Method 187(1)
4500-SO42 Sulfate 188
A Introduction 188(1)
B (Reserved) 189(1)
C Gravimetric Method with Ignition of 189(1)
Residue
D Gravimetric Method with Drying of 190(1)
Residue
E Turbidimetric Method 190(1)
F Automated Methylthymol Blue Method 191(2)
G Methylthymol Blue Flow Injection 193
Analysis
Part 5000 Aggregate Organic Constituents
5010 Introduction 1 (1)
A General Discussion 1 (1)
B Sample Collection and Preservation 1 (1)
5020 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 1 (3)
A Introduction 1 (1)
B Quality Control Practices 2 (2)
5210 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 4 (12)
A Introduction 4 (1)
B 5-Day BOD Test 5 (5)
C Ultimate BOD Test 10 (3)
D Respirometric Method 13 (3)
5220 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 16 (5)
A Introduction 16 (1)
B Open Reflux Method 17 (2)
C Closed Reflux, Titrimetric Method 19 (1)
D Closed Reflux, Colorimetric Method 20 (1)
5310 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 21 (8)
A Introduction 21 (2)
B High-Temperature Combustion Method 23 (2)
C Persulfate-Ultraviolet or 25 (3)
Heated-Persulfate Oxidation Method
D Wet-Oxidation Method 28 (1)
5320 Dissolved Organic Halogen 29 (6)
A Introduction 29 (1)
B Adsorption-Pyrolysis-Titrimetric 29 (6)
Method
5510 Aquatic Humic Substances 35 (3)
A Introduction 35 (1)
B Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) Method 36 (1)
C XAD Method 37 (1)
5520 Oil and Grease 38 (8)
A Introduction 38 (2)
B Liquid-Liquid, Partition-Gravimetric 40 (1)
Method
C Partition-Infrared Method 41 (1)
D Soxhlet Extraction Method 42 (1)
E Extraction Method for Sludge Samples 43 (1)
F Hydrocarbons 44 (1)
G Solid-Phase, Partition-Gravimetric 45 (1)
Method
5530 Phenols 46 (4)
A Introduction 46 (1)
B Cleanup Procedure 47 (1)
C Chloroform Extraction Method 47 (2)
D Direct Photometric Method 49 (1)
5540 Surfactants 50 (8)
A Introduction 50 (1)
B Surfactant Separation by Sublation 51 (2)
C Anionic Surfactants as MBAS 53 (2)
D Nonionic Surfactants as CTAS 55 (3)
5550 Tannin and Lignin 58 (1)
A Introduction 58 (1)
B Colorimetric Method 58 (1)
5560 Organic and Volatile Acids 59 (5)
A Introduction 59 (1)
B Chromatographic Separation Method for 59 (2)
Organic Acids
C Distillation Method 61 (1)
D Gas Chromatographic Method 62 (2)
5710 Formation of Trihalomethanes and 64 (10)
Other Disinfection By-Products
A Introduction 64 (3)
B Trihalomethane Formation Potential 67 (4)
(THMFP)
C Simulated Distribution System 71 (1)
Trihalomethanes (SDS-THM)
D Formation of Other Disinfection 72 (2)
By-Products (DBPs)
5910 UV-Absorbing Organic Constituents 74
A Introduction 74 (1)
B Ultraviolet Absorption Method 75
Part 6000 Individual Organic Compounds
6010 Introduction 1 (5)
A General Discussion 1 (2)
B Sample Collection and Preservation 3 (1)
C Analytical Methods 4 (2)
6020 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 6 (5)
A Introduction 6 (1)
B Quality Control Practices 7 (4)
6040 Constituent Concentration by Gas 11 (19)
Extraction
A Introduction 11 (1)
B Closed-Loop Stripping, Gas 11 (11)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Analysis
C Purge and Trap Technique 22 (1)
D Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) 22 (3)
E Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) 25 (5)
with CI GC/MS/MS
6200 Volatile Organic Compounds 30 (13)
A Introduction 30 (3)
B Purge and Trap Capillary-Column Gas 33 (5)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
