A General View of Positivism

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A General View of Positivism

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 344 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780548129586
  • DDC分類 109

Table of Contents

    Intellectual Character of Positivism
The object of Philosophy is to present a 6 (1)
systematic view of human life as a basis
for modifying its imperfections
The Theological Synthesis failed to 7 (1)
include the practical side of human nature
But the Positive spirit originated in 8 (2)
practical life
In human nature, and therefore in the 10 (1)
Positive system, Affection is the
preponderating element
The proper function of Intellect is the 11 (2)
service of the Social Sympathies
Under Theology the Intellect was the 13 (2)
slave of the Heart; under Positivism, its
servant
The subordination of the Intellect to the 15 (1)
Heart is the subjective principle of
Positivism
Objective basis of the system: Order of 15 (2)
the external World, as revealed by Science
By it the selfish affections are 17 (1)
controlled; the unselfish strengthened
Our conception of this External Order has 18 (1)
been gradually growing from the earliest
times, and is but just complete
Even where not modifiable, its influence 19 (2)
on the character is of the greatest value
But in most cases we can modify it; and 21 (2)
in these the knowledge of it forms the
systematic basis of human action
The chief difficulty of the Positive 23 (2)
Synthesis was to complete our conception
of the External Order by extending it to
Social Phenomena
By the discovery of sociological laws 25 (3)
social questions are made paramount; and
thus our subjective principle is
satisfied without danger to free thought
Distinction between Abstract and Concrete 28 (2)
laws. It is the former only that we
require for the purpose before us
In our Theory of Development the required 30 (3)
Synthesis of Abstract conceptions already
exists
Therefore we are in a position to proceed 33 (1)
at once with the work of social
regeneration
Error of identifying Positivism with 33 (3)
Atheism, Materialism, Fatalism, or
Optimism. Atheism, like Theology,
discusses insoluble mysteries
Materialism is due to the encroachment of 36 (3)
the lower sciences on the domain of the
higher, an error which Positivism
rectifies
Nor is Positivism fatalist, since it 39 (1)
asserts the External Order to be
modifiable
The charge of Optimism applies to 40 (1)
Theology rather than to Positivism. The
Positivist judges of all historical
actions relatively, but does not justify
them indiscriminately
The word Positive connotes all the 41 (2)
highest intellectual attributes, and will
ultimately have a moral significance
The Social Aspect of Positivism
The relation of Positivism to the French 43 (1)
Revolution
The negative or destructive phase of the 44 (4)
Revolution stimulated the desire of
Progress, and consequently the study of
social phenomena
The constructive phase of the Revolution. 48 (1)
The first attempts to construct failed,
being based on destructive principles
Counter-revolution from 1794 to 1830 49 (1)
Political stagnation between 1794 to 1830 50 (1)
The present position, 1848-1850. 51 (1)
Republicanism involves the great
principle of subordinating Politics to
Morals
It gives prominence to the problem of 52 (2)
reconciling Order and Progress
It brings the metaphysical revolutionary 54 (2)
schools into discredit
And it proves to all the necessity of a 56 (2)
true spiritual power; a body of thinkers
whose business is to study and to teach
principles, holding aloof from political
action
The need of a spiritual power is common 58 (3)
to the whole Republic of Western Europe
This Republic consists of the Italian, 61 (2)
Spanish, British, and German populations,
grouped round France as their center
Relation of Positivism to the 63 (2)
mediæval system, to which we owe
the first attempt to separate Spiritual
from Temporal power
But the mediæval attempt was 65 (2)
premature; and Positivism will renew and
complete it
The Ethical system of Positivism 67 (1)
Subjection of Self-love to Social love is 67 (2)
the great ethical problem. the Social
state of itself favours this result; but
it may be hastened by organized and
conscious effort
Intermediate between Self-love and 69 (2)
universal Benevolence are the domestiv
affections: filial, fraternal, conjugal,
paternal
Personal virtues placed upon a social 71 (2)
basis
Moral education consists partly of 73 (1)
scientific demonstration of ethical
truth, but still more of culture of the
higher sympathies
Organization of Public Opinion 74 (1)
Commemoration of great men 75 (1)
The political motto of positivism : Order 76 (1)
and Progress
Progress, the development of Order 77 (1)
Analysis of Progress: Material, Physical, 77 (3)
intellectual, and moral
