大国の対外政策:19・20世紀史料集(全11巻)<br>Foreign Policies of the Great Powers (11-Volume Set)

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大国の対外政策:19・20世紀史料集(全11巻)
Foreign Policies of the Great Powers (11-Volume Set)

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基本説明

This is a reissue of the former RKP series "The Foreign Policies of Great Powers". Making use of archival material, each title provides a unique slant on the foreign policies of world powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            x
Abbreviations xii
The Anglo-French Entente 1 (28)
Introduction 1 (3)
The Negotiation of the Entente 4 (7)
The First Moroccan Crisis 11 (4)
Grey, Algeciras and the Strengthening of 15 (14)
the Entente
Britain, France and Germany, 1908-12 29 (30)
Introduction: Anglo-German Naval Rivalry 29 (2)
and the Hague Conference
Anglo-German Negotiations, 1908-11 31 (6)
The Agadir Crisis 37 (11)
Anglo-German Relations, 1912 48 (4)
Britain, France and the Mediterranean 52 (7)
Anglo-Russian Relations and the Middle East 59 (37)
The Anglo-Russian Convention 59 (7)
Aftermath: Anglo-Russian Relations and 66 (11)
Persia
England and Turkey 77 (4)
The Bosnian Crisis 81 (5)
The Baghdad Railway 86 (6)
The Tripoli War 92 (4)
Anglo-American Relations, 1895-1914 96 (11)
The Myth of Anglo-American Friendship 96 (6)
The Mexican Revolution 102 (5)
Britain and Europe, 1912-14 107 (45)
The Balkan Wars 107 (11)
Anglo-German Relations, 1912-14 118 (9)
England, the Near East and Turkey to 1914 127 (4)
The Baghdad Railway and the Gulf 131 (2)
Anglo-Russian Relations 133 (5)
England, Germany and the Triple Entente, 138 (3)
1914
The Coming of War 141 (11)
Conclusion 152 (3)
Notes 155 (220)
Index xiii
Abbreviations ix
Introduction xi
Strategy and Foreign Policy 169 (39)
Italian Intervention 169 (14)
The Balkan States 183 (25)
The Middle East, 1914-18 208 (26)
The negotiations with Sharif Husain 208 (11)
The Anglo-French-Russian Agreement 219 (4)
The St Jean de Maurienne Agreement 223 (4)
Zionism 227 (7)
War Aims and Peace Terms 234 (41)
Grey Opposes a Negotiated Peace 234 (22)
A Separate Peace 256 (4)
Kuhlmann's Peace Offensive 260 (5)
Peace without Annexations 265 (10)
The Far East 275 (29)
Anglo-Japanese Collaboration, 1902-15 275 (16)
Alarm in the Foreign Office at Japanese 291 (7)
Ambitions in China
Shantung and the Washington Treaty 298 (6)
Britain and the Russian Revolution 304 (71)
Until the Armistice 304 (17)
The Limits of Military Intervention 321 (7)
Towards a Settlement 328 (7)
The Peace Settlement, 1919-22 335 (1)
The Dominance of Lloyd George 335 (3)
The Treaty of Versailles 338 (11)
Enforcement of the Treaty 349 (8)
The Middle East 357 (7)
Peace with Turkey 364 (11)
Conclusion 375 (5)
Notes 380 (31)
Bibliography 411
Index xv
The Documents 423
I. THE EASTERN QUESTION, 1878-82
Salisbury formulates British objectives in
the Near East
Salisbury to Disraeli 21 March 1878 1 (1)
Salisbury changes the British
interpretation of the Rule of the Straits
Derby to Shuvalov 6 May 1877 2 (1)
Report of the Cabinet Committee on the Treaty 2 (1)
of San Stefano 27 March 1878
Salisbury's declaration at the Congress of 3 (1)
Berlin 11 July 1878
Salisbury 7 May 1885 3 (1)
Salisbury and Disraeli welcome a German
alliance to defend the Balkans
Salisbury to Disraeli 15 October 1879 3 (1)
Northcote to the Queen 4 November 1879 4 (1)
Salisbury's conditions for defending Asia
Minor
Salisbury to Layard 16 May 1878 4 (1)
The object of the Cyprus Convention
Memorandum 26 July 1878 by General Simmons 5 (2)
Salisbury admits reform in Turkey is a
hopeless prospect
To Major Trotter 16 September 1879 7 (1)
Goschen emphasizes the Liberal Government's
interest in reform in Turkey