C Purge and Trap Capillary-Column Gas 38 (5)
Chromatographic Method
6211 Methane 43 (2)
A Introduction 43 (1)
B Combustible-Gas Indicator Method 43 (2)
C Volumetric Method 45 (1)
6231 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2- 45 (3)
Dibromo-3-Chloropropane (DBCP)
A Introduction 45 (1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 45 (3)
Chromatographic Method
C Purge and Trap Gas 48 (1)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
D Purge and Trap Gas Chromatographic 48 (1)
Method
6232 Trihalomethanes and Chlorinated 48 (7)
Organic Solvents
A Introduction 48 (1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 49 (5)
Chromatographic Method
C Purge and Trap Gas 54 (1)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
D Purge and Trap Gas Chromatographic 54 (1)
Method
6251 Disinfection By-Products: Haloacetic 55 (10)
Acids and Trichlorophenol
A Introduction 55 (1)
B Micro Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 55 (10)
Chromatographic Method
6252 Disinfection By-Products: Aldehydes 65 (8)
(PROPOSED)
A Introduction 65 (1)
B PFBHA Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 66 (7)
Chromatographic Method
6410 Extractable Base/Neutrals and Acids 73 (14)
A Introduction 73 (1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 74 (13)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
6420 Phenols 87 (6)
A Introduction 87 (1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 87 (6)
Chromatographic Method
C Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 93 (1)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
6431 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 93 (1)
A Introduction 93 (1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 93 (1)
Chromatographic Method
C Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 93 (1)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
6440 Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 93 (6)
A Introduction 93 (1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction 94 (5)
Chromatographic Method
C Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 99 (1)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
6450 Nitrosamines 99 (13)
A Introduction 99 (1)
B Carbonaceous-Resin Solid-Phase 100(9)
Extraction GC/MS Method
C Micro Liquid-Liquid Extraction GC/MS 109(3)
Method
6610 Carbamate Pesticides 112(9)
A Introduction 112(1)
B High-Performance Liquid 113(8)
Chromatographic Method
6630 Organochlorine Pesticides 121(14)
A Introduction 121(1)
B Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 121(6)
Chromatographic Method I
Appendix---Standardization of 127(1)
Magnesia-Silica Gel Column by Weight
Adjustment Based on Adsorption of
Laurie Acid
C Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 128(7)
Chromatographic Method II
D Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 135(1)
Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric
Method
6640 Acidic Herbicide Compounds 135(11)
A Introduction 135(1)
B Micro Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas 136(10)
Chromatographic Method
6651 Glyphosate Herbicide 146(3)
A Introduction 146(1)
B Liquid Chromatographic Post-Column 147(2)
Fluorescence Method
6710 Tributyl Tin 149
A Introduction 149(1)
B Gas Chromatographic/Mass 149(5)
Spectrometric Method
C Gas Chromatographic/Flame Photometric 154
Detector Method
Part 7000 Radioactivity
7010 Introduction 1 (2)
