Behavior Modification : Principles and Procedures (4TH)

Behavior Modification : Principles and Procedures (4TH)

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  • 言語 ENG,ENG
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Table of Contents

    Introduction to Behavior Modification          1  (20)
Defining Human Behavior 2 (2)
Examples of Behavior 4 (1)
Defining Behavior Modification 5 (1)
Characteristics of Behavior Modification 5 (2)
Historical Roots of Behavior Modification 7 (3)
Major Figures 7 (2)
Early Behavior Modification Researchers 9 (1)
Major Publications and Events 9 (1)
Areas of Application 10 (4)
Developmental Disabilities 10 (1)
Mental Illness 11 (1)
Education and Special Education 11 (1)
Rehabilitation 12 (1)
Community Psychology 12 (1)
Clinical Psychology 12 (1)
Business, Industry, and Human Services 12 (1)
Self-Management 13 (1)
Child Management 13 (1)
Prevention 13 (1)
Sports Psychology 13 (1)
Health-Related Behaviors 13 (1)
Gerontology 14 (1)
The Structure of this Textbook 14 (1)
Measurement of Behavior and Behavior 14 (1)
Change
Basic Principles of Behavior 14 (1)
Procedures to Establish New Behaviors 14 (1)
Procedures to Increase Desirable 15 (1)
Behaviors and Decrease Undesirable
Behaviors
Other Behavior Change Procedures 15 (1)
Chapter Summary 15 (1)
Key Terms 16 (1)
Practice Test 16 (1)
Chapter Quizzes 17 (4)
PART 1 MEASUREMENT OF BEHAVIOR AND BEHAVIOR
CHANGE
Observing and Recording Behavior 21 (26)
Direct and Indirect Assessment 22 (1)
Defining the Target Behavior 23 (1)
The Logistics of Recording 24 (3)
The Observer 24 (1)
When and Where to Record 25 (2)
Choosing a Recording Method 27 (5)
Continuous Recording 27 (3)
Percentage of Opportunities 30 (1)
Product Recording 30 (1)
Interval Recording 31 (1)
Time Sample Recording 31 (1)
Choosing a Recording Instrument 32 (4)
Reactivity 36 (1)
Interobserver Reliability 37 (1)
Chapter Summary 38 (1)
Key Terms 38 (1)
Practice Test 39 (1)
Applications 39 (1)
Misapplications 40 (3)
Chapter Quizzes 43 (4)
Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change 47 (26)
Components of a Graph 48 (3)
Graphing Behavioral Data 51 (1)
Graphing Different Dimensions of Behavior 52 (2)
Research Designs 54 (10)
A-B Design 55 (1)
A-B-A-B Reversal Design 56 (1)
Multiple-Baseline Design 57 (2)
Alternating-Treatments Design 59 (3)
Changing-Criterion Design 62 (2)
Chapter Summary 64 (1)
Key Terms 65 (1)
Practice Test 65 (1)
Applications 66 (1)
Misapplications 67 (2)
Chapter Quizzes 69 (4)
PART 2 BASIC PRINCIPLES
Reinforcement 73 (28)
Defining Reinforcement 75 (3)
Positive and Negative Reinforcement 78 (2)
Social versus Automatic Reinforcement 80 (1)
Escape and Avoidance Behaviors 80 (2)
Conditioned and Unconditioned Reinforcers 82 (1)
Factors that Influence the Effectiveness 83 (1)
of Reinforcement
Immediacy 83 (3)
Contingency 84 (1)
Establishing Operations 84 (1)
Individual Differences 85 (1)
Magnitude 86 (1)
Schedules of Reinforcement 86 (5)
Fixed Ratio 88 (1)
Variable Ratio 88 (1)
Fixed Interval 89 (1)
Variable Interval 90 (1)
Reinforcing Different Dimensions of 91 (1)
Behavior
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement 91 (1)
Chapter Summary 92 (1)
Key Terms 93 (1)
Practice Test 93 (1)
Appendix A 94 (1)
Appendix B 95 (2)
Chapter Quizzes 97 (4)
Extinction 101(18)
Defining Extinction 102(2)
Extinction Burst 104(2)
Spontaneous Recovery 106(1)
Procedural Variations of Extinction 107(2)
A Common Misconception About Extinction 109(1)
Factors that Influence Extinction 110(2)
Chapter Summary 112(1)
Key Terms 112(1)
Practice Test 112(1)
Appendix A 112(3)
Chapter Quizzes 115(4)
Punishment 119(24)
