スマートセンサーシステム<br>Smart Sensor Systems

個数:

スマートセンサーシステム
Smart Sensor Systems

  • 在庫がございません。海外の書籍取次会社を通じて出版社等からお取り寄せいたします。
    通常6~9週間ほどで発送の見込みですが、商品によってはさらに時間がかかることもございます。
    重要ご説明事項
    1. 納期遅延や、ご入手不能となる場合がございます。
    2. 複数冊ご注文の場合、分割発送となる場合がございます。
    3. 美品のご指定は承りかねます。
  • ≪洋書のご注文につきまして≫ 「海外取次在庫あり」および「国内仕入れ先からお取り寄せいたします」表示の商品でも、納期の目安期間内にお届けできないことがございます。あらかじめご了承ください。

  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 385 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470866917
  • DDC分類 681.25

基本説明

Discusses all of the important aspects of sensor systems, measurement techniques, microcontrollers and testing and identification.

Full Description


Information processing systems need sensors to acquire the physical, mechanical and chemical information to be able to function. For extended use of sensors in industrial production tools and consumer components, such as smart cars and smart homes, the reliability of the sensors should be improved and the cost dramatically reduced. The improvement of reliability, together with a reduction of cost, can only be achieved with smart sensor systems. These systems combine the functions of sensors and interfaces, including sensors, signal conditioning A-D (analog to digital) conversion, and bus interfacing. Also, applications at a higher hierarchical level are included, such as self-testing, auto-calibration, data evaluation and identification. Developments into the integration of sensors with electronic circuitry to produce smart sensors and smart sensor systems are increasing as research in this field continues to expand. Written by an internationally-recognized team of experts, this book reviews recent developments in the field of smart sensor systems, providing complete coverage of all important system aspects.It takes a multidisciplinary approach to the understanding, design and use of smart sensor systems, their building blocks and methods of signal processing. This book also contains:* a review of powerful measurement techniques, and basic principles and typical problems of sensor elements, smart analog interfaces and A-D converters;* a discussion about how to use microcontrollers and DSPs (digital signal processors) for sensor applications;* detailed up-to-date reviews of the features of optical, integrated hall magnetic, capacitive, thermal sensors, and temperature sensors and physical chemosensors;* numerous case studies and problems set at the end of each chapter to test and develop your knowledge on the theory. Solutions for all can be found on the accompanying website. Smart Sensor Systems will greatly benefit final year undergraduate and postgraduate students and professors in the areas of electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering, and physics. Professional engineers and researchers in the microelectronics industry, including microsystem developers, will also find this a thorough and useful volume.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
About the Authors xv
Smart Sensor Systems: Why? Where? How? 1 (22)
Johan H. Huijsing
Third Industrial Revolution 1 (2)
Definitions for Several Kinds of Sensors 3 (9)
Definitions of Sensors 3 (6)
Definition of Smart Sensors 9 (1)
Definition of Integrated Smart Sensors 9 (2)
Definition of Integrated Smart Sensor 11 (1)
Systems
Automated Production Machines 12 (4)