A General Discussion 1 (1)
B Sample Collection and Preservation 2 (1)
7020 Quality System 3 (9)
A Quality Systems/Quality 3 (5)
Assurance/Quality Control Program
B Quality Control for Wastewater Samples 8 (1)
C Statistics 8 (3)
D Calculation and Expression of Results 11 (1)
7030 Counting Instruments 12 (6)
A Introduction 12 (1)
B Description and Operation of 12 (6)
Instruments
7040 Facilities 18 (2)
A Counting Room 18 (1)
B Radiochemistry Laboratory 18 (1)
C Laboratory Safety 19 (1)
D Pollution Prevention 19 (1)
E Waste Management 19 (1)
7110 Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radio 20 (5)
activity (Total, Suspended, and Dissolved)
A Introduction 20 (1)
B Evaporation Method for Gross 20 (3)
Alpha-Beta
C Coprecipitation Method for Gross 23 (2)
Alpha Radioactivity in Drinking Water
7120 Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides 25 (4)
A Introduction 25 (1)
B Gamma Spectroscopic Method 25 (4)
7500-Cs Radioactive Cesium 29 (1)
A Introduction 29 (1)
B Precipitation Method 29 (1)
7500-I Radioactive Iodine 30 (4)
A Introduction 30 (1)
B Precipitation Method 30 (1)
C Ion-Exchange Method 31 (1)
D Distillation Method 32 (2)
7500-Ra Radium 34 (15)
A Introduction 34 (1)
B Precipitation Method 34 (3)
C Emanation Method 37 (5)
D Sequential Precipitation Method 42 (2)
E Gamma Spectroscopy Method 44 (5)
7500-Rn Radon 49 (3)
A Introduction 49 (1)
B Liquid Scintillation Method 50 (2)
7500-Sr Total Radioactive Strontium and 52 (4)
Strontium-90
A Introduction 52 (1)
B Precipitation Method 53 (3)
7500-3H Tritium 56 (2)
A Introduction 56 (1)
B Liquid Scintillation Spectrometric 56 (2)
Method
7500-U Uranium 58
A Introduction 58 (1)
B Radiochemical Method 58 (2)
C Isotopic Method 60
Part 8000 Toxicity
8010 Introduction 1 (25)
A General Discussion 1 (1)
B Terminology 2 (1)
C Basic Requirements 3 (1)
D Conducting Toxicity Tests 4 (3)
E Preparing Organisms for Toxicity Tests 7 (8)
F Toxicity Test Systems, Materials, and 15 (5)
Procedures
G Calculating, Analyzing, and Reporting 20 (4)
Results of Toxicity Tests
H Interpreting and Applying Results of 24 (1)
Toxicity Tests
I Selected Toxicological Literature 25 (1)
8020 Quality Assurance and Quality 26 (4)
Control In Laboratory Toxicity Tests
A General Discussion 26 (1)
B Elements of QA/QC 27 (3)
8030 Mutagenesis 30 (8)
A Introduction 30 (2)
B Salmonella Microsomal Mutagenicity 32 (6)
Test
8050 Bacterial Biolummescence 38 (3)
A Introduction 38 (1)
B Bacterial Bioluminescence Test 38 (3)
8070 P450 Reporter Gene Response to 41 (2)
Dioxin-Like Organic Compounds
A Introduction 41 (1)
B The P450 RGS Test 41 (2)
8071 Comet/Single-Cell Gel 43 (4)
Electrophoresis Assay For Detection of
DNA Damage
A Introduction 43 (1)
B Comet/Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis 44 (3)
Assay
8080 Sediment Porewater Testing 47 (5)
A Introduction 47 (1)
B Sediment Collection and Storage 48 (1)
C Extraction of Sediment Pore Water 48 (2)
D Toxicity Testing Procedures 50 (2)
8110 Algae 52 (1)
8111 Biostimulation (Algal Productivity) 52 (6)
A General Principles 52 (1)
B Planning and Evaluating Algal Assays 53 (1)
C Apparatus 54 (1)
D Sample Handling 54 (1)
E Synthetic Algal Culture Medium 55 (1)
F Inoculum 55 (1)
G Test Conditions and Procedures 56 (1)
H Effect of Additions 57 (1)
I Data Analysis and Interpretation 57 (1)
8112 Phytoplankton 58 (1)
A Introduction 58 (1)
B Inoculum 58 (1)
C Test Conditions and Procedures 58 (1)
