環境中における有機金属成分<br>Organometallic Compounds in the Environment (2ND)

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環境中における有機金属成分
Organometallic Compounds in the Environment (2ND)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 400 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780471899938
  • DDC分類 547.05

基本説明

Discusses several minority elements including antimony and selenium.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors                               xiv
Preface xvi
1 Occurrence and Pathways of Organometallic 1 (56)
Compounds in the Environment-General
Considerations
P.J. Craig, G. Eng and R.O. Jenkins
1.1 Scope of this Work 1 (3)
1.2 General Approach: Speciation, 4 (2)
Concentration and Terminology
1.3 Types of Organometallic Compound 6 (1)
1.4 Thermodynamic Stability of 7 (3)
Organometallic Compounds
1.5 Kinetic Stability of Organometallic 10 (2)
Compounds
1.6 Stability of Organometallic Compounds 12 (3)
to Atmospheric Oxidation
1.7 Stability of Organometallics to Water 15 (1)
1.8 Stability of Organometallics to Light 16 (4)
and Atmospheric Reagents
1.9 Coordination Preferences of 20 (1)
Organometallic Species in the Environment
1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds 21 (1)
in Biological Systems
1.11 General Comments on the Tonicities of 22 (2)
Organometallic Compounds
1.12 General Considerations on 24 (1)
Environmental Reactivity of Organometallic
Compounds
1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals 25 (16)
and Metalloids
1.13.1 Introduction 25 (1)
1.13.2 Reduction and Oxidation 26 (7)
1.13.3 Methylation and Alkylation 33 (1)
1.13.4 Mechanisms of Biomethylation 34 (7)
1.14 Correlation of Quantitative 41 (8)
Structure-Activity Relationships with
Organotin Molecular Topology and Bioactivity
1.15 Practical Considerations 49 (1)
1.16 References 49 (8)
2 Organomercury Compounds in the Environment 57 (44)
R.P. Mason and J.M. Benoit
2.1 Introduction 57 (1)
2.2 Human Health Concerns Related to 58 (3)
Methylmercury (MMHg)
2.3 Toxicity and Wildlife 61 (2)
2.4 Analytical Methods 63 (3)
2.5 Methylmercury Cycling at the Earth's 66 (6)
Surface
2.5.1 Methylmercury in Water 66 (3)
2.5.2 Methylated Mercury in the Atmosphere 69 (3)
2.6 Methylmercury Production, 72 (12)
Decomposition, and Bioaccumulation
2.6.1 Pathways of Mercury Methylation 72 (1)
2.6.2 Pathways of MMHg Demethylation 73 (2)
2.6.3 Environmental Factors that Affect 75 (3)
MMHg Production
2.6.4 Factors that Affect the 78 (6)
Bioaccumulation of MMHg
2.7 References 84 (17)
3 Organotin Compounds in the Environment 101(50)
F. Cima, P.J. Craig aid C. Harington
3.1 Introduction 101(3)
3.2 Use of TBT in Antifouling Preparations 104(2)
3.3 Legislation on TBT 106(1)
3.4 Distribution in the Environment 107(4)
3.5 Biomethylation 111(1)
3.6 Overview of Decay Rates of TBT and 112(1)
other Organotins in Water and Sediments
3.7 Methods for the Analysis of Organotin 113(14)
Speciation in the Environment
3.7.1 Sample Preparation Methods 114(3)
3.7.2 Analytical Methods Based on Gas 117(6)
Chromatography
3.7.3 Analytical Methods Based on Liquid 123(2)
Chromatography
3.7.4 Analytical Methods Based on Other 125(1)
Techniques
3.7.5 Calibration Techniques 125(2)
