Earth Science and the Environment (4 PCK)

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Earth Science and the Environment (4 PCK)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 633 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495112877
  • DDC分類 550

Table of Contents

    Earth Systems                                  1  (18)
Flowers Bloom on Earth, Venus Boils, and 2 (2)
Mars Freezes
The Earth's Four Spheres 4 (4)
Earth Systems 8 (1)
Time and Rates of Change in Earth Science 9 (3)
Threshold and Feedback Effects 12 (1)
Humans and Earth Systems 13 (6)
Focus On: Hypothesis, Theory, and Law 15 (4)
UNIT 1 EARTH MATERIALS AND TIME 19 (108)
Minerals 20 (24)
What Is a Mineral? 23 (1)
The Chemical Composition of Minerals 24 (1)
Crystals: The Crystalline Nature of 25 (3)
Minerals
Physical Properties of Minerals 28 (3)
Mineral Classes and the Rock-Forming 31 (2)
Minerals
Commercially Important Minerals 33 (3)
Harmful and Dangerous Rocks and Minerals 36 (8)
Focus On: Elements, Atoms, and Chemical 26 (18)
Bonds
Rocks 44 (29)
Rocks and the Rock Cycle 45 (2)
Igneous Rocks 47 (4)
Sedimentary Rocks 51 (10)
Metamorphic Rocks 61 (12)
Focus On: Cooling and Crystallization 52 (21)
of Magma: Bowen's Expertment
Geologic Time: A Story in the Rocks 73 (23)
Earth Rocks, Earth History, and Mass 74 (3)
Extinctions
Geologic Time 77 (2)
Relative Geologic Time 79 (2)
Unconformities and Correlation 81 (3)
Absolute Geologic Time 84 (5)
The Geologic Column and Time Scale 89 (7)
Focus On: Carbon-14 Dating 88 (8)
Geologic Resources 96 (31)
Mineral Resources 97 (1)
Ore and Ore Deposits 97 (8)
Mineral Reserves 105(1)
Mines and Mining 105(1)
Energy Resources: Coal, Petroleum, and 106(5)
Natural Gas
Energy Resources: Tar Sands and Oil Shale 111(1)
Energy Resources: Renewable Energy 112(3)
Energy Resources: Nuclear Fuels and 115(2)
Reactors
Conservation as an Alternitive Energy 117(2)
Resource
Energy for the Twenty-First Century 119(8)
Focus On: The 1872 Mining Law 103(24)
UNIT 2 INTERNAL PROCESSES 127(104)
The Active Earth: Plate Tectonics 128(26)
Alfred Wegener and the Origin of an Idea: 129(2)
The Continental Drift Hypothesis
The Earth's Layers 131(4)
The Sea-Floor Spreading Hypothesis 135(2)
The Theory of Plate Tectonics 137(6)
The Anatomy of a Tectonic Plate 143(1)
Why Plates Move: The Earth As a Heat 143(2)
Engine
Supercontinents 145(1)
Isostasy: Vertical Movement of the 145(1)
Lithosphere
How Plate Movements Affect Earth Systems 145(9)
Earthquakes and the Earth's Structure 154(26)
Anatomy of an Earthquake 155(2)
Earthquake Waves 157(4)
Earthquakes and Tectonic Plate Boundaries 161(5)
Earthquake Prediction 166(1)
Earthquake Damage and Hazard Mitigation 167(5)
Studying the Earth's Interior 172(2)
The Earth's Magnetism 174(6)
Volcanoes and Plutons 180(28)
Magma 181(3)
Basalt and Granite 184(2)
Partial Melting and the Origin of 186(1)
Continents
Magma Behavior 187(2)
Plutons 189(3)
Volcanoes 192(4)
Volcanic Explosions: Ash-Flow Tuffs and 196(4)
Calderas
Risk Assessment: Predicting Volcanic 200(2)
Eruptions
Volcanic Eruptions and Global Climate 202(6)
Mountains 208(23)
Folds and Faults: Geologic Structures 209(7)
Mountains and Mountain Ranges 216(1)
Island Arcs 217(1)
The Andes: Subduction at a Continental 218(3)
Margin
The Himalayas: A Collision between 221(4)
Continents
Mountains and Earth Systems 225(6)
UNIT 3 SURFACE PROCESSES 231(142)
Weathering, Soil, and Erosion 232(30)
Weathering and Erosion 233(1)
Mechanical Weathering 234(2)
Chemical Weathering 236(3)
Soil 239(8)
Erosion 247(1)
Landslides 247(4)
Types of Landslides 251(4)
Three Historic Landslides 255(2)
Predicting and Avoiding Landslides 257(5)
Focus On: Representative Reactions in 238(4)
Chemical Weathering
Focus On: Soil Erosion and Agriculture 242(6)
Focus On: The Hubbard Brook 248(14)
Experimental Forest
Fresh Water: Streams, Lakes, Ground Water, 262(33)
and Wetlands
The Water Cycle 263(1)
Streams 264(5)
Stream Erosion and Mountains: How 269(2)
Landscapes Evolve
Stream Deposition 271(1)
Floods 272(4)
Lakes 276(2)
Ground Water 278(7)
Hot Springs, Geysers, and Geothermal 285(2)
Energy
Wetlands 287(8)
Water Resources 295(31)
Water Supply and Demand 296(2)
Dams and Diversion 298(9)
The Great American Desert 307(4)