8113 Marine Macroalgae 59 (5)
A Introduction 59 (1)
B Selecting and Preparing Macrocystis 60 (2)
pyrifera Sporophylls
C Toxicity Test Procedures 62 (2)
D Data Evaluation 64 (1)
8200 Aquatic Flowering Plants 64 (1)
8211 Duckweed 65 (4)
A Introduction 65 (1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 66 (1)
C Toxicity Test Procedure 67 (2)
8220 Aquatic Emergent Plants 69 (4)
A Introduction 69 (1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 70 (1)
C Toxicity Test Procedure 71 (2)
8310 Ciliated Protozoa 73 (6)
A Introduction 73 (1)
B Growth Inhibition Test with 73 (2)
Freshwater Ciliate Colpidium campylum
C Chemotactic Test with Freshwater 75 (2)
Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila
D Growth Inhibition Test with the Soil 77 (2)
Ciliate Colpoda inflata
8420 Rotifers 79 (4)
A Introduction 79 (1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 80 (1)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 81 (2)
8510 Annelids 83 (13)
A Introduction 83 (1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 83 (6)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 89 (2)
D Sediment Test Procedures Using the 91 (2)
Marine Polychaete Neanthes
arenaceodentata
E Sediment Test Procedures Using the 93 (1)
Marine Polychaete Polydora cornuta
F Sediment Test Procedures Using the 94 (1)
Freshwater and Marine Oligochaetes
Pristina leidyi, Tubifex tubifex, and
Lumbriculus variegatus
G Data Evaluation 95 (1)
8610 Mollusks 96 (9)
A Introduction 96 (1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 96 (2)
C Short-Term Test Procedures Using 98 (2)
Marine Mollusk Larvae
D Sediment Test Procedures Using Marine 100(1)
Bivalves
E Field Test Procedures Using 101(4)
Freshwater and Marine Bivalves
8710 Arthropods 105(1)
8711 Daphnia 105(5)
A Introduction 105(2)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 107(1)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 108(2)
8712 Ceriodaphnta 110(5)
A Introduction 110(1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 111(2)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 113(2)
8714 Mysids 115(10)
A Introduction 115(1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 116(5)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 121(4)
8740 Decapods 125(11)
A Introduction 125(1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 125(7)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 132(4)
D Data Evaluation 136(1)
8750 Aquatic Insects 136(5)
A Introduction 136(1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 137(2)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 139(1)
D Data Evaluation 140(1)
8810 Echinoderm Fertilization and 141(9)
Development
A Introduction 141(1)
B Selecting and Preparing Test Organisms 142(1)
C Echinoderm Fertilization Test 143(5)
D Echinoderm Embryo Development Test 148(2)
8910 Fish 150(11)
A Introduction 150(1)
B Fish Selection and Culture Procedures 151(4)
C Toxicity Test Procedures 155(6)
8921 Fathead Minnow 161(9)
A Introduction 161(1)
B Culture and Maintenance of Test 162(1)
Organisms
C Toxicity Test Procedures 163(7)
8930 Amphibians (PROPOSED) 170
A Introduction 170(1)
B Culture and Maintenance of Test 171(3)
Organisms
C Toxicity Test Procedures 174
Part 9000 Microbiological Examination
9010 Introduction 1 (1)
9020 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 2 (24)
A Introduction 2 (2)
B Intralaboratory Quality Control 4 (21)
Guidelines