Automated Consumer Products 16 (5)
Smart Cars 16 (1)
Smart Homes 16 (1)
Smart Domestic Appliances 17 (2)
Smart Toys 19 (2)
Conclusion 21 (2)
References 21 (2)
Interface Electronics and Measurement 23 (32)
Techniques for Smart Sensor Systems
Gerard C. M. Meijer
Introduction 23 (1)
Object-oriented Design of Sensor Systems 24 (1)
Sensing Elements and Their Parasitic 25 (5)
Effects
Compatibility of Packaging 25 (1)
Effect of Cable and Wire Impedances 26 (1)
Parasitic and Cross-effects in Sensing 27 (2)
Elements
Excitation Signals for Sensing Elements 29 (1)
Analog-to-digital Conversion 30 (3)
High Accuracy Over a Wide Dynamic Range 33 (8)
Systematic, Random and Multi-path Errors 33 (1)
Advanced Chopping Techniques 34 (2)
Autocalibration 36 (1)
Dynamic Amplification 37 (3)
Dynamic Division and Other Dynamic 40 (1)
Signal-processing Techniques
A Universal Transducer Interface 41 (9)
Description of the Interface Chip and 41 (6)
the Applied Measurement Techniques
Realization and Experimental Results 47 (3)
Summary and Future Trends 50 (5)
Summary 50 (1)
Future Trends 51 (1)
Problems 51 (3)
References 54 (1)
Silicon Sensors: An Introduction 55 (24)
Paddy J. French
Introduction 55 (1)
Measurement and Control Systems 55 (2)
Transducers 57 (6)
Form of Signal-carrying Energy 57 (2)
Signal Conversion in Transducers 59 (1)
Smart Silicon Sensors 60 (3)
Self-generating and Modulating 63 (1)
Transducers
Transducer Technologies 63 (5)
Introduction 63 (1)
Generic Nonsilicon Technologies 64 (2)
Silicon 66 (2)
Examples of Silicon Sensors 68 (7)
Radiation Domain 68 (2)
Mechanical Domain 70 (1)
Thermal Domain 70 (2)
Magnetic Domain 72 (2)
Chemical Domain 74 (1)
Summary and Future Trends 75 (4)
Summary 75 (1)
Future Trends 75 (1)
References 76 (3)
Optical Sensors Based on Photon Detection 79 (42)
Reinoud F. Wolffenbuttel
Introduction 79 (2)
Photon Absorption in Silicon 81 (3)
The Interface: Photon Transmission Into 84 (3)
Silicon
Photon Detection in Silicon 87 (6)
Photoconductors
Photoconductors in Silicon: Operation 89 (4)
and Static Performance
Photoconductors in Silicon: Dynamic 93 (1)
Performance
Photon Detection in Silicon pn Junctions 93 (10)
Defining the Depletion Layer at a pn 94 (3)
Junction
Electron-hole Collection in the 97 (1)
Depletion Layer
Electron -hole Collection in the 97 (2)
Substrate
Electron-hole Collection Close to the 99 (1)
Surface
Backside-illuminated Pin Photodiode 100 (2)
Electron-hole Collection in Two Stacked 102 (1)
pn Junctions
Detection Limit 103 (5)
Niose in the Optical Signal 104 (1)
Photon Detector Niose 105 (1)
Photon Detector Readout 106 (2)
Photon Deterctors with gain 108 (5)
The Phototransistor 108 (1)
The Avalanche Photodiode 109 (3)
Time Integration of Photon-generated 112 (1)
Charge
Application Examples 113 (4)
Color Sensor in CMOS 113 (2)
Optical Microspectrometer in CMOS 115 (2)
Summary and Future Trends 117 (4)
Summary 117 (1)
Future Trends 118 (1)
Problems 119 (1)
References 119 (2)
Physical Chemosensors 121 (30)
Michael J. Vellekoop
Introduction 121 (2)
Thin-film Chemical Interfaces 122 (1)
Total Analysis Systems 122 (1)
Physical Chemosensing 123 (1)
Energy Domains 124 (2)
Examples and Applications 126 (1)
Examples of in situ Applications 127 (4)
Blood Oximeter 127 (1)
Thermal Conductivity Detector 127 (2)
Engine Oil Monitoring System 129 (1)
Oil-condition Sensor Based on Infrared 130 (1)