Application of our principles to actual 80 (2)
politics. All Government must for the
present be provisional
Danger of attempting political 82 (3)
reconstruction before spiritual
Politically what is wanted is 85 (2)
Dictatorship, with liberty of speech an
discussion
Such a dictatorship would be a step 87 (1)
towards the separation of spiritual and
temporal power
The motto of 1830, Liberty and public 88 (1)
Order
Liberty should be extended to Education 89 (1)
Order demands centralization 90 (2)
Intimate connection of Liberty with Order 92 (1)
The Action of Positivism Upon The Working
Classes
Positivism will not for the present 93 (2)
recommend itself to the governing
classes, so much as to the People
The working man who accepts his position 95 (2)
is favourably situated for the reception
of comprehensive principles and generous
sympathies
This the Convention felt; but they 97 (1)
encouraged the People to seek political
supremacy, for which they are not fit
It is only in exceptional cases that the 98 (1)
People can be really `sovereign'
The truth involved in the expression is 98 (2)
that the well-being of the people should
be the one great object of government
The People's function is to assist the 100(1)
spiritual power in modifying teh action
of government
The combined efforts result in the 101(2)
formation of Public Opinion
Public opinion involves, (1) principles 103(2)
of social conduct, (2) their acceptance
by society at large, (3) an organ through
which to enunciate them
Working men's clubs 105(5)
All three conditions of Public Opinion 110(1)
exist, but have not yet been combined
Spontaneous tendencies of the people in a 110(2)
right direction. Their Communism
Its new title of Socialism 112(1)
Property is in its nature social, and 113(2)
needs control
But Positivism rejects the Communist 115(1)
solution of the Problem. Property is to
be controlled by moral not legal agencies
Individualization of functions as 116(1)
necessary as co-operation
Industry requires its captains as well as 117(1)
War
Communism is deficient in the historical 118(1)
spirit
In fact, as a system, it is worthless, 118(2)
though prompted by noble feelings
Property is a public trust, not to be 120(1)
interfered with legally
Inheritance favourable to its right 121(1)
employment
Intellect needs moral control as much as 121(2)
wealth
Action of organized public opinion upon 123(2)
Capitalists. Strikes
Public Opinion must be based upon a sound 125(2)
system of Education
Education has two stages; form birth to 127(2)
puberty, from puberty to adolescence. The
first, consisting of physical and
esthetic training, to be given at home
The second part consists of public 129(2)
lectures on the Sciences, from
Mathematics ot Sociology
Travels of Apprentices 131(1)
Concentration of Study 132(1)
Governmental assistance not required, 133(1)
except for certain special institutions,
and this only as a provisional measure
We are not ripe for this system at 134(2)
present; and Government must not attempt
to hasten its introduction
Intellectual attitude of the people. 136(1)
Emancipation from theological belief
From metaphysical Doctrines 137(1)
Their mistaken preference of literary and 138(3)
rhetorical talent to real intellectual
power
Moral attitude of the people. The workman 141(1)
should regard himself as a public
functionary
Ambition of power and wealth must be 142(3)
abandoned
The working classes are the best 145(2)
guarantee for Liberty and Order
It is from them that we shall obtain the 147(4)
dictatorial power which is provisionally
required
The Influence of Positivism upon Women
Women represent the affective element in 151(1)
our nature, as philosophers and people
represent the intellectual and preactical
elements
Women have stood aloof from the modern 152(2)
movement, because of its antihistoric and
destructive character
But they will sympathize with 154(1)
constructive tendencies, and will
distinguish sound philosophy form
scientific specialties
Women's position in Society. Like 155(3)
philosophers and people , their part is
nto to govern, but to modify
The united action of philosophers, women, 158(3)
and proletaries constitutes Moral Force
Superiority of the new spiritual power to 161(2)
the old. Self-regarding tendencies of
Catholic doctrine
The spirit of Positivism, on the 163(3)
contrary, is essentially social. The
Heart and the Intellect mutually
strengthen each other
Intellectual and moral affinities of 166(1)
women with Positivism
Catholicism purified love, but did not 167(1)
directly strengthen it
Women's influence over the working 168(2)
classes and their teachers
Their social influence in the salon 170(2)
But the Family is their principal sphere 172(1)
of action
Woman's mission as a wife. Conjugal love 172(3)
an education for universal sympathy
Conditions of marriage. Indissoluble 175(1)
monogamy
Perpetual widowhood 176(2)