Defining Punishment 119(3)
A Common Misconception About Punishment 122(1)
Positive and Negative Punishment 122(5)
Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers 127(1)
Contrasting Reinforcement and Punishment 128(2)
Factors that Influence the Effectiveness 130(3)
of Punishment
Immediacy 131(1)
Contingency 131(1)
Establishing Operations 131(1)
Individual Differences and Magnitude of 132(1)
the Punisher
Problems with Punishment 133(2)
Emotional Reactions to Punishment 133(1)
Escape and Avoidance 134(1)
Negative Reinforcement for the Use of 134(1)
Punishment
Punishment and Modeling 134(1)
Ethical Issues 135(1)
Chapter Summary 135(1)
Key Terms 136(1)
Practice Test 136(1)
Appendix A 137(2)
Chapter Quizzes 139(4)
Stimulus Control: Discrimination and 143(22)
Generalization
Examples of Stimulus Control 144(1)
Defining Stimulus Control 144(2)
Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus 146(1)
Discrimination Training
Discrimination Training in the Laboratory 147(3)
Developing Reading and Spelling with 148(1)
Discrimination Training
Stimulus Discrimination Training and 149(1)
Punishment
The Three-Term Contingency 149(1)
Stimulus Control Research 150(1)
Generalization 151(1)
Examples of Generalization 152(5)
Chapter Summary 157(1)
Key Terms 157(1)
Practice Test 157(1)
Appendix A 158(3)
Chapter Quizzes 161(4)
Respondent Conditioning 165(20)
Examples of Respondent Conditioning 165(1)
Defining Respondent Conditioning 166(3)
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and 169(1)
Unconditioned Stimulus
Higher-Order Conditioning 170(1)
Conditioned Emotional Responses 171(2)
Extinction of Conditioned Responses 173(1)
Spontaneous Recovery 173(1)
Discrimination and Generalization of 174(1)
Respondent Behavior
Factors that Influence Respondent 174(2)
Conditioning
The Nature of the Unconditioned 175(1)
Stimulus and Conditioned Stimulus
The Temporal Relationship between the 175(1)
Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned
Stimulus
Contingency between the Conditioned 175(1)
Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus
The Number of Pairings 175(1)
Previous Exposure to the Conditioned 176(1)
Stimulus
Distinguishing Between Operant and 176(3)
Respondent Conditioning
Respondent Conditioning and Behavior 179(1)
Modification
Chapter Summary 179(1)
Key Terms 180(1)
Practice Test 180(1)
Chapter Quizzes 181(4)
PART 3 PROCEDURES TO ESTABLISH NEW BEHAVIOR
Shaping 185(20)
An Example of Shaping: Teaching a Child 185(1)
to Talk
Defining Shaping 186(2)
Applications of Shaping 188(1)
Getting Mrs. F to Walk Again 188(1)
Getting Mrs. S to Increase the Time 189(1)
between Bathroom Visits
Research on Shaping 189(5)
How to Use Shaping 194(2)
Shaping of Problem Behaviors 196(2)
Chapter Summary 198(1)
Key Terms 199(1)
Practice Test 199(1)
Applications 199(1)
Misapplications 200(1)
Chapter Quizzes 201(4)
Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control 205(22)
An Example of Prompting and Fading: 205(2)
Teaching Little Leaguers to Hit the Ball
What is Prompting? 207(1)
What is Fading? 208(2)
Types of Prompts 210(3)
Response Prompts 210(1)
Stimulus Prompts 211(2)
Transfer of Stimulus Control 213(5)
Prompt Fading 213(2)
Prompt Delay 215(1)
Stimulus Fading 216(2)
How to Use Prompting and Transfer of 218(2)
Stimulus Control
Chapter Summary 220(1)
Key Terms 221(1)
Practice Test 221(1)
Applications 222(1)
Misapplications 222(1)
Chapter Quizzes 223(4)
Chaining 227(24)
Examples of Behavioral Chains 227(1)
Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains 228(1)
Task Analysis 229(3)
Backward Chaining 232(2)
Forward Chaining 234(2)