Measurements
Electronic Nose 130 (1)
Microfluidics Devices 131 (15)
Projection Cytometer 135 (3)
Coulter Counter 138 (2)
Dielectrophoresis-based Devices 140 (4)
High-throughput Screening Arrays 144 (1)
Contactless Conductivity Detection in CE 145 (1)
Conclusions 146 (5)
Problems 147 (1)
References 147 (4)
Thermal Sensors 151 (34)
Sander (A.W.) van Herwaarden
The Functional Principle of Thermal 151 (2)
Sensors
Self-generating Thermal-power Sensors 151 (1)
Modulating Thermal-conductance Sensors 152 (1)
Heat Transfer Mechanisms 153 (2)
Thermal Structures 155 (10)
Modeling 155 (5)
Floating Membranes 160 (1)
Cantilever Beams and Bridges 161 (2)
Closed Membranes 163 (2)
Temperature-Difference Sensing Elements 165 (3)
Introduction 165 (1)
Thermocouples 165 (3)
Other Elements 168 (1)
Sensors Based on Thermal Measurements 168 (11)
Microcalorimeter 169 (1)
Psychrometer 170 (1)
Infrared Sensor 171 (1)
RMS Converter 172 (1)
EM Field Sensor 173 (1)
Flow Sensor 174 (1)
Vacuum Sensor 174 (2)
Thermal Conductivity Gauge 176 (1)
Acceleration Sensros 177 (1)
Nonocalorimeter 177 (2)
Summary and Futere Trends 179 (6)
Summary 179 (1)
Futere Trends 179 (1)
Problems 180 (2)
References 182 (3)
Smart Temperature Sensors and 185 (40)
Temperature-Sensor Systems
Gerard C.M. Meijer
Introduction 185 (3)
Application-related Requirements and 188 (8)
Problems of Temperature Sensors
Accuracy 189 (1)
Short-term and Long-term Stability 189 (1)
Noise and Resolution 189 (1)
Self-heating 190 (4)
Heat Leakage along the Connecting Wires 194 (1)
Dynamic Behavior 194 (2)
Resistive Temperature-sensing Elements 196 (4)
Practical Mathematical Models 196 (2)
Linearity and Linearization 198 (2)
Temperature-sensor Features of Transistors 200 (8)
General Considerations 200 (1)
Physical and Mathematical Models 201 (2)
PTAT Temperature Sensors 203 (4)
Temperature Sensors with an Intrinsic 207 (1)
Voltage Reference
Calibration and Trimming of Transistor 208 (1)
Temperature Sensors
Smart Temperature Sensors and Systems 208 (4)
A Smart Temperature Sensor with a 209 (3)
Duty-cycle-modulated Output Signal
Smart Temperature-sensor Systems with 212 (1)
Discrete Elements
Case Studies of Smart-sensor Applications 212 (8)
Thermal Detection of Micro-organisms 213 (4)
with Smart Sensors
Control of Substrate Temperature 217 (3)
Summary and Future Trends 220 (5)
Summary 220 (1)
Future Trends 221 (1)
Problems 222 (1)
References 223 (2)
Capacitive Sensors 225 (24)
Xiujun Li
Gerard C.M. Meijer
Introduction 225 (1)
Basics of Capacitive Sensors 226 (1)
Principles 226 (1)
Precision of Capacitive Sensors 226 (1)
Examples of Capacitive Sensors 227 (4)
Angular Encoders 228 (1)
Humidity Sensors 229 (1)
Liquid-level Gauges 230 (1)
The Design of Electrode Configurations 231 (3)
EMI Effects 231 (1)
Electric-field-bending Effects 232 (1)
Active-guard Electrodes 232 (1)
Floating Electrodes 233 (1)
Contamination and Condensation 234 (1)
Reduction of Field-bending Effects: 234 (3)
Segmentation
Three-layered Electrode Structures 235 (1)
A Model for the Electrostatic Field in 236 (1)
Electrode Structures
Influence of the Electric-field-bending 237 (1)
Effects on Linearity
Selectivity for Electrical Signals and 237 (9)
Electrical Parameters
Selective Detection of Band-limited 238 (1)
Frequencies
Selective Detection of a Selected 239 (1)
Parameter
