Quaternary Dating Methods

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Quaternary Dating Methods

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 286 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470869277
  • DDC分類 551.701

基本説明

Coverage includes: The history of dating from lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy; The development and application of radiometric methods.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
Dating Methods and the Quaternary 1 (16)
Introduction 1 (1)
The Development of Quaternary Dating 2 (3)
Precision and Accuracy in Dating 5 (2)
Atomic Structure, Radioactivity and 7 (2)
Radiometric Dating
The Quaternary: Stratigraphic Framework 9 (3)
and Terminology
The Scope and Content of the Book 12 (5)
Notes 15 (2)
Radiometric Dating 1: Radiocarbon Dating 17 (40)
Introduction 17 (1)
Basic Principles 18 (1)
Radiocarbon Measurement 19 (5)
Beta Counting 20 (1)
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 20 (3)
Extending the Radiocarbon Timescale 23 (1)
Laboratory Intercomparisons 24 (1)
Sources of Error in Radiocarbon Dating 24 (5)
Contamination 24 (1)
Isotopic Fractionation 25 (1)
Marine Reservoir Effects 26 (1)
Long-Term Variations in 14C Production 27 (2)
Some Problematic Dating Materials 29 (3)
Lake Sediments 29 (1)
Shell 30 (1)
Bone 31 (1)
Soil 31 (1)
Calibration of the Radiocarbon Timescale 32 (5)
Dendrochronological Calibration 32 (1)
The INTCAL Calibration 32 (2)
Extending the Radiocarbon Calibration 34 (1)
Curve
Bayesian Analysis and Radiocarbon 35 (2)
Calibration
Wiggle-Match Dating 37 (1)
Applications of Radiocarbon Dating 37 (20)
Radiocarbon Dating: Some Routine 37 (1)
Applications
Dating of plant macrofossils: 38 (1)
Lateglacial cereal cultivation in the
valley of the Euphrates
Dating of charcoal: a Holocene 38 (3)
palaeoenvironmental record from western
Germany
Dating of peat: a Holocene 41 (1)
palaeoclimatic record from northern
England
Dating of organic lake mud: a 41 (2)
multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental record
from Lake Rutundu, East Africa
Dating of marine micropalaeontological 43 (2)
records: an example of a problem from
the North Atlantic
Dating of marine shell: a Holocene 45 (2)
aeolianite from Mexico
Dating of bone: the earliest humans in 47 (1)
the Americas
Radiocarbon Dating of Other Materials 47 (1)
Dating of textiles: the `Shroud of 48 (1)
Turin'
Dating of old documents: the Vinland Map 49 (2)
Dating of lime mortar: medieval 51 (1)
churches in Finland
Dating of hair: radiocarbon dates and 51 (1)
DNA from individual animal hairs
Dating of iron artefacts: the Himeji 52 (1)
nail and the Damascus sword
Dating of pottery: the earliest pottery 52 (1)
in Japan
Dating of rock art: Palaeolithic cave 53 (1)
paintings in Spain and France
Notes 54 (3)
Radiometric Dating 2: Dating Using 57 (36)
Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radioactive
Isotopes
Introduction 57 (1)
Argon-Isotope Dating 58 (8)
Principles of Potassium--Argon Dating 58 (1)
Principles of Argon--Argon Dating 59 (1)
Some Assumptions and Problems 59 (2)
Associated with Potassium--Argon and
Argon--Argon Dating
Some Applications of Potassium--Argon 61 (1)
and Argon--Argon Dating
Potassium--argon and argon--argon 62 (1)
dating of the dispersal of Early
Pleistocene hominids
40Ar/39Ar dating of anatomically modern 62 (3)
Homo sapiens from Ethiopia
40Ar/39Ar dating of historical 65 (1)
materials: the eruption of Vesuvius in
AD 79
40Ar/39Ar dating and geological 66 (1)
provenancing of a stone axe from
Stonehenge, England
Uranium-Series Dating 66 (11)
Principles of U-Series Dating 67 (2)
Some Problems Associated with U-Series 69 (2)
Dating
Some Applications of U-Series Dating 71 (1)
Dating the Last Interglacial high 71 (1)
sea-level stand in Hawaii
Dating of early hominid remains from 72 (2)
China
Dating of a speleothem from northern 74 (1)
Norway
Dating of fluvial terraces in Wyoming, 74 (3)
USA
Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating 77 (7)
Principles of Cosmogenic Nuclide (CN) 77 (2)
Dating
Sources of Error in CN Dating 79 (1)
Some Applications of CN Dating 80 (1)
Cosmogenic dating of two Late 80 (2)
Pleistocene glacial advances in Alaska
Cosmogenic dating of the Salpausselka I 82 (1)
formation in Finland
Cosmogenic dating of Holocene 82 (2)
landsliding, The Storr, Isle of Skye,
Scotland
Cosmogenic dating of alluvial deposits, 84 (1)