3.7.6 Certified Reference Methods 127(1)
3.8 General Toxicology of Organotin 127(24)
Compounds
3.8.1 Human Toxicology 129(1)
3.8.2 Bioaccumulation 130(3)
3.8.3 Neurotoxicity 133(1)
3.8.4 Hepatotoxicity 133(1)
3.8.5 Haemolysis 134(1)
3.8.6 Immunotoxicity 134(1)
3.8.7 Mutagenicity/Genotoxicity 135(1)
3.8.8 Carcinogenicity 136(1)
3.8.9 Sterility 136(1)
3.8.10 Embryotoxicity 137(2)
3.8.11 Mechanisms of toxicity 139(2)
3.9 References 141(10)
4 Organolead Compounds in the Environment 151(44)
J. Yoshinaga
4.1 Introduction 151(2)
4.2 Tetraalkyllead in Gasoline 153(1)
4.3 Leaded Gasoline Phaseout 154(3)
4.4 Analytical Methods for Organolead 157(8)
Compounds
4.4.1 Atmospheric Samples 160(1)
4.4.2 Water Samples 161(2)
4.4.3 Sediment and Soil Samples 163(1)
4.4.4 Biological Samples 164(1)
4.4.5 Analytical Quality Assurance 165(1)
4.5 Occurrence in Nature 165(7)
4.5.1 Air 165(5)
4.5.2 Environmental Waters 170(2)
4.5.3 Sediment and Soil 172(1)
4.5.4 Organisms 172(1)
4.6 Environmental Dynamics 172(13)
4.6.1 Source of TALs in the Environment 172(4)
4.6.2 Decomposition in the Atmospheric 176(1)
Environment
4.6.3 Decomposition in the Aquatic 177(2)
Environment
4.6.4 Decomposition in the Soil 179(1)
4.6.5 Metabolism in Organisms 180(3)
4.6.6 Natural Alkylation of Lead Compounds 183(2)
4.7 Toxicity to Organisms 185(3)
4.7.1 Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms 185(1)
4.7.2 Toxicity to Terrestrial Organisms 186(1)
4.7.3 Toxicity to Experimental Animals 186(1)
and Humans
4.7.4 Environmental Health Aspects 186(2)
4.8 Conclusions 188(1)
4.9 References 189(6)
5 Organoarsenic Compounds in the Marine 195(28)
Environment
J.S. Edmonds and K.A. Francesconi
5.1 Arsenic Concentrations in Sea Water, 195(3)
Marine Algae and Marine Animals
5.2 Chemical Forms of Arsenic in Marine 198(12)
Algae and Marine Animals
5.2.1 Introduction 198(5)
5.2.2 Biosynthesis of Arsenosugars 203(2)
5.2.3 Biosynthesis of Arsenobetaine: The 205(3)
Conversion of Arsenosugars
5.2.4 An Alternative Scheme for the 208(2)
Formation of Arsenobetaine
5.3 Other Organoarsenic Compounds from 210(2)
Marine Animals
5.4 The Microbial Degradation of Marine 212(1)
Organoarsenic Compounds
5.5 Electrospray Ionization Mass 213(2)
Spectrometry for Determining Arsenic
Compounds in Marine Environmental Samples
5.6 Advantages of Electrospray Ionization 215(4)
MS over ICPMS
5.7 References 219(4)
6 Organoarsenic Compounds in the Terrestrial 223(54)
Environment
D. Kuehnelt and W. Goessler
6.1 Introduction 223(2)
6.2 Analytical Methods for the 225(3)
Identification and Quantification of
Organoarsenic Compounds
6.3 Organoarsenic Compounds Present in the 228(16)
Terrestrial Environment
6.3.1 Water 228(1)
6.3.2 Soil and Sediments 229(2)
6.3.3 Microorganisms 231(3)
6.3.4 Freshwater Algae 234(2)
6.3.5 Higher Fungi 236(5)
6.3.6 Lichens 241(1)
6.3.7 Green Plants 242(2)
6.4 Presence and Transformation of Arsenic 244(11)
Species in Animals
6.4.1 Non-mammals 244(4)
6.4.2 Mammals 248(7)
6.5 Presence and Transformation of Arsenic 255(10)
Species in Humans
6.6 The Metabolism of Arsenic Compounds in 265(3)
Freshwater Food Chains
6.7 Conclusions and Future Prospects 268(1)
6.8 References 269(8)
7 Organoantimony Compounds in the Environment 277(28)