Total Task Presentation 236(2)
Other Strategies for Teaching Behavioral 238(5)
Chains
Written Task Analysis 240(1)
Picture Prompts 240(1)
Self-Instructions 241(2)
How to Use Chaining Procedures 243(1)
Chapter Summary 244(1)
Key Terms 244(1)
Practice Test 244(1)
Applications 245(1)
Misapplications 245(2)
Chapter Quizzes 247(4)
Behavioral Skills Training Procedures 251(22)
Examples of Behavioral Skills Training 251(1)
Procedures
Teaching Marcia to Say ``No'' to the 251(1)
Professors
Teaching Children to Protect Themselves 252(1)
from Abduction
Components of the Behavioral Skills 252(5)
Training Procedure
Modeling 252(3)
Instructions 255(1)
Rehearsal 256(1)
Feedback 256(1)
Enhancing Generalization After Behavioral 257(1)
Skills Training
In Situ Training 258(1)
Behavioral Skills Training and the 259(1)
Three-Term Contingency
Behavioral Skills Training in Groups 259(1)
Applications of Behavioral Skills 260(4)
Training Procedures
How to Use Behavioral Skills Training 264(1)
Procedures
Chapter Summary 265(1)
Key Terms 266(1)
Practice Test 266(1)
Applications 267(1)
Misapplications 267(2)
Chapter Quizzes 269(4)
PART 4 PROCEDURES TO INCREASE DESIRABLE
BEHAVIOR AND DECREASE UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR
Understanding Problem Behaviors through 273(30)
Functional Assessment
Examples of Functional Assessment 273(3)
Jacob 273(2)
Anna 275(1)
Defining Functional Assessment 276(1)
Functions of Problem Behaviors 277(1)
Social Positive Reinforcement 277(1)
Social Negative Reinforcement 277(1)
Automatic Positive Reinforcement 278(1)
Automatic Negative Reinforcement 278(1)
Functional Assessment Methods 278(11)
Indirect Methods 278(2)
Direct Observation Methods 280(6)
Experimental Methods (Functional 286(3)
Analysis)
Functional Analysis Research 289(3)
Conducting a Functional Assessment 292(2)
Chapter Summary 294(1)
Key Terms 295(1)
Practice Test 295(1)
Applications 295(3)
Misapplications 298(1)
Chapter Quizzes 299(4)
Applying Extinction 303(24)
The Case of Willy 303(3)
Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem 306(7)
Behavior
Collecting Data to Assess Treatment 306(1)
Effects
Identifying the Reinforcer for the 307(1)
Problem Behavior through Functional
Assessment
Eliminating the Reinforcer after Each 307(6)
Instance of the Problem Behavior
Taking Account of the Schedule of 313(2)
Reinforcement Before Extinction
Reinforcing Alternative Behaviors 315(1)
Promoting Generalization and Maintenance 315(1)
Research Evaluating the Use of Extinction 316(3)
Chapter Summary 319(1)
Key Terms 320(1)
Practice Test 320(1)
Applications 320(1)
Misapplications 321(1)
Appendix A 322(1)
Appendix B 322(1)
Chapter Quizzes 323(4)
Differential Reinforcement 327(32)
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative 327(11)
Behavior
Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive 327(2)
When to Use DRA 329(1)
How to Use DRA 330(2)
Using Differential Negative 332(2)
Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors
Variations of DRA 334(1)
Research on DRA 335(3)
Differential Reinforcement of Other 338(6)
Behavior
Defining DRO 339(2)
Research Evaluating DRO Procedures 341(3)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates 344(6)
of Responding
Defining DRL 345(1)
Variations of DRL 345(1)
Implementing DRL Procedures 346(2)
Research Evaluating DRL Procedures 348(2)
Chapter Summary 350(1)
Key Terms 351(1)
Practice Test 351(1)
Applications 352(1)
Misapplications 352(3)
Chapter Quizzes 355(4)
Antecedent Control Procedures 359(30)
Examples of Antecedent Control 359(2)
Getting Marianne to Study More 359(1)
Getting Cat to Eat Right 360(1)
Defining Antecedent Control Procedures 361(8)