Measurement Techniques to Reduce the 240 (6)
Effects of Shunting Conductances
Summary and Future Trends 246 (3)
Problems 246 (1)
References 247 (2)
Integrated Hall Magnetic Sensors 249 (30)
Radivoje S. Popovic
Pavel Kejik
Introduction 249 (1)
Hall Effect and Hall Elements 250 (9)
The Hall Effect 250 (3)
Hall Elements 253 (1)
Characteristics of Hall Elements 253 (3)
Integrated Horizontal Hall Plates 256 (2)
Integrated Vertical Hall Plates 258 (1)
Integrated Hall Sensor Systems 259 (8)
Biasing a Hall Device 260 (1)
Reducing Offset and 1/f noise 260 (2)
Amplifying the Hall Voltage 262 (3)
Integrating Magnetic Functions 265 (2)
Examples of Integrated Hall Magnetic 267 (12)
Sensors
Magnetic Angular Position Sensor 267 (2)
Fully Integrated Three-axis Hall Probe 269 (2)
Integrated Hall Probe for Magnetic 271 (5)
Microscopy
Problems 276 (1)
References 276 (3)
Universal Asynchronous Sensor Interfaces 279 (34)
Gerard C.M. Meijer
Xiujun Li
Introduction 279 (1)
Universal Sensor Interfaces 280 (3)
Asynchronous Converters 283 (13)
Conversion of Sensor Signals to the 284 (3)
Time Domain
Wide-range Conversion of Sensor Signals 287 (1)
to the Time Damain for Very Small or
Very Large Signals
Output Signals 288 (2)
Quantization Noise of Sampled 290 (4)
Time-modulated Signals
A Comparison between Asynchronous 294 (2)
Converters and Sigma-delta Converters
Dealing with Problems of Low-cost Design 296 (1)
of Universal Interface ICs
Front-end Circuits 297 (2)
Cross-effects and Interaction 297 (1)
Interference 298 (1)
Optimization of Components, Circuits 298 (1)
and Wiring
Case Studies 299 (8)
Front-end Circuits for Capacitive 299 (3)
Sensors
Front-end Circuits for Resistive Bridges 302 (3)
A Front-end Circuit for a 305 (2)
Thermocouple-voltage Processor
Summary and Future Trends 307 (6)
Summary 307 (1)
Future Trends 307 (1)
Problems 308 (3)
References 311 (2)
Data Acquisition for Frequency-and 313 (30)
Time-domain Sensors
Sergey Y. Yurish
Introduction 313 (1)
DAQ Boards: State of the Art 314 (2)
DAQ Board Design for Quasi-digital Sensors 316 (14)
Advanced Methods for 316 (6)
Frequency-to-digital Conversion
Examples 322 (2)
Methods for Duty-cycle-to-digital 324 (2)
Conversion
Methods for Phase-shift-to-digital 326 (4)
Conversion
Universal Frequency-to-digital Converters 330 (5)
(UFDC)
ICs for Frequency-to-digital 332 (1)
Conversion: State of the Art
UFDC: Features and Performances 333 (2)
Applications and Examples 335 (3)
Summary and Future Trends 338 (5)
Problems 339 (1)
References 340 (3)
Microcontrollers and Digital Processors for 343 (32)
Smart Sensor Systems
Ratcho M. Ivanov
Introduction 343 (1)
MCU and DSP Architectures, Organization, 344 (3)
Structures, and Peripherals
Choosing a Low-Power MCU or DSP 347 (4)
Average Current Consumption 348 (1)
Oscillator and System Clocks 349 (1)
Interrupts 350 (1)
Peripherals 350 (1)
Summary 350 (1)
Timer Modules 351 (19)
Introduction to Timer Modules 351 (4)
Examples of Timer Module Applications 355 (15)
for Various Microcontrollers
Analog Comparators, ADCs, and DACs as 370 (3)
Modules of Microcontrollers
Introduction 370 (1)
Application Examples of Analog Modules 370 (3)
Embedded Networks and LCD Interfacing 373 (1)
Development Tools and Support 374 (1)
Conclusions 374 (1)
References Sites 374 (1)
Appendix A Material Data 375 (2)
Appendix B Conversion for non-SI Units 377 (2)
Index 379