C Interlaboratory Quality Control 25 (1)
9030 Laboratory Apparatus 26 (4)
A Introduction 26 (1)
B Equipment Specifications 26 (4)
9040 Washing and Sterilization 30 (1)
9050 Preparation of Culture Media 31 (2)
A General Procedures 31 (1)
B Water 32 (1)
C Media Specifications 32 (1)
9060 Samples 33 (3)
A Collection 33 (2)
B Preservation and Storage 35 (1)
9211 Rapid Detection Methods 36 (3)
A Introduction 36 (1)
B Seven-Hour Fecal Coliform Test 36 (1)
C Special Techniques 37 (2)
9212 Stressed Microorganisms 39 (3)
A Introduction 39 (1)
B Recovery Enhancement 40 (2)
9213 Recreational Waters 42 (7)
A Introduction 42 (1)
B Swimming Pools 43 (2)
C Whirlpools 45 (1)
D Natural Bathing Beaches 46 (2)
E Membrane Filter Technique for 48 (1)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
F Multiple-Tube Technique for 49 (1)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
9215 Heterotrophic Plate Count 49 (8)
A Introduction 49 (3)
B Pour Plate Method 52 (2)
C Spread Plate Method 54 (2)
D Membrane Filter Method 56 (1)
E Enzyme Substrate Method 57 (1)
9216 Direct Total Microbial Count 57 (2)
A Introduction 57 (1)
B Epifluorescence Microscopic Method 58 (1)
Using Acridine Orange
9217 Assimilable Organic Carbon 59 (5)
A Introduction 59 (2)
B Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain P-17, 61 (3)
Spirillum Strain NOX Method
9218 Aerobic Endospores 64 (1)
A Introduction 64 (1)
B Membrane Filter Method 64 (1)
9221 Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique 65 (12)
for Members of the Coliform Group
A Introduction 65 (1)
B Standard Total Coliform Fermentation 66 (3)
Technique
C Estimation of Bacterial Density 69 (4)
D Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test 73 (1)
E Fecal Coliform Procedure 74 (1)
F Escherichia coli Procedure Using 75 (1)
Fluorogenic Substrate
G Other Escherichia coli Procedures 76 (1)
(PROPOSED)
9222 Membrane Filter Technique for 77 (16)
Members of the Coliform Group
A Introduction 77 (1)
B Standard Total Coliform Membrane 78 (6)
Filter Procedure
C Delayed-Incubation Total Coliform 84 (1)
Procedure
D Thermotolerant (Fecal) Coliform 85 (2)
Membrane Filter Procedure
E Delayed-Incubation Thermotolerant 87 (1)
(Fecal) Coliform Procedure
F Klebsiella Membrane Filter Procedure 88 (1)
G MF Partition Procedures 89 (1)
H Simultaneous Detection of Total 90 (1)
Coliform and E. coli by Dual-Chromogen
Membrane Filter Procedure (PROPOSED)
I Simultaneous Detection of Total 91 (2)
Coliform and E. coli by
Fluorogen/Chromogen Membrane Filter
Procedure (PROPOSED)
9223 Enzyme Substrate Coliform Test 93 (2)
A Introduction 93 (1)
B Enzyme Substrate Test 93 (2)
9224 Detection of Coliphages 95 (8)
A Introduction 95 (1)
B Somatic Coliphage Assay 96 (2)
C Male-Specific Coliphage Assay Using 98 (1)
Escherichia coli Famp
D Male-Specific Coliphage Assay Using 99 (2)
Salmonella typhimurium WG49
E Single-Agar-Layer Method 101(1)
F Membrane Filter Method 102(1)
9225 Differentiation of Coliform Bacteria 103(7)
A Introduction 103(1)
B Culture Purification 104(1)
C Identification 105(2)
D Media, Reagents, and Procedures 107(3)
E Reporting Results 110(1)
9230 Fecal Enterococcus/Streptococcus 110(6)
Groups
A Introduction 110(1)
B Multiple-Tube Technique 111(1)
C Membrane Filter Techniques 112(3)
D Fluorogenic Substrate Enterococcus 115(1)
Test
9240 Iron and Sulfur Bacteria 116(19)
A Introduction 116(1)
B Iron Bacteria 117(5)
C Sulfur Bacteria 122(2)
