A Guide to Practical Toxicology : Evaluation, Prediction and Risk

A Guide to Practical Toxicology : Evaluation, Prediction and Risk

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 312 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780748409235
  • DDC分類 615

Table of Contents

List of illustrations                              xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xv
1 Introduction to toxicology: the necessity of 1 (33)
measurement
Introduction 1 (1)
The beginnings of toxicological measurement 2 (1)
Strong toxins and weak toxins 3 (2)
Toxicity defined 5 (3)
It is natural so it must be safe 8 (5)
General objectives of toxicological study 13 (1)
Nature and outcome of toxic reactions 14 (6)
Expression of toxicity 20 (7)
The necessity for toxicological assessment 27 (4)
The three R's - reduce, refine and replace 31 (3)
2 Normality: definition and maintenance 34 (20)
Introduction 34 (1)
What is normality? 35 (2)
Experimental normality 37 (4)
Protocol design and procedure as sources of 41 (1)
abnormality
Control groups as normality 41 (2)
Establishing and maintaining normality in 43 (2)
experimental groups
The normality of baseline data 45 (9)
3 Determination of toxicity: basic principles 54 (18)
Introduction 54 (1)
Effects sought in toxicity studies 55 (1)
Regulatory framework and influences 56 (3)
Basic principles of toxicological 59 (13)
investigation
4 Determination of toxicity in vitro 72 (8)
Introduction 72 (1)
Rationale for in vitro toxicology; strengths 72 (1)
and weaknesses
Validation of in vitro methods 73 (1)
Test types and test systems 74 (1)
Toxicity in silico 74 (3)
'Traditional' in vitro toxicology 77 (1)
Future utility 78 (1)
Pitfalls 78 (1)
Overview 79 (1)
5 Determination: general and reproductive 80 (27)
toxicology
General toxicology 80 (1)
Test systems for general toxicology 80 (2)
Study designs in general toxicology 82 (8)
Examinations for specific toxicities 90 (3)
Pitfalls in general toxicology 93 (2)
Reproductive toxicology 95 (2)
Test systems for reproductive toxicology 97 (3)
Study designs for reproductive toxicology 100 (5)
Pitfalls in reproductive toxicology 105 (2)
6 Determination: genotoxicity and 107 (28)
carcinogenicity
Genotoxicity 107 (2)
Test battery and study design 109 (3)
Test systems and tests 112 (6)
Pitfalls in genotoxicity 118 (1)
Carcinogenicity 119 (2)
Test systems for carcinogenicity 121 (2)
Study design and methods of assessment 123 (3)
Other systems for carcinogenicity assessment 126 (3)
Pitfalls in carcinogenicity studies 129 (2)
Overview of the future of carcinogenicity 131 (4)
assessment
7 Determination: irritation and sensitisation
General principles 135 (1)
Factors in dermal toxicity 136 (1)
Test systems 137 (1)
Study design and parameters measured 137 (2)
Pitfalls in irritation and sensitisation 139 (1)
8 Determination: environmental toxicology and 140 (11)
epidemiology
Environmental toxicology and ecotoxicology 140 (1)
Pollution, routes of entry and environmental 141 (1)
ADME
Factors in testing for environmental effect 142 (2)
Test systems and study types for ecotoxicology 144 (3)
Pitfalls in environmental toxicology 147 (1)
Epidemiology - a brief review 148 (3)
9 Interpretation 151 (44)
Introduction 151 (2)
Steps in interpretation 153 (2)
Use of background data in interpretation 155 (1)
Statistics and significance in toxicology 156 (5)
Assessing exposure 161 (5)
The reality of difference - the 166 (2)
interpretation of small differences
The reproducibility of difference 168 (1)
Interpretation of different data types 168 (21)
Case studies - ciprofibrate and genetically 189 (5)
modified potatoes
The fundamentals of interpretation 194 (1)
10 Prediction of hazard 195 (24)
Introduction 195 (2)
Principles of prediction 197 (2)
Steps in the prediction process 199 (4)
Factors for consideration in prediction 203 (4)
Prediction from minimal databases 207 (2)
Computer models for toxicity prediction 209 (8)
Prediction for individuals 217 (1)
Prediction summary 218 (1)
11 Background to risk due to toxicity 219 (15)
Introduction 219 (1)
Overview of risk assessment 219 (1)
Levels of risk and factors that affect risk 220 (3)
Risk perception 223 (4)
Comparative risk 227 (4)
Risk expression and quantification 231 (1)
Summary 232 (2)
12 Risk assessment in practice and setting 234 (26)
exposure limits
Introduction 234 (1)
Single effect versus general risk assessment 234 (1)
Tools and models in risk assessment 235 (4)
Target population, dose and exposure 239 (4)
Process and factors in risk assessment 243 (7)
Setting safety factors and margins 250 (2)
Exposure limits 252 (6)
Summary 258 (2)
13 Risk assessment and management in the 260 (10)
workplace
Introduction 260 (1)
The historical and regulatory background 260 (1)
Factors in workplace risk assessment 261 (1)
Workplace risk assessment 262 (2)
Risk management in the workplace 264 (4)
Overview 268 (2)
14 Risk assessment: carcinogenicity; the 270 (20)
environment;evolution and overview of risk
assessment
Introduction 270 (1)
Notes on risk assessment and carcinogenicity 270 (10)
Notes on risk assessment and the environment 280 (5)
The evolution of risk assessment 285 (1)
Overview of risk assessment 286 (4)
15 The future of toxicity testing 290 (8)
Introduction 290 (1)
Current practice 290 (1)
Current dynamics and pressures 291 (1)
Utility of animal experiments in risk 292 (1)
assessment
Development of new test methods 293 (1)
In vitro toxicology and the future 294 (2)
Toxicology in silico 296 (1)
The future of safety evaluation 296 (2)
Appendix: useful websites 298 (2)
Select glossary 300 (4)
Notes 304 (7)
Bibliography 311 (2)
Index 313