Introductory Chemistry : An Active Learning Approach (3TH)

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Introductory Chemistry : An Active Learning Approach (3TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 744 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495110705
  • DDC分類 540

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry; 1 (14)
Introduction to Active Learning
1.1 Lavoisier and the Beginning of 3 (2)
Experimental Chemistry
1.2 Science and the Scientific Method 5 (1)
1.3 The Science of Chemistry Today 6 (1)
1.4 Learning How to Learn Chemistry 7 (2)
1.5 Your Textbook 9 (5)
1.6 A Choice 14 (1)
Chapter 2 Matter and Energy 15 (32)
2.1 Representations of Matter: Models and 16 (3)
Symbols
2.2 States of Matter 19 (2)
2.3 Physical and Chemical Properties and 21 (3)
Changes
2.4 Pure Substances and Mixtures 24 (4)
Everyday Chemistry: The Ultimate 25 (3)
Physical Property?
2.5 Separation of Mixtures 28 (2)
2.6 Elements and Compounds 30 (5)
2.7 The Electrical Character of Matter 35 (1)
2.8 Characteristics of a Chemical Change 36 (1)
2.9 Conservation Laws and Chemical Change 37 (10)
Chapter 3 Measurement and Chemical 47 (48)
calculations
3.1 Introduction to Measurement 49 (1)
3.2 Exponential (Scientific) Notation 49 (4)
3.3 Dimensional Analysis 53 (8)
3.4 Metric Units 61 (6)
3.5 Significant Figures 67 (8)
3.6 Metric-USCS Conversions 75 (1)
3.7 Temperature 76 (4)
Everyday Chemistry: Should the United 78 (2)
States Convert to Metric Units? An
Editorial
3.8 Proportionality and Density 80 (5)
3.9 A Strategy for Solving Problems 85 (1)
3.10 Thoughtful and Reflective Practice 86 (9)
Chapter 4 Introduction to Gases 95 (24)
4.1 Properties of Gases 96 (1)
4.2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases and the 97 (2)
Ideal Gas Model
4.3 Gas Measurements 99 (5)
Everyday Chemistry: The Weather Machine 103(1)
4.4 Charles's Law 104(4)
4.5 Boyle's Law 108(3)
4.6 The Combined Gas Law 111(8)
Chapter 5 Atomic Theory: the Nuclear Model 119(22)
of the Atom
5.1 Dalton's Atomic Theory 120(1)
5.2 Subatomic Particles 121(1)
5.3 The Nuclear Atom 122(2)
5.4 Isotopes 124(3)
5.5 Atomic Mass 127(2)
5.6 The Periodic Table 129(4)
Everyday Chemistry: International 132(1)
Relations and the Periodic Table
5.7 Elemental Symbols and the Periodic 133(8)
Table
Chapter 6 Chemical Nomenclature 141(32)
6.1 Introduction to Nomenclature 142(1)
6.2 Formulas of Elements 142(2)
6.3 Compounds Made from Two Nonmetals 144(2)
6.4 Names and Formulas of Ions Formed by 146(3)
One Element
6.5 Acids and the Anions Derived from 149(7)
Their Total Ionization
6.6 Names and Formulas of Acid Anions 156(1)
6.7 Names and Formulas of Other Acids and 157(2)
Ions
6.8 Formulas of Ionic Compounds 159(2)
6.9 Names of Ionic Compounds 161(1)
6.10 Hydrates 162(1)
6.11 Summary of the Nomenclature System 163(1)
6.12 Common Names of Chemicals 163(10)
Everyday Chemistry: Common Names of 166(7)
Chemicals
Chapter 7 Chemical formula Relationships 173(28)
7.1 The Number of Atoms in a Formula 174(1)
7.2 Molecular Mass and Formula Mass 175(4)
7.3 The Mole Concept 179(1)
7.4 Molar Mass 180(2)
7.5 Conversion Among Mass, Number of 182(2)
Moles, and Number of Units
7.6 Mass Relationships Among Elements in 184(3)
a Compound: Percentage Composition
7.7 Empirical Formula of a Compound 187(6)
Everyday Chemistry: How to Read a Food 192(1)
Label
7.8 Determination of a Molecular Formula 193(8)
Chapter 8 Chemical Reactions 201(30)
8.1 Evidence of a Chemical Change 202(2)
8.2 Evolution of a Chemical Equation 204(2)
8.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 206(5)
8.4 Interpreting Chemical Equations 211(1)
8.5 Writing Chemical Equations 212(1)
8.6 Combination Reactions 213(1)
8.7 Decomposition Reactions 214(4)
Everyday Chemistry: Femtochemistry 217(1)
8.8 Single-Replacement Reactions 218(2)
8.9 Double-Replacement Reactions 220(3)
8.10 Summary of Reactions and Equations 223(8)
Chapter 9 Chemical Change 231(36)
9.1 Electrolytes and Solution Conductivity 232(2)
9.2 Solutions of Ionic Compounds 234(3)
9.3 Strong and Weak Acids 237(3)
9.4 Net Ionic Equations: What They Are 240(3)
and How to Write Them