P. Andrewes and W.R. Cullen
7.1 Introduction 277(2)
7.2 Chemistry 279(3)
7.2.1 Terminology 279(1)
7.2.2 Synthesis of Methylantimony Species 279(1)
7.2.3 Stability of Trimethylstibine 280(2)
7.3 Uses and Environmental Distribution of 282(2)
Antimony Compounds
7.4 Toxicology of Antimony Compounds 284(1)
7.5 Analytical Methods for Environmental 285(4)
Antimony Speciation
7.5.1 Introduction 285(1)
7.5.2 Sample Preparation and Storage 285(1)
7.5.3 Gas Chromatography 286(1)
7.5.4 Liquid Chromatography 287(1)
7.5.5 Mass Spectrometry 288(1)
7.6 Inorganic Antimony Compounds in the 289(1)
Environment
7.7 Organoantimony Compounds in the 290(4)
Environment
7.7.1 Volatile Organoantimony Compounds 290(1)
7.7.2 Organoantimony Compounds in Waters 291(2)
and Sediment
7.7.3 Organoantimony Compounds in Soil 293(1)
7.7.4 Organoantimony Compounds in Plants 293(1)
and Animals
7.8 Biological Production of Organoantimony 294(4)
Compounds in the Laboratory
7.8.1 Introduction 294(1)
7.8.2 Antimony, Microorganisms and Sudden 294(1)
Infant Death Syndrome
7.8.3 Production of Trimethylstibine by 295(1)
Mixed Anaerobic Cultures
7.8.4 Microbiological Production of 296(1)
Organoantimony Compounds by Aerobic
Cultures
7.8.5 Microbiological Production of 297(1)
Organoantimony Compounds by Anaerobic
Bacteria
7.8.6 The Mechanism of Antimony 297(1)
Biomethylation and the Production of
Soluble Organoantimony Species
7.9 Antimony and Algae 298(1)
7.10 Antimony Metabolism in Mammals 299(1)
7.11 Conclusions/Future Directions 299(1)
7.12 References 300(5)
8 Organosilicon Compounds in the Environment 305(48)
A. V. Hirnes, D. Flassbeck and R. Gruemping
8.1 Introduction 305(6)
8.1.1 Polydimethylsiloxanes 308(1)
8.1.2 Volatile methylsiloxanes 309(1)
8.1.3 Silanols 310(1)
8.2 Analytical Procedures and Techniques 311(9)
8.2.1 Analysis of PDMS in Environmental 312(2)
Samples by GC Techniques
8.2.2 Analysis of VMS and Silanols in 314(1)
Environmental Samples by GC Techniques
8.2.3 Analysis of Environmental Samples 315(1)
by HPLC Techniques
8.2.4 Analysis of Biological Samples 316(4)
8.3 Environmental Concentrations and 320(10)
Processes
8.3.1 PDMS in Soil, Sediment and Waste 320(1)
8.3.2 VMS in Air, Soil, Sediment and Waste 321(3)
8.3.3 Persistence of Silicones in the 324(1)
Environment: PDMS
8.3.4 Persistence of Silicones in the 325(2)
Environment: VMS
8.3.5 Persistence of Silicones in the 327(2)
Environment: Silanols
8.3.6 Transfer of Alkyl Groups to Other 329(1)
Species
8.4 Interactions with Organisms 330(11)
8.4.1 Colonization, Degradation and 330(2)
Transport of Silicones in Organisms
8.4.2 Toxicology and Immunology of 332(3)
Silicones
8.4.3 Silicone Breast Implants 335(3)
8.4.4 Silicon and Silicones in Body 338(3)
Fluids and Tissues
8.5 Summary and Outlook 341(2)
8.6 References 343(10)
9 Other Organometallic Compounds in the 353(38)
Environment
J. Feldmann
9.1 Organobismuth Compounds in the 353(7)
Environment
9.1.1 Introduction and Terminology 353(1)
9.1.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 353(1)
9.1.3 Toxicology of Organobismuth 354(1)
Compounds
9.1.4 Synthesis of Organobismuth Compounds 355(1)
9.1.5 Analytical Methods for 356(1)
Environmental Bismuth Speciation