Water and International Politics 311(1)
Water Pollution 311(2)
How Sewage, Detergents, and Fertilizers 313(1)
Pollute Waterways
Toxic Pollutants, Risk Assessment, and 314(1)
Cost--Benefit Analysis
Ground Water Pollution 315(3)
Nuclear Waste Disposal---Yucca Mountain 318(2)
The Clean Water Act---A Modern Perspective 320(6)
Glaciers and Ice Ages 326(27)
Formation of Glaciers 327(1)
Glacial Movement 328(4)
Glacial Erosion 332(4)
Glacial Deposits 336(5)
The Pleistocene Ice Age 341(4)
Snowball Earth: The Greatest Ice Age in 345(2)
Earth History
The Earth's Disappearing Glaciers 347(6)
Deserts and Wind 353(20)
Why Do Deserts Exist? 354(3)
Water and Deserts 357(4)
Two American Deserts 361(1)
Wind 362(6)
Desertification 368(5)
UNIT 4 THE OCEANS 373(56)
Ocean Basins 374(24)
The Origin of Oceans 375(2)
The Earth's Oceans 377(1)
Studying the Sea Floor 378(1)
Features of the Sea Floor 379(9)
Sediment and Rocks of the Sea Floor 388(2)
Continental Margins 390(8)
Oceans and Coastlines 398(31)
Geography of the Oceans 400(1)
Sea Water 400(2)
Tides 402(2)
Sea Waves 404(1)
Storm Surge 405(1)
Ocean Currents 405(5)
The Sea Coast 410(2)
Emergent and Submergent Coastlines 412(4)
Beaches 416(4)
Life in the Sea 420(3)
Global Warming and Sea-Level Rise 423(6)
UNIT 5 THE ATMOSPHERE 429(128)
The Atmosphere: Evolution and Composition 430(21)
Earth's Early Atmospheres 432(1)
Life, Iron, and the Evolution of the 433(4)
Modern Atmosphere
The Modern Atmosphere 437(1)
Atmospheric Pressure 437(1)
Atmospheric Temperature 438(1)
Air Pollution 439(6)
Depletion of the Ozone Layer 445(6)
Energy Balance in the Atmosphere 451(19)
Incoming Solar Radiation 452(3)
The Radiation Balance 455(1)
Energy Storage and Transfer---The Driving 456(3)
Mechanisms for Weather and Climate
Temperature Changes with Latitude and 459(4)
Season
Temperature Changes with Geography 463(7)
Focus On: Latitude and Longitude 459(11)
Moisture, Clouds, and Weather 470(37)
Moisture in Air 471(1)
Cooling and Condensation 472(2)
Rising Air and Precipitation 474(3)
Types of Clouds 477(3)
Fog 480(1)
Pressure and Wind 481(3)
Fronts and Frontal Weather 484(6)
How Earth's Surface Features Affect 490(1)
Weather
Thunderstorms 491(2)
Tornadoes and Tropical Cyclones 493(3)
Hurricane Katrina 496(3)
El Nino 499(8)
Focus On: Inversion Layers and Air 476(31)
Pollution
Climate 507(21)
Major Factors That Control Earth's Climate 508(2)
Global Winds and Climate 510(3)
Ocean Currents and Climate 513(1)
Climate Zones of the Earth 513(10)
Urban Climates 523(5)
Climate Change 528(29)
Climate Change in Earth's History 530(3)
Measuring Climate Change 533(2)
Astronomical Causes of Climate Change 535(1)
Water and Climate 536(1)
The Natural Carbon Cycle and Climate 537(2)
Tectonics and Climate Change 539(2)
Greenhouse Effect: The Carbon Cycle and 541(6)
Global Warming
Feedback and Threshold Mechanisms in 547(3)
Climate Change
The Kyoto Treaty on Greenhouse Warming 550(7)
UNIT 6 ASTRONOMY 557(1)
Motions in the Heavens 558(23)
The Motions of the Heavenly Bodies 559(1)
Aristotle and the Earth-Centered Universe 559(5)
The Renaissance and the Heliocentric 564(3)
Solar System
The Motions of the Earth and the Moon 567(6)
Modern Astronomy 573(8)
Focus On: The Constellations 560(21)
Planets and Their Moons 581(26)
The Solar System: A Brief Overview 582(1)
The Terrestrial Planets 582(8)
The Moon: Our Nearest Neighbor 590(3)
The Jovian Planets: Size, Compositions, 593(4)
and Atmospheres
Moons of the Jovian Planets 597(3)
Planetary Rings 600(1)
Pluto and Beyond 601(1)
Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids 601(6)
Focus On: Extraterrestrial Life 592(15)
Stars, Space, and Galaxies 607(1)
In the Beginning: The Big Bang 608(2)
The Nonhomogeneous Universe 610(1)
The Birth of a Star 610(4)
The Sun 614(3)
Stars: The Main Sequence 617(2)
The Life and Death of a Star 619(3)
Neutron Stars, Pulsars, and Black Holes 622(3)
Galaxies 625(2)
Milky Way 627(2)
Quasars 629(1)
Dark Matter 630(1)
The End of the Universe 630(2)
Why Are We So Lucky? 632
Focus On: Measuring Distances in Space 617
APPENDIX
A Identifying Common Minerals 1 (9)
B Systems of Measurement 10 (3)
C Periodic Table of the Elements 13 (2)
International Table of Atomic Weights 14 (1)
D Rock Symbols 15 (1)
E Star Maps 16
Glossary 1 (1)
Index 1