Presenting the Discriminative Stimulus 361(2)
(SD) or Cues for the Desired Behavior
Arranging Establishing Operations for 363(1)
the Desirable Behavior
Decreasing Response Effort for the 364(2)
Desirable Behavior
Removing the Discriminative Stimulus or 366(1)
Cues for Undesirable Behaviors
Removing Establishing Operations for 367(1)
Undesirable Behaviors
Increasing the Response Effort for 368(1)
Undesirable Behaviors
Research on Antecedent Control Strategies 369(8)
Manipulating Discriminative Stimuli 370(2)
Manipulating Response Effort 372(2)
Manipulating Establishing Operations 374(3)
Using Antecedent Control Strategies 377(3)
Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency 378(1)
for the Desirable Behavior
Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency 379(1)
for the Undesirable Behavior
Functional, Nonaversive Interventions 379(1)
for Problem Behaviors
Chapter Summary 380(1)
Key Terms 380(1)
Practice Test 380(1)
Applications 381(1)
Misapplications 382(3)
Chapter Quizzes 385(4)
Using Punishment: Time-out and Response Cost 389(22)
Time-out 390(9)
Types of Time-out 392(1)
Using Reinforcement with Time-out 392(1)
Considerations in Using Time-out 393(3)
Research Evaluating Time-out Procedures 396(3)
Response Cost 399(5)
Defining Response Cost 399(1)
Using Differential Reinforcement with 400(1)
Response Cost
Comparing Response Cost, Time-out, and 400(1)
Extinction
Considerations in Using Response Cost 401(1)
Research Evaluating Response Cost 402(2)
Procedures
Chapter Summary 404(1)
Key Terms 404(1)
Practice Test 405(1)
Applications 405(1)
Misapplications 406(1)
Chapter Quizzes 407(4)
Positive Punishment Procedures and the 411(22)
Ethics of Punishment
Application of Aversive Activities 411(7)
Overcorrection 413(1)
Contingent Exercise 414(1)
Guided Compliance 415(2)
Physical Restraint 417(1)
Cautions in the Application of Aversive 418(1)
Activities
Application of Aversive Stimulation 418(3)
Positive Punishment: Treatment of Last 421(1)
Resort
Considerations in Using Positive 422(1)
Punishment
The Ethics of Punishment 423(2)
Informed Consent 423(1)
Alternative Treatments 423(1)
Recipient Safety 424(1)
Problem Severity 424(1)
Implementation Guidelines 424(1)
Training and Supervision 424(1)
Peer Review 424(1)
Accountability: Preventing Misuse and 424(1)
Overuse
Chapter Summary 425(1)
Key Terms 425(1)
Practice Test 426(1)
Applications 426(1)
Misapplications 427(2)
Chapter Quizzes 429(4)
Promoting Generalization 433(24)
Examples of Generalization Programming 433(1)
Defining Generalization 434(1)
Strategies for Promoting Generalization 435(10)
of Behavior Change
Reinforcing Occurrences of 435(1)
Generalization
Training Skills That Contact Natural 436(1)
Contingencies of Reinforcement
Modifying Natural Contingencies of 437(2)
Reinforcement and Punishment
Incorporating a Variety of Relevant 439(3)
Stimulus Situations in Training
Incorporating Common Stimuli 442(1)
Teaching a Range of Functionally 442(1)
Equivalent Responses
Incorporating Self-Generated Mediators 443(2)
of Generalization
Implementing Strategies to Promote 445(1)
Generalization
Promoting Generalized Reductions in 446(2)
Problem Behaviors
Chapter Summary 448(1)
Key Terms 448(1)
Practice Test 448(1)
Applications 449(1)
Misapplications 450(3)
Chapter Quizzes 453(4)
PART 5 OTHER BEHAVIOR CHANGE PROCEDURES
Self-Management 457(22)
Examples of Self-Management 457(2)
Getting Murray to Run Regularly 457(2)
Getting Annette to Clean up Her Mess 459(1)
Defining Self-Management Problems 459(2)
Defining Self-Management 461(1)
Types of Self-Management Strategies 462(5)