9.5 Single-Replacement 243(5)
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
9.6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Some 248(1)
Common Organic Compounds
Everyday Chemistry: An Every-Moment 249(1)
Type of Chemical Reaction
9.7 Double-Replacement Precipitation 249(6)
Reactions
Everyday Chemistry: Green Chemistry 255(1)
9.8 Double-Replacement Molecule-Formation 255(3)
Reactions
9.9 Double-Replacement Reactions That 258(1)
Form Unstable Products
9.10 Double-Replacement Reactions with 259(1)
Undissolved Reactants
9.11 Other Double-Replacement Reactions 260(1)
9.12 Summary of Net Ionic Equations 261(6)
Chapter 10 Quantity Relationships in 267(36)
Chemical Reactions
10.1 Conversion Factors from a Chemical 268(3)
Equation
10.2 Mass-Mass Stoichiometry 271(4)
10.3 Percent Yield 275(6)
Everyday Chemistry: The Stoichiometry 276(5)
of CO2 Emissions in Automobile Exhaust
10.4 Limiting Reactants: The Problem 281(1)
10.5 Limiting Reactants: 282(4)
Comparison-of-Moles Method
10.6 Limiting Reactants: Smaller-Amount 286(3)
Method
10.7 Energy 289(1)
10.8 Thermochemical Equations 290(2)
10.9 Thermochemical Stoichiometry 292(11)
Chapter 11 Atomic Theory: the Quantum Model 303(34)
of the Atom
11.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 304(3)
11.2 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 307(2)
11.3 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the 309(6)
Atom
Everyday Chemistry: Simply Pure Darn 314(1)
Foolishness?
11.4 Electron Configuration 315(6)
11.5 Valence Electrons 321(1)
11.6 Trends in the Periodic Table 322(15)
Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding 337(22)
12.1 Monatomic Ions with Noble-Gas 338(3)
Electron Configurations
12.2 Ionic Bonds 341(2)
12.3 Covalent Bonds 343(3)
12.4 Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 346(2)
12.5 Multiple Bonds 348(1)
12.6 Atoms That Are Bonded to Two or More 349(1)
Other Atoms
12.7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 350(1)
12.8 Metallic Bonds 351(8)
Everyday Chemistry: The Influence of 352(7)
Bonding on Macroscopic Properties
Chapter 13 Structure and Shape 359(32)
13.1 Drawing Lewis Diagrams 360(8)
13.2 Electron-Pair Repulsion: 368(2)
Electron-Pair Geometry
13.3 Molecular Geometry 370(7)
Everyday Chemistry: Chirality 376(1)
13.4 The Geometry of Multiple Bonds 377(1)
13.5 Polarity of Molecules 378(3)
13.6 The Structure of Some Organic 381(10)
Compounds (Optional)
Chapter 14 The Ideal Gas Law and Its 391(28)
Applications
14.1 Gases Revisited 392(1)
14.2 Avogadro's Law 393(2)
14.3 The Ideal Gas Law 395(2)
14.4 The Ideal Gas Equation: 397(2)
Determination of a Single Variable
14.5 Gas Density and Molar Volume 399(4)
14.6 Gas Stoichiometry at Standard 403(2)
Temperature and Pressure
14.7 Gas Stoichiometry: Molar Volume 405(3)
Method
14.8 Gas Stoichiometry: Ideal Gas 408(2)
Equation Method
14.9 Volume-Volume Gas Stoichiometry 410(9)
Everyday Chemistry: Automobile Air Bags 411(8)
Chapter 15 Gases, Liquids, and Solids 419(38)
15.1 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 420(2)
15.2 Properties of Liquids 422(4)
15.3 Types of Intermolecular Forces 426(4)
15.4 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium 430(4)
15.5 The Boiling Process 434(1)
15.6 Water---An "Unusual" Compound 435(1)
15.7 The Solid State 436(2)
15.8 Types of Crystalline Solids 438(4)
Everyday Chemistry: Buckyballs 440(2)
15.9 Energy and Change of State 442(2)
15.10 Energy and Change of Temperature: 444(3)
Specific Heat
15.11 Change in Temperature Plus Change 447(10)
of State
Chapter 16 Solutions 457(44)
16.1 The Characteristics of a Solution 458(1)
16.2 Solution Terminology 458(3)
16.3 The Formation of a Solution 461(2)
16.4 Factors That Determine Solubility 463(3)
16.5 Solution Concentration: Percentage 466(3)
by Mass
Everyday Chemistry: The World's Oceans: 468(1)
The Most Abundant Solution
16.6 Solution Concentration: Molarity 469(4)
16.7 Solution Concentration: Molality 473(1)
(Optional)
16.8 Solution Concentration: Normality 474(5)
(Optional)
16.9 Solution Concentration: A Summary 479(1)
16.10 Dilution of Concentrated Solutions 480(2)