Woman's mission as a mother 178(1)
Education of children belongs to mothers. 178(2)
They only can guide the development of
character
Modern sophisms about Woman's rights. The 180(2)
domesticity of her life follows from the
principle of Separation of Powers
The position of the sexes tends to 182(1)
differentiation rather than identity
Woman to be maintained by Man 183(2)
The education of women should be 185(3)
identical with that of men
Women's privileges. Their mission is in 188(1)
itself a privilege
They will receive honour and worship from 188(1)
men
Development of mediaeval chivalry 188(4)
The practice of Prayer, so far from 192(2)
disappearing, is purified and
strengthened in Positive religion
The worship of Woman a preparation for 194(1)
the worship of Humanity
Exceptional women. Joan of Arc 195(3)
It is for women to introduce positivism 198(4)
into the Southern nations
The Relation of Positivism to Art
Positivism when complete is as favourable 202(2)
to Imagination, as, when incomplete, it
was unfavourable to it
Esthetic talent is for the adornment of 204(1)
life, not for its government
The political influence of literary men a 205(3)
deplorable sign and source of anarchy
Theory of Art 208(1)
Art is th idealized representation of Fact 208(1)
Poetry is intermediate between Philosophy 209(2)
and Polity
Art calls each element of our nature into 211(1)
harmonious action
Three stages in the esthetic process: 212(2)
Imitation, Idealization, Expression
Classification of the arts on the 214(1)
principle of decreasing generality, and
increasing intensity
Poetry 215(1)
Music 216(1)
Painting. Sculpture. Architecture 216(1)
The conditions favourable to Art have 217(1)
never yet been combined
Neither in Polytheism 217(1)
Nor under the Mediaeval system 218(1)
Much less in modern times 219(1)
Under positivism the conditions will be 220(2)
favourable. There will be fixed
principles, and a nobler moral culture
Predisposing influence of Education 222(1)
Relation of Art to Religion 223(1)
Idealization of historical types 224(1)
Art requires the highest education; but 225(2)
little special instruction
Artists as a class will disappear. Their 227(1)
function will be appropriated by the
philosophic priesthood
Identity of esthetic and scientific genius 228(3)
Women's poetry 231(1)
people's poetry 231(1)
Value of Art in the present crisis 231(1)
Construction of normal types on the basis 232(1)
furnished by philosophy
Pictures of the Future of Man 232(1)
Contrasts with the Past 233(3)
Conclusion. The Religion of Humanity
Recapitulation of the results obtained 236(5)
Humanity is the centre to which every 241(3)
aspect of Positivism converges
With the discovery of sociological laws, 244(1)
a synthesis on the basis of Science
becomes possible, science being now
concentrated on the study of Humanity
Statical aspects of Humanity 245(1)
Dynamical aspects 246(2)
Inorganic and organic sciences elevated 248(1)
by their connection with thesupreme
science of Humanity
The new religion is even more favourable 249(1)
to Art than to Science
Poetic portraiture of the new Supreme 250(2)
Being, and contrast with the old
Organization of festivals, representing 252(2)
statical and dynamical aspects of Humanity
Worship of the dead. Commemoration of 254(2)
their service
All the arts may co-operate in the 256(1)
service of religion
Positivism is the successor of 257(3)
Christianity, and surpasses it
Superiority of Positive Morality 260(2)
Rise of the new Spiritual power 262(2)
Temporal power will always be necessary, 264(2)
but its action will be modified by the
spiritual
Substitution of duties for rights 266(1)
Consensus of the Social Organism 267(1)
Continuity of the Post with the present 268(1)
Necessity of a spiritual power to study 269(4)
and teach these truths, and thus to
govern men by persuasion, instead of by
compulsion
Nutritive functions of Humanity, 273(1)
performed by the spiritual power
These are modified by the cerebral 274(3)
function, performed by the spiritual powe
Women and priests to have their material 277(1)
subsistence guaranteed
Normal relation of priests, people, and 278(1)
capitalists
We are not yet ripe for the normal state. 279(1)
But the revolution of 1848 is a stepn
towards it
First revolutionary motto; Liberty and 279(1)
Equality
Second motto; Liberty and Order 280(1)
Third motto; Order and Progress 280(1)
Provisional policy for the period of 281(1)
transition
Popular dictatorship with freedom of 282(2)
speech
Positive committee for Western Europe 284(1)
Occidental navy 285(1)
International coinage 285(1)
Occidental school 286(1)
Flag for the Western Republic 286(2)
Colonial and foreign Associates of the 288(2)
Committee, the action of which will
ultimately extend to the whole human race
Conclusion. Perfection of the Positivist 290(4)
ideal
Corruption of Monotheism 294