Ajo Mountains, southern Arizona, USA
Dating Using Short-Lived Isotopes 84 (9)
Lead-210 (210Pb) 85 (1)
Caesium-137 (137Cs) 86 (1)
Silicon-32 (32Si) 86 (1)
Some Problems in Using Short-Lived 87 (1)
Isotopes
Some Dating Applications Using 87 (1)
Short-Lived Isotopes
Dating a record of human impact in a 88 (1)
lake sequence in northern England
Dating a 500-year lake 88 (3)
sediment/temperature record from Baffin
Island, Canada
32Si dating of marine sediments from 91 (1)
Bangladesh
Notes 92 (1)
Radiometric Dating 3: Radiation Exposure 93 (28)
Dating
Introduction 93 (1)
Luminescence Dating 94 (15)
Thermoluminescence (TL) 94 (2)
Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) 96 (3)
Sources of Error in Luminescence Dating 99 (1)
Some Applications of Luminescence Dating 100(1)
TL dating of Early Iron Age iron 100(1)
smelting in Ghana
TL and AMS radiocarbon dating of 101(1)
pottery from the Russian Far East
TL dating of burnt flint from a cave 102(1)
site in France
TL dating of the first humans in South 103(1)
America
OSL dating of young coastal dunes in 104(1)
the northern Netherlands
OSL dating of dune sands from Blombos 104(3)
Cave, South Africa: single and multiple
grain data
OSL dating of fluvial deposits in the 107(1)
lower Mississippi Valley, USA
OSL dating of marine deposits in Denmark 108(1)
Electron Spin Resonance Dating 109(5)
Principles of ESR Dating 109(1)
Sources of Error in ESR Dating 110(1)
Some Applications of ESR Dating 110(1)
ESR dating of teeth from the Hoxnian 111(1)
Interglacial type locality, England
ESR dating of mollusc shells from the 112(1)
Northern Caucasus and the earliest
humans in eastern Europe
ESR dating of Holocene coral: an 113(1)
experimental approach
ESR dating of quartz: the Toba 113(1)
super-eruption
Fission Track Dating 114(7)
Principles of Fission Track Dating 115(1)
Some Problems Associated with Fission 116(1)
Track Dating
Some Applications of Fission Track 116(1)
Dating
Fission track dating of glacial events 116(1)
in Argentina
Fission track dating of a Middle 117(1)
Pleistocene fossiliferous sequence from
central Italy
Dating of obsidian in the Andes, South 117(2)
America, and the sourcing of artefacts
Notes 119(2)
Dating Using Annually Banded Records 121(44)
Introduction 121(1)
Dendrochronology 122(10)
Principles of Dendrochronology 122(1)
Problems Associated with 123(2)
Dendrochronology
Dendrochronological Series 125(2)
Applications of Dendrochronology 127(1)
Dating a 2000-year temperature record 128(1)
for the northern hemisphere
Dating historical precipitation records 128(1)
Dating volcanic events 129(1)
Dating archaeological evidence 130(2)
Varve Chronology 132(9)
The Nature of Varved Sediments 133(2)
Sources of Error in Varve Chronologies 135(1)
Applications of Varve Chronologies 136(1)
Dating regional patterns of 136(1)
deglaciation in Scandinavia
Dating prehistoric land-use changes 136(3)
Dating long-term climatic and 139(1)
environmental changes
Varve sequences and the radiocarbon 140(1)
timescale
Lichenometry 141(7)
Principles of Lichenometric Dating 142(1)
Problems Associated with Lichenometric 142(1)
Dating
Lichenometry and Late Holocene 143(1)
Environments
Dating post-Little Ice Age glacier 144(1)
recession in Norway
Dating rock glaciers and Little Ice Age 144(2)
moraines in the Sierra Nevada, western
USA
Dating Late Holocene rockfall activity 146(1)
on a Norwegian talus slope
Dating archaeological features on 147(1)
raised shorelines in northern Sweden
Annual Layers in Glacier Ice 148(8)
Ice-Core Chronologies 149(1)
Errors in Ice-Core Chronologies 150(1)
Ice Cores and the Quaternary 151(1)
Palaeoenvironmental Record
Dating climatic instability as revealed 151(1)
in the Greenland ice cores
Dating rapid climate change: the end of 152(2)
the Younger Dryas in Greenland
Dating long-term variations in 154(1)
atmospheric Greenhouse Trace Gases
Dating human impact on climate as 155(1)
reflected in ice-core records
Other Media Dated by Annual Banding 156(9)
Speleothems 156(1)
Dating a proxy record for 156(1)
twentieth-century precipitation from
Poole's Cavern, England
Dating climate variability in central 157(1)
China over the last 1270 years
Corals 158(1)
Dating a 420-year-coral-based 158(1)
palaeoenvironmental record from the
southwestern Pacific
Dating a 240-year palaeoprecipitation 158(2)
record from Florida, USA
Molluscs 160(1)
The development of a sclerochronology 160(2)
using the long-lived bivalve Arctica