16.11 Solution Stoichiometry 482(3)
16.12 Titration Using Molarity 485(3)
16.13 Titration Using Normality (Optional) 488(2)
16.14 Colligative Properties of Solutions 490(11)
(Optional)
Chapter 17 Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) 501(26)
Reactions
17.1 The Arrhenius Theory of Acids and 502(1)
Bases (Optional)
17.2 The Brønsted-Lowry Theory of 503(3)
Acids and Bases
17.3 The Lewis Theory of Acids and Bases 506(1)
(Optional)
17.4 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 507(2)
17.5 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases 509(2)
17.6 Predicting Acid-Base Reactions 511(2)
17.7 Acid-Base Reactions and Redox 513(1)
Reactions Compared
17.8 The Water Equilibrium 513(2)
17.9 pH and pOH (Integer Values Only) 515(6)
Everyday Chemistry: Acid-Base Reactions 520(1)
17.10 Noninteger pH-[H+] and pOH-[OH-] 521(6)
Conversions (Optional)
Chapter 18 Chemical Equilibrium 527(38)
18.1 The Character of an Equilibrium 528(1)
18.2 The Collision Theory of Chemical 528(2)
Reactions
18.3 Energy Changes During a Molecular 530(2)
Collision
18.4 Conditions That Affect the Rate of a 532(3)
Chemical Reaction
18.5 The Development of a Chemical 535(1)
Equilibrium
18.6 Le Chatelier's Principle 536(7)
Everyday Chemistry: Fertilization of 542(1)
the World's Crops
18.7 The Equilibrium Constant 543(3)
18.8 The Significance of the Value of K 546(1)
18.9 Equilibrium Calculations (Optional) 547(18)
Chapter 19 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) 565(26)
Reactions
19.1 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 566(2)
19.2 Electron-Transfer Reactions 568(5)
19.3 Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions 573(3)
19.4 Oxidizing Agents (Oxidizers) and 576(1)
Reducing Agents (Reducers)
19.5 Strengths of Oxidizing Agents and 577(2)
Reducing Agents
19.6 Predicting Redox Reactions 579(4)
Everyday Chemistry: Batteries 582(1)
19.7 Redox Reactions and Acid-Base 583(1)
Reactions Compared
19.8 Writing Redox Equations (Optional) 583(8)
Chapter 20 Nuclear Chemistry 591(28)
20.1 The Dawn of Nuclear Chemistry 592(1)
20.2 Radioactivity 592(2)
20.3 The Detection and Measurement of 594(2)
Radioactivity
20.4 The Effects of Radiation on Living 596(1)
Systems
20.5 Half-Life 597(5)
20.6 Natural Radioactive Decay 602(2)
Series---Nuclear Equations
20.7 Nuclear Reactions and Ordinary 604(1)
Chemical Reactions Compared
20.8 Nuclear Bombardment and Induced 605(2)
Radioactivity
20.9 Uses of Radionuclides 607(1)
20.10 Nuclear Fission 608(2)
20.11 Electrical Energy from Nuclear 610(3)
Fission
Everyday Chemistry: Medicine and 612(1)
Radionuclides
20.12 Nuclear Fusion 613(6)
Chapter 21 Organic Chemistry 619(44)
21.1 The Nature of Organic Chemistry 620(1)
21.2 The Molecular Structure of Organic 621(2)
Compounds
21.3 Saturated Hydrocarbons: The Alkanes 623(5)
and Cycloalkanes
21.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: The 628(4)
Alkenes and Alkynes
21.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 632(1)
21.6 Summary of the Hydrocarbons 633(1)
21.7 Sources and Preparation of 633(2)
Hydrocarbons
21.8 Chemical Reactions of Hydrocarbons 635(2)
21.9 Uses of Hydrocarbons 637(1)
21.10 Alcohols and Ethers 638(3)
21.11 Aldehydes and Ketones 641(4)
21.12 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 645(2)
21.13 Amines and Amides 647(2)
21.14 Summary of the Organic Compounds of 649(2)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
Everyday Chemistry: "In Which the 651(1)
Shape's the Thing . . ."
21.15 Addition Polymers 651(3)
21.16 Condensation Polymers 654(9)
Chapter 22 Biochemistry 663(30)
22.1 Amino Acids and Proteins 665(7)
22.2 Enzymes 672(2)
22.3 Carbohydrates 674(6)
22.4 Lipids 680(4)
22.5 Nucleic Acids 684(9)
Everyday Chemistry: Designer Genes 688(5)
Appendix I Chemical Calculations 693(10)
Part A The Hand Calculator 693(4)
Part B Arithmetic and Algebra 697(3)
Part C Logarithms 700(1)
Part D Estimating Calculation Results 701(2)
Answers to Practice Problems in 701(2)
Appendix 1
Appendix II The SI System of Units 703(2)
Base Units 703(1)
Derived Units 703(1)
Some Choices 703(2)
Answers 705
Glossary 1 (1)
Index 1