Goal-Setting and Self-Monitoring 462(1)
Antecedent Manipulations 463(1)
Behavioral Contracting 464(1)
Arranging Reinforcers and Punishers 464(1)
Social Support 465(1)
Self-Instructions and Self-Praise 466(1)
Steps in a Self-Management Plan 467(3)
Chapter Summary 470(1)
Key Terms 471(1)
Practice Test 471(1)
Applications 472(1)
Misapplications 472(3)
Chapter Quizzes 475(4)
Habit Reversal Procedures 479(18)
Examples of Habit Behaviors 479(1)
Defining Habit Behaviors 480(2)
Nervous Habits 480(1)
Motor and Vocal Tics 481(1)
Stuttering 482(1)
Habit Reversal Procedures 482(1)
Applications of Habit Reversal 483(3)
Nervous Habits 483(1)
Motor and Vocal Tics 484(2)
Stuttering 486(1)
Why Do Habit Reversal Procedures Work? 486(2)
Other Treatment Procedures for Habit 488(2)
Disorders
Chapter Summary 490(1)
Key Terms 491(1)
Practice Test 491(1)
Applications 491(1)
Misapplications 492(1)
Chapter Quizzes 493(4)
The Token Economy 497(24)
Rehabilitating Sammy 497(1)
Defining a Token Economy 498(2)
Implementing a Token Economy 500(5)
Defining the Target Behaviors 500(1)
Identifying the Items to Use as Tokens 500(1)
Identifying Backup Reinforcers 501(1)
Deciding on the Appropriate Schedule of 502(1)
Reinforcement
Establishing the Token Exchange Rate 503(1)
Establishing the Time and Place for 503(1)
Exchanging Tokens
Deciding Whether to Use Response Cost 504(1)
Staff Training and Management 505(1)
Practical Considerations 505(2)
Applications of a Token Economy 507(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Token 510(3)
Economy
Chapter Summary 513(1)
Key Terms 514(1)
Practice Test 514(1)
Applications 514(1)
Misapplications 515(2)
Chapter Quizzes 517(4)
Behavioral Contracts 521(20)
Examples of Behavioral Contracting 521(2)
Getting Steve to Complete His 521(2)
Dissertation
Helping Dan and His Parents Get Along 523(1)
Better
Defining the Behavioral Contract 523(1)
Components of a Behavioral Contract 524(2)
Types of Behavioral Contracts 526(3)
One-Party Contracts 527(1)
Two-Party Contracts 527(2)
Negotiating a Behavioral Contract 529(1)
Why Do Behavioral Contracts Influence 529(2)
Behavior?
Applications of Behavioral Contracts 531(3)
Chapter Summary 534(1)
Key Terms 534(1)
Practice Test 534(1)
Applications 535(1)
Misapplications 535(2)
Chapter Quizzes 537(4)
Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures 541(24)
Examples of Fear and Anxiety Reduction 541(2)
Overcoming Trisha's Fear of Public 541(1)
Speaking
Overcoming Allision's Fear of Spiders 542(1)
Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems 543(3)
Procedures to Reduce Fear and Anxiety 546(12)
Relaxation Training 546(5)
Systematic Desensitization 551(3)
In Vivo Desensitization 554(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of 555(2)
Systematic and In Vivo Desensitization
Other Treatments for Fears 557(1)
Clinical Problems 558(1)
Chapter Summary 558(1)
Key Terms 558(1)
Practice Test 559(1)
Applications 559(1)
Misapplications 560(1)
Chapter Quizzes 561(4)
Cognitive Behavior Modification 565(20)
Examples of Cognitive Behavior 565(3)
Modification
Helping Deon Control His Anger 565(2)
Helping Claire Pay Attention in Class 567(1)
Defining Cognitive Behavior Modification 568(2)
Defining Cognitive Behavior 568(1)
Functions of Cognitive Behavior 569(1)
Cognitive Behavior Modification Procedures 570(8)
Cognitive Restructuring 570(4)
Cognitive Coping Skills Training 574(3)
Acceptance-Based Therapies 577(1)
Clinical Problems 578(1)
Chapter Summary 578(1)
Key Terms 578(1)
Practice Test 578(1)
Applications 579(1)
Misapplications 579(2)
Chapter Quizzes 581(4)
Glossary 585(12)
References 597(26)
Name Index 623(6)
Subject Index 629