The Martyrs of Science or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe and Kepler

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The Martyrs of Science or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe and Kepler

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 267 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780548131008
  • DDC分類 920

Table of Contents

  Life of Galileo
Peculiar interest attached to his Life
His Birth
His early studies
His passion for Mathematics
His work on the Hydrostatic Balance
Appointed Lecturer on Mathematics at Pisa
His antipathy to the Philosophy of
Aristotle
His contentions with the Aristotelians
Chosen Professor of Mathematics in Padua
Adopts the Copernican system, but still
teaches the Ptolemaic doctrine
His alarming illness
He observes the new Star in 1604
His Magnetical experiments 1 (19)
Cosmo, Grand Duke of Tuscany, invites
Galileo to Pisa
Galileo visits Venice in 1609, where he
first hears of the Telescope
He invents and constructs one, which
excites a great sensation
Discovers Mountains in the Moon, and
Forty Stars in the Pleiades
Discovers Jupiter's Satellites in 1610
Effect of this discovery on Kepler
Manner in which these discoveries were
received
Galileo appointed Mathematician to Cosmo
Mayer claims the discovery of the
Satellites of Jupiter
Harriot observes them in England in 20 (22)
October 1610
Galileo announces his discoveries in Enigmas
Discovers the Crescent of Venus
The Ring of Saturn
The Spots on the Sun
Similar Observations made in England by
Harriot
Claims of Fabricius and Scheiner to the
discovery of the Solar Spots
Galileo's Letters to Velser on the claims
of Scheiner
His residence at the Villa of Salviati
Composes his work on Floating Bodies, 42 (14)
which involves him in new controversies
Galileo treats his Opponents with severity
and sarcasm
He is aided by the Sceptics of the day
The Church Party the most powerful
Galileo commences the attack, and is
answered by Caccini, a Dominican
Galileo's Letter to the Grand Duchess of
Tuscany, in support of the motion of the
Earth and the stability of the Sun
Galileo visits Rome
Is summoned before the Inquisition
And renounces his opinions as Heretical
The Inquisition denounces the Copernican
system
Galileo has an audience of the Pope, but
still maintains his opinions in private
society
Proposes to find out the Longitude at Sea
by means of Jupiter's Satellites
His negociation on this subject with the
Court of Spain
Its failure
He is unable to observe the three Comets 56 (16)
of 1618, but is involved in the
controversy to which they gave rise
Urban VIII., Galileo's friend, raised to
the Pontificate
Galileo goes to Rome to offer his
congratulations
The Pope loads Galileo with presents, and
promises a Pension to his Son
Galileo in pecuniary difficulties, owing
to the death of his patron, Cosmo
Galileo again rashly attacks the Church,
notwithstanding the Pope's kindness
He composes his System of the World, to
demonstrate the Copernican System
Artfully obtains a license to print it
Nature of the work
Its influence on the public mind
The Pope resolves on suppressing it
Galileo summoned before the Inquisition
His Trial
His Defence
His formal Abjuration of his Opinions
Observations on his conduct
The Pope shews great indulgence to 72 (30)
Galileo, who is allowed to return to his
own house at Arcetri as the place of his
confinement
Galileo loses his favourite Daughter
He falls into a state of melancholy and
ill health
Is allowed to go to Florence for its
recovery in 1638
But is prevented from leaving his House
or receiving his Friends
His friend Castelli permitted to visit
him in the presence of an Officer of the
Inquisition
He composes his celebrated Dialogues on
Local Motion
Discovers the Moon's Libration
Loses the sight of one Eye
The other Eye attacked by the same Disease
Is struck Blind
Negociates with the Dutch Government
respecting his Method of finding the
Longitude
He is allowed free intercourse with his
Friends
His Illness and Death in 1642
His Epitaph
His Social, Moral, and Scientific 102(21)
Character
Life of Tycho Brahe
Tycho's Birth, Family, and Education
An Eclipse of the Sun turns his attention
to Astronomy
Studies Law at Leipsic
But pursues Astronomy by stealth
His Uncle's Death
He returns to Copenhagen, and resumes his
Observations
Revisits Germany
Fights a Duel, and loses his Nose
Visits Augsburg, and meets Hainzel
Who assists him in making a large Quadrant
Revisits Denmark
And is warmly received by the King
He settles at his Uncle's Castle of
Herritzvold
His Observatory and Laboratory
Discovers the new Star in Cassiopeia
Account of this remarkable Body
Tycho's Marriage with a Peasant Girl
Which irritates his Friends
His Lectures on Astronomy
He visits the Prince of Hesse
Attends the Coronation of the Emperor
Rudolph at Ratisbon