islandica
The development of a `clam-ring' master 162(1)
chronology from a short-lived bivalve
mollusc and its palaeoenvironmental
significance
Notes 162(3)
Relative Dating Methods 165(32)
Introduction 165(1)
Rock Surface Weathering 166(6)
Surface Weathering Features 166(1)
Problems in Using Surface Weathering 167(1)
Features to Establish Relative
Chronologies
Applications of Surface Weathering 168(1)
Dating
Relative dating of Holocene glacier 168(1)
fluctuations in the Nepal Himalaya
Relative dating of periglacial 168(2)
trimlines in northwest Scotland
Relative dating of archaeological 170(2)
features by Lake Superior, Canada
Obsidian Hydration Dating 172(4)
The Hydration Layer 173(1)
Problems with Obsidian Hydration Dating 173(1)
Some Applications of Obsidian Hydration 174(1)
Dating
Dating of a Pleistocene age site, Manus 174(2)
Island, Papua New Guinea
Dating of fluvially reworked sediment 176(1)
in Montana, USA
Pedogenesis 176(4)
Soil Development Indices 176(1)
Problems in Using Pedogenesis as a 177(1)
Basis for Dating
Some Applications of Dating Based on 178(1)
Pedogenesis
Relative dating of moraines in the 178(1)
Sierra Nevada, California
Dating glacial events in southeastern 178(2)
Peru
Relative Dating of Fossil Bone 180(4)
Post-Burial Changes in Fossil Bone 181(1)
Problems in the Relative Dating of Bone 181(1)
Some Applications of the Relative 182(1)
Dating of Bone
Fluoride dating of mastodon bone from 182(1)
an early palaeoindian site, eastern USA
Chemical dating of animal bones from 182(2)
Sweden
Amino Acid Geochronology 184(13)
Proteins and Amino Acids 185(1)
Amino Acid Diagenesis 186(1)
Problems with Amino Acid Geochronology 187(1)
Applications of Amino Acid Geochronology 188(1)
Dating and correlation of the last 189(1)
interglacial shoreline (‾MOI substage
5e) in Australia using aminostratigraphy
Quaternary aminostratigraphy in 189(2)
northwestern France based on non-marine
molluscs
Dating the earliest modern humans in 191(1)
southern Africa using amino acid ratios
in ostrich eggshell
Dating sea-level change in the Bahamas 192(3)
over the last half million years
Notes 195(2)
Techniques for Establishing Age Equivalence 197(40)
Introduction 197(1)
Oxygen Isotope Chronostratigraphy 198(4)
Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 199(1)
Dating the Marine Oxygen Isotope Record 199(2)
Problems with the Marine Oxygen Isotope 201(1)
Record
Tephrochronology 202(11)
Tephras in Quaternary Sediments 202(2)
Dating of Tephra Horizons 204(1)
Problems with Tephrochronology 205(2)
Applications of Tephrochronology 207(1)
Dating the first human impact in New 207(2)
Zealand using tephrochronology
Dating and correlating events in the 209(1)
North Atlantic region during the Last
Glacial--Interglacial transition using
tephrochronology
Dating Middle Pleistocene artefacts and 209(2)
cultural traditions in East Africa
using tephrostratigraphy
Dating Early and Middle Pleistocene 211(2)
glaciations in Yukon by tephrochronology
Palaeomagnetism 213(12)
The Earth's Magnetic Field 214(1)
The Palaeomagnetic Record in Rocks and 215(1)
Sediments
Magnetostratigraphy 216(1)
Polarity changes and the palaeomagnetic 216(1)
timescale
Secular variations 216(3)
Mineral magnetic potential 219(1)
Some Problems with Palaeomagnetic Dating 220(1)
Applications of Palaeomagnetic Dating 221(1)
Dating lake sediments using 221(1)
palaeosecular variations
Palaeomagnetic correlations between 222(1)
Scandinavian Ice Sheet fluctuations and
Greenland ice-core records
Palaeomagnetic dating of the earliest 223(1)
humans in Europe
Palaeomagnetic dating of the 224(1)
Sterkfontein hominid, South Africa
Palaeosols 225(12)
The Nature of Palaeosols 227(1)
Palaeosols as Soil-Stratigraphic Units 228(1)
Some Problems with Using Palaeosols to 229(1)
Establish Age Equivalence
Applications of Palaeosols in the 230(1)
Establishment of Age Equivalence
Buried palaeosols on the Avonmouth 230(1)
Level, southwest England: stratigraphic
markers in Holocene intertidal sediments
The Valley Farm and Barham Soils: key 231(2)
stratigraphic marker horizons in
southeast England
Correlation between the Chinese 233(2)
loess-palaeosol sequence and the
deep-ocean core record for the past 2.5
million years
Notes 235(2)
Dating the Future 237(8)
Introduction 237(1)
Radiometric Dating 237(3)
Annually Banded Records 240(2)
Age Equivalence 242(1)
Biomolecular Dating 243(2)
Notes 244(1)
References 245(34)
Index 279

