Contents: 1. Physical principles of light scattering. 2. Principles of measurement. 3. Fundamental light-scattering methods. 4. Light scattering from polymer solutions in mixed solvents. 5. Light scattering from dilute copolymer solutions.
Classical light scattering from dilute polymer solutions is one of the few absolute, rigorously founded methods for the determination of molar mass and molecular size of macromolecular substances, and for the quantitative characterization of solute-solvent interaction. Light scattering is thus one of the most fundamental methods of the physical chemistry of polymers, and the present book provides an introduction to this technique. The book is mainly directed at those who wish to acquaint themselves with the elements of practice and application of light scattering. Although there are a number of advanced monographs and reviews currently available on light scattering from polymer solutions, the appearance of this book marks the first introductory text of its kind. Polymer chemists wishing to make a start in light scattering will find this book an indispensable aid in their work.
1. Physical principles of light scattering. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a small isolated molecule. Light scattering in ensembles of small molecules. Light scattering from solutions of macromolecules. The Rayleigh ratio. Basic equation for light scattering from solutions of small macromolecules. Turbidity. Light scattering by large particles. Particle scattering function. Particle size parameters. Particle scattering function and radius of gyration. Particle scattering functions for basic particle shapes. Information on particle shape from P(C). Basic equation for light scattering from solutions of large molecules. Some terms relating to polydisperse systems. Molar-mass average from light scattering. Particle scattering functions of polydisperse systems. Second virial coefficient of polydisperse systems. Typical shapes of angular dependences of light scattering. Optical anisotropy of scattering particles. 2. Principles of measurement. Light-scattering photometers. Preparation and clarification of solutions. Refractive index increment. Light-scattering standards. Correction factors. Computation of the Rayleigh ratio. Transmission measurements. Preliminary tests. 3. Fundamental light-scattering methods. Single-angle method. Dissymmetry method. Zimm's method. 4. Light scattering from polymer solutions in mixed solvents. Selective sorption: a qualitative concept. Some thermodynamic aspects of selective sorption. Different ways of description of the extent of selective sorption. Coefficient of selective sorption. Selective sorption and changes of intensive properties of the system. Determination of the coefficient of selective sorption by increment methods. Types of selective sorption behaviour. Effect of molecular weight on the extent of selective sorption. Light scattering and mixed solvents. Light scattering and the coefficient of selective sorption. Solvents with three and more components. Notes on the equilibrium dialysis technique. 5. Light scattering from dilute copolymer solutions. Heterogeneity of chemical composition of copolymers and its origin. Distribution functions for copolymers. Heterogeneity parameters. Molecular weights of parts of a binary copolymer. Approximate extent of the compositional heterogeneity of typical copolymers. Light scattering and heterogeneous copolymers: a qualitative concept. Basic equations for light scattering from copolymer solutions. Some characteristic features of light scattering from copolymer solutions. Determination of parameters of heterogeneous copolymers by means of light scattering. Light scattering from copolymer solutions in mixed solvents. Angular dependence of light scattering from copolymer solutions. Block- and graft-copolymer micelles. 6. Some other applications of light scattering. Light scattering and intrinsic viscosity. Branching. Coupling of gel permeation chromatography and light scattering. Polyelectrolytes. Asymptotic methods.