D Enumerating, Enriching, and Isolating 124(6)
Iron and Sulfur Bacteria
E Bacteria Living in Acidic Environments 130(5)
9245 Nitrifying Bacteria 135(3)
A Introduction 135(2)
B Multiple-Tube Method 137(1)
9250 Detection of Actinomycetes 138(4)
A Introduction 138(2)
B Actinomycete Plate Count 140(2)
9260 Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria 142(42)
A Introduction 142(3)
B Salmonella 145(5)
C (Reserved) 150(1)
D (Reserved) 150(1)
E Shigella 150(3)
F Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli 153(5)
G Campylobacter 158(2)
H Vibrio 160(6)
I Leptospira 166(3)
J Legionella 169(5)
K Yersinia enterocolitica 174(3)
L Aeromonas 177(3)
M Mycobacterium 180(4)
9510 Detection of Enteric Viruses 184(17)
A Introduction 184(2)
B Virus Concentration from Small Sample 186(3)
Volumes by Adsorption to and Elution
from Microporous Filters
C Virus Concentration from Large Sample 189(4)
Volumes by Adsorption to and Elution
from Microporous Filters
D Virus Concentration by Aluminum 193(2)
Hydroxide Adsorption-Precipitation
E Hydroextraction-Dialysis with 195(1)
Polyethylene Glycol
F Recovery of Viruses from Suspended 196(1)
Solids in Water and Wastewater
G Assay and Identification of Viruses 197(4)
in Sample Concentrates
9610 Detection of Fungi 201(9)
A Introduction 201(3)
B Pour Plate Technique 204(1)
C Spread Plate Technique 205(1)
D Membrane Filter Technique 206(1)
E Technique for Yeasts 207(1)
F Zoosporic Fungi 207(1)
G Aquatic Hyphomycetes 208(1)
H Fungi Pathogenic to Humans 209(1)
9711 Pathogenic Protozoa 210
A Introduction 210(5)
B Detection of Giardia and 215(6)
Cryptosporidium in Water
C Detection of Giardia and 221(1)
Cryptosporidium in Wastewater
D Infectivity of Cryptosporidium in 222
Cell Culture
Part 10000 Biological Examination
10010 Introduction 1 (1)
10200 Plankton 2 (34)
A Introduction 2 (1)
B Sample Collection 3 (8)
C Concentration Techniques 11 (2)
D Preparing Slide Mounts 13 (2)
E Microscopes and Calibrations 15 (2)
F Phytoplankton Counting Techniques 17 (4)
G Zooplankton Counting Techniques 21 (1)
H Chlorophyll 22 (8)
I Determination of Biomass (Standing 30 (2)
Crop)
J Metabolic Rate Measurements 32 (4)
10300 Periphyton 36 (16)
A Introduction 36 (1)
B Sample Collection 36 (2)
C Sample Analysis 38 (3)
D Primary Productivity 41 (9)
E Interpreting and Reporting Results 50 (2)
10400 Macrophytes 52 (15)
A Introduction 52 (1)
B Preliminary Survey 53 (1)
C Vegetation Mapping Methods 53 (2)
D Population Estimates 55 (4)
E Productivity 59 (8)
10500 Benthic Macroinvertebrates 67 (17)
A Introduction 67 (3)
B Sample Collection 70 (9)
C Sample Processing and Analysis 79 (2)
D Data Evaluation, Presentation, and 81 (3)
Conclusions
10600 Fishes 84 (17)
A Introduction 84 (1)
B Data Acquisition 85 (9)
C Sample Preservation 94 (1)
D Analysis of Collections 95 (5)
E Investigation of Fish Kills 100(1)
10700 Benthic Meiofauna 101(1)
10750 Nematological Examination 102(20)
A Introduction 102(2)
B Collection and Processing Techniques 104(2)
for Nematodes
C Illustrated Key to Freshwater 106(16)
Nematodes
10900 Identification of Aquatic Organisms 122
A Procedure in Identification 122(1)
B Key to Major Groups of Aquatic 122(4)
Organisms (Plates 1-35)
Acknowledgments 126(34)
C Key for Identification of Freshwater 160(5)
Algae Common in Water Supplies and
Polluted Waters (Plates 1A, 1B, 28-35)
D Index to Illustrations 165(3)
E Selected Taxonomic References 168
Index 1