047086958.TOC0470869585



List of abbreviations xi

Foreword xiii

Acknowledgements xv

1 Introduction

Introduction 1 (1)

1.1 Reasoning behind the Book 1 (1)

1.2 The IIA Standards and Links to the Book 2 (1)

1.3 How to Navigate around the Book 3 (3)

1.4 The Handbook as a Development Tool 6 (1)

1.5 The Development of Internal Auditing 7 (12)

Summary and Conclusions 19 (1)

References 20 (1)

2 Corporate Governance Perspectives 21 (106)

Introduction 21 (1)

2.1 The Agency Concept 22 (5)

2.2 Corporate Ethics and Accountability 27 (10)

2.3 International Scandals and their Impact 37 (8)

2.4 Models of Corporate Governance 45 (16)

2.5 Putting Governance into Practice 61 (12)

2.6 The External Audit 73 (23)

2.7 The Audit Committee 96 (15)

2.8 Internal Audit 111 (5)

2.9 The Link to Risk Management and Internal 116 (1)

Control

2.10 Reporting on Internal Controls 117 (2)

Summary and Conclusions 119 (2)

Chapter 2: Assignment Questions 121 (1)

References 121 (6)

3 Managing Risk 127 (54)

Introduction 127 (1)

3.1 What is Risk? 128 (2)

3.2 The Risk Challenge 130 (2)

3.3 Risk Management and Residual Risk 132 (3)

3.4 Mitigation through Controls 135 (4)

3.5 Risk Registers and Appetites 139 (5)

3.6 The Risk Policy 144 (10)

3.7 Enterprise-wide Risk Management 154 (10)

3.8 Control Self-assessment 164 (4)

3.9 Embedded Risk Management 168 (3)

3.10 The Internal Audit Role in Risk Management 171 (5)

Summary and Conclusions 176 (2)

Chapter 3: Assignment. Questions 178

References 177 (4)

4 Internal Controls 181 (56)

Introduction 181 (1)

4.1 Why Controls? 181 (10)

4.2 Control Framework-COSO 191 (9)

4.3 Control Framework-CoCo 200 (3)

4.4 Other Control Models 203 (4)

4.5 Links to Risk Management 207 (2)

4.6 Control Mechanisms 209 (11)

4.7 Importance of Procedures 220 (2)

4.8 Integrating Controls 222 (3)

4.9 The Fallacy of Perfection 225 (2)

4.10 Internal Control Awareness Training 227 (7)

Summary and Conclusions 234 (1)