9.1.6 Occurrence in the Environment 357(2)
9.1.7 Biological Production of 359(1)
Organobismuth Compounds in the Laboratory
9.2 Organothallium Compounds in the 360(5)
Environment
9.2.1 Introduction and Terminology 360(1)
9.2.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 360(1)
9.2.3 Synthesis of Organothallium 360(4)
Standards
9.2.4 Analytical Methods for 364(1)
Environmental Thallium Speciation
9.2.5 Occurrence in the Environment 364(1)
9.2.6 Biological Production of 365(1)
Organothallium Compounds in the Laboratory
9.3 Organocadmium Compounds in the 365(3)
Environment
9.3.1 Introduction and Terminology 365(1)
9.3.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 365(1)
9.3.3 Toxicology of Organocadmium 366(1)
Compounds
9.3.4 Synthesis of Organocadmium Standards 366(1)
9.3.5 Analytical Methods for 366(1)
Environmental Cadmium Speciation
9.3.6 Occurrence in the Environment 367(1)
9.3.7 Biological Production of 367(1)
Organocadmium Compounds in the Laboratory
9.4 Organotellurium Compounds in the 368(6)
Environment
9.4.1 Introduction and Terminology 368(1)
9.4.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 369(1)
9.4.3 Toxicology of Organotellurium 369(1)
Compounds
9.4.4 Synthesis of Organotellurium 370(1)
Standards
9.4.5 Analytical Methods for 370(1)
Environmental Tellurium Speciation
9.4.6 Occurrence in the Environment 371(1)
9.4.7 Biological Production of 371(3)
Organotellurium Compounds in the
Laboratory
9.5 Organomanganese Compounds in the 374(4)
Environment
9.5.1 Introduction and Terminology 374(1)
9.5.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 374(1)
9.5.3 Toxicology of Organomanganese 375(1)
Compounds
9.5.4 Synthesis of Organomanganese 375(1)
Compounds
9.5.5 Analytical Methods for 375(1)
Organomanganese Compounds
9.5.6 Occurrence in the environment 376(2)
9.6 Organogermanium Compounds in the 378(3)
Environment
9.6.1 Introduction and Terminology 378(1)
9.6.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 378(1)
9.6.3 Toxicology of Organogermanium 378(1)
Compounds
9.6.4 Synthesis of Organogermanium 378(1)
Standards
9.6.5 Analytical Methods for 379(1)
Environmental Germanium Speciation
9.6.6 Occurrence in the Environment 379(1)
9.6.7 Biological Production of 380(1)
Organogermanium Compounds in the
Laboratory
9.7 Organocobalt Compounds in the 381(2)
Environment
9.7.1 Introduction and Terminology 381(1)
9.7.2 Uses and Environmental Distribution 381(1)
9.7.3 Synthesis of Organocobalt Standards 382(1)
9.7.4 Analytical Methods for 383(1)
Environmental Cobalt Speciation
9.7.5 Biological Production of 383(1)
Organocobalt Compounds in the Laboratory
9.8 Organopolonium Compounds in the 383(1)
Environment
9.9 Carbonyl Complex-Forming Transition 384(1)
Metals
9.10 References 385(6)
10 Organoselenium Compounds in the Environment 391(8)
P. J. Craig and W. A. Maher
10.1 Introduction 391(1)
10.2 Uses and Distribution 391(1)
10.3 Analytical Chemistry 392(1)
10.4 Occurrence 393(2)
10.4.1 Food Plants and Other Organisms 393(1)
10.4.2 Body Fluids and Tissues 393(1)
10.4.3 Environment 394(1)
10.5 Toxicity 395(1)
10.6 References 396(3)
Some Standard Reference Sources on 399(2)
Organometallic and Environmental Organometallic
Chemistry
Index 401