He returns to Denmark 123(22)
Frederick II. patronizes Tycho
And resolves to establish him in Denmark
Grants him the Island of Huen for Life
And Builds the splendid Observatory of
Uraniburg
Description of the Island, and of the
Observatory
Account of its Astronomical Instruments
Tycho begins his Observations
His Pupils
Tycho is made Canon of Rothschild, and
receives a large Pension
His Hospitality to his Visitors
Ingratitude of Wittichius
Tycho sends an Assistant to take the
Latitude of Frauenburg and Konigsberg
Is visited by Ulric, Duke of Mecklenburg
Change in Tycho's fortunes 145(15)
Tycho's Labours do honour to his Country
Death of Frederick II
James VI. of Scotland visits Tycho at
Uraniburg
Christian IV. visits Tycho
The Duke of Brunswick's visit to Tycho
The Danish Nobility, jealous of his fame,
conspire against him
He is compelled to quit Uraniburg
And to abandon his Studies
Cruelty of the Minister Walchendorp
Tycho quits Denmark with his Family and
Instruments
Is hospitably received by Count Rantzau
Who introduces him to the Emperor Rudolph
The Emperor invites him to Prague
He gives him a Pension of 3000 Crowns
And the Castle of Benach as a Residence
and an Observatory
Kepler visits Tycho
Who obtains for him the Appointment of 160(19)
Mathematician to Rudolph
Tycho resumes his Astronomical Observations
Is attacked with a Painful Disease
His Sufferings and Death in 1601
His Funeral
His Temper
His Turn for Satire and Raillery
His Piety
Account of his Astronomical Discoveries
His Love of Astrology and Alchymy
Observations on the Character of the
Alchymists
Tycho's Elixir
His Fondness for the Marvellous
His Automata and Invisible Bells
Account of the Idiot, called Lep, whom he
kept as a Prophet
History of Tycho's Instruments
His Great Brass Globe preserved at
Copenhagen
Present state of the Island of Huen 179(24)
Life of John Kepler
Kepler's Birth in 1571
His Family
And early Education
The Distresses and Poverty of his Family
He enters the Monastic School of Maulbronn
And is admitted into the University of
Tubingen, where he distinguishes himself,
and takes his Degree
He is appointed Professor of Astronomy
and Greek in 1594
His first speculations on the Orbits of
the Planets
Account of their Progress and Failure
His ``Cosmographical Mystery'' published
He Marries a Widow in 1597
Religious troubles at Gratz
He retires from thence to Hungary
Visits Tycho at Prague in 1600
Returns to Gratz, which he again quits
for Prague
He is taken ill on the road
Is appointed Tycho's Assistant in 1601
Succeeds Tycho as Imperial Mathematician
His Work on the New Star of 1604
Singular specimen of it 203(17)
Kepler's Pecuniary Embarrassments
His Inquiries respecting the Law of
Refraction
His Supplement to Vitellio
His Researches on Vision
His Treatise on Dioptrics
His Commentaries on Mars
He discovers that the orbit of Mars is an
Ellipse, with the Sun in one focus
And extends this discovery to all the
other Planets
He establishes the two first laws of
Physical Astronomy
His Family Distresses
Death of his Wife
He is appointed Professor of Mathematics
at Linz
His Method of Choosing a Second Wife
Her Character, as given by Himself
Origin of his Treatise on Gauging
He goes to Ratisbon to give his Opinion
to the Diet on the change of Style
He refuses the Mathematical Chair at 220(17)
Bologna
Kepler's continued Embarrassments
Death of Mathias
Liberality of Ferdinand
Kepler's ``Harmonies of the World''
The Epitome of the Copernican Astronomy
It is prohibited by the Inquisition
Sir Henry Wotton, the British Ambassador,
invites Kepler to England
He declines the Invitation
Neglect of Genius by the English
Government
Trial of Kepler's Mother
Her final Acquittal
And Death at the age of Seventy-five
The States of Styria burn publicly
Kepler's Calendar
He receives his Arrears of Salary from
Ferdinand
The Rudolphine Tables published in 1628
He receives a Gold Chain from the Grand
Duke of Tuscany
He is Patronised by the Duke of Friedland
He removes to Sagan, in Silesia
Is appointed Professor of Mathematics at
Rostoch
Goes to Ratisbon to receive his Arrears
His Death, Funeral, and Epitaph
Monument Erected to his Memory in 1803
His Family
His Posthumous Volume, entitled ``The 237(15)
Dream, or Lunar Astronomy,''
Number of Kepler's published Works
His numerous Manuscripts in 22 folio
volumes
Purchased by Hevelius, and afterwards by
Hansch
Who publishes Kepler's Life and
Correspondence at the expense of Charles
VI
The History of the rest of his
Manuscripts, which are deposited in the
Library of the Academy of Sciences at St
Petersburg
General Character of Kepler
His Candour in acknowledging his Errors
His Moral and Religious Character
His Astrological Writings and Opinions
considered
His Character as an Astronomer and a
Philosopher
The Splendour of his Discoveries
Account of his Method of Investigating 252
Truth