Chapter 4: Assignment Questions 235 (1)

References 236 (1)

5 The Internal Audit Role 237 (86)

Introduction 237 (1)

5.1 Why Auditing? 237 (2)

5.2 Defining Internal Audit 239 (10)

5.3 The Audit Charter 249 (7)

5.4 Audit Services 256 (3)

5.5 Independence 259 (13)

5.6 Audit Ethics 272 (8)

5.7 Police Officer versus Consultant 280 (16)

5.8 Managing Expectations through Web Design 296 (5)

5.9 Audit Competencies 301 (5)

5.10 Training and Development 306 (11)

Summary and Conclusions 317 (3)

Chapter 5: Assignment Questions 320 (1)

References 321 (2)

6 Professionalism 323 (64)

Introduction 323 (1)

6.1 Audit Professionalism 323 (7)

6.2 Internal Auditing Standards 330 (16)

6.3 Due Professional Care 346 (3)

6.4 Professional Consulting Services 349 (4)

6.5 The Quality Concept 353 (7)

6.6 Defining the Client 360 (1)

6.7 Internal Review and External Review 361 (7)

6.8 Tools and Techniques 368 (5)

6.9 Marketing the Audit Role 373 (8)

6.10 Continuous Improvement 381 (1)

Summary and Conclusions 381 (4)

Chapter 6: Assignment Questions 385 (1)

References 385 (2)

7 The Audit Approach 387 (130)

Introduction 387 (1)

7.1 The Systems Approach 388 (16)

7.2 Control Risk Self-assessment (CRSA) 404 (9)

7.3 Facilitation Skills 413 (8)

7.4 Integrating Self-assessment and Audit 421 (4)

7.5 Fraud Investigations 425 (35)

7.6 Information Systems Auditing 460 (22)

7.7 Compliance 482 (3)

7.8 VFM, Social and Financial Audits 485 (9)

7.9 The Consulting Approach 494 (13)

7.10 The 'Right' Structure 507 (6)

Summary and Conclusions 513 (1)

Chapter 7: Assignment Questions 514 (1)

References 514 (3)

8 Setting an Audit Strategy 517 (98)

Introduction 517 (1)

8.1 Risk-based Strategic Planning 518 (12)

8.2 Resourcing the Strategy 530 (8)

8.3 Managing Performance 538 (12)

8.4 Dealing with Typical Problems 550 (8)

8.5 The Audit Manual 558 (13)

8.6 Delegating Audit Work 571 (3)

8.7 Audit Information Systems 574 (10)

8.8 Establishing a New Internal Audit Shop 584 (5)

8.9 The Outsourcing Approach 589 (10)

8.10 The Audit Planning Process 599 (10)

Summary and Conclusions 609 (3)

Chapter 8: Assignment Questions 612 (1)

References 613 (2)

9 Audit Field Work 615 (136)

Introduction 615 (1)

9.1 Planning the Audit 615 (9)

9.2 Interviewing Skills 624 (19)

9.3 Ascertaining the System 643 (6)

9.4 Evaluation 649 (13)

9.5 Testing Strategies 662 (18)

9.6 Evidence and Working Papers 680 (13)

9.7 Statistical Sampling 693 (12)

9.8 Reporting Results of the Audit 705 (27)

9.9 Formal Presentations 732 (7)

9.10 Audit Committee Reporting 739 (7)

Summary and Conclusions 746 (3)

Chapter 9: Assignment Questions 749 (1)

References 749 (2)

10 Meeting the Challenge 751 (12)

Introduction 751 (1)

10.1 The New Dimensions of Internal Auditing 751 (1)

10.2 The Audit Reputation 752 (2)

10.3 Globalization 754 (2)

10.4 Examples 756 (1)

10.5 Meeting the Challenge 757 (4)

Summary and Conclusions 761 (1)

References 762 (1)

Appendix A Induction/Orientation Programme 763 (2)

Appendix B CRSA Best Practice Guide 765 (4)

Appendix C A Poem by Professor Gerald Vinten 769 (4)

Appendix D Analytical Techniques by Sue Seamour 773 (4)

Index 777