Goschen to Granville 21 June 1880 7 (2)
Gladstone seeks to maintain continuity in
foreign policy, whilst changing the
emphasis to the Concert
Memorandum of conversation with Granville 23 9 (1)
September 1880
Bismarck offers advice on the Eastern
Question
Ampthill to Granville 20 December 1881 9 (2)
Conservative policy in Tunis and Egypt
Salisbury to Lyons 7 August 1878 11 (1)
Salisbury to Layard 29 October 1878 12 (1)
Disraeli to the Queen 21 February 1879 13 (1)
Salisbury to Northcote 16 September 1881 13 (1)
Granville and Gladstone accept Salisbury's
commitments on Tunis
Granville to Lyons 17 June 1880 13 (2)
Gladstone to Granville 22 April 1881 15 (1)
The Liberals and the occupation of Egypt
Gladstone to Granville 13 September 1881 15 (1)
Granville to Dufferin 26 January 1882 15 (1)
Gladstone Memorandum of Cabinet decision of 16 (1)
21 June
Gladstone to the Queen 3 July 1882 17 (1)
Gladstone to the Queen 27 July 1882 17 (1)
II. THE EVACUATION OF EGYPT
Britain determines to end the Dual Control
Malet to Granville 3 September 1882 18 (1)
Gladstone to Granville 3 October 1882 18 (1)
The Liberal Government announces its
intention to to withdraw from Egypt
Granville Draft Circular 14 December 1882 19 (1)
The Problem of the Suez Canal
Report of Cabinet Committee 4 November 1882 20 (1)
Lyons to Granville 5 June 1883 21 (1)
Granville tries to solve the financial
problem by a European Conference
Granville Draft Circular 9 April 1884 22 (1)
The difficulties of administering Egypt
Baring Memorandum 4 July 1884 23 (1)
The problems of evacuation divide the
Cabinet
Northbrook Memorandum 9 August 1884 24 (1)
Harcourt Memorandum for the Cabinet 16 25 (1)
November 1884
Gladstone to Granville 6 January 1885 25 (1)
Gladstone seeks a settlement with Bismarck
Gladstone to Granville 31 December 1884 26 (1)
Malet to Granville 24 January 1885 26 (1)
Bismarck explains his colonial policy
Currie, Notes of a conversation with Prince 27 (1)
Bismarck 28 September 1885
The Soudan problem
Baring to Granville 26 March 1884 28 (1)
Granville to Baring 29 March 1884 29 (1)
Report of Cabinet meeting of 12 March 1885 30 (1)
III. THE DEFENCE OF INDIA
Conservative policy to partition Afghanistan
Disraeli to the Queen 5 December 1879 31 (1)
Agreement to defend Afghanistan
Griffin to Abdul Rahman Khan July 1880 32 (1)
Big versus Little Endians
Memorandum by H. C. Rawlinson 25 September 33 (1)
1880
Memorandum by Northbrook 15 October 1880 34 (1)
Candahar to be abandoned
Hartington to Ripon 11 November 1880 35 (2)
Ripon advocates an agreement with Russia
Ripon Memorandum 2 September 1881 37 (1)
Persian boundary agreement discounted by
Hartington
Hartington Memorandum 22 May 1882 38 (1)
Afghan Boundaries
Notes by Currie 25 April 1883 38 (1)
Memorandum by Barrington 11 March 1885 39 (2)
Herat means war
Gladstone to the Queen 25 March 1885 41 (1)
Granville stands on Zulficar, having
abandoned Pendjeh
F.O. Memorandum 18 June 1885 41 (1)
Salisbury maintains Granville's policy on
Zulficar
Salisbury to Thornton 1 July 1885 42 (1)
Dufferin explains the difficulties of
maintaining Afghanistan as a buffer state
Dufferin to Churchill 30 July 1885 42 (2)
Salisbury seeks German arbitration
Currie to Salisbury 4 August 1885, enclosing 44 (1)
copy of paper shown to Herbert Bismarck on 3
August
The problem of defending India
Brackenbury Memorandum, Intelligence Branch 45 (1)
War Office, 25 January 1887
India Office Memorandum November 1891 46 (2)
IV. THE MEDITERRANEAN ALLIANCE
Currie and Bismarck discuss Constantinople
and Egypt
Currie, Notes of a conversation with Prince 48 (1)
Bismarck 28 September 1885
Salisbury seeks an Anglo-Turkish solution
to the Egyptian problem
Salisbury to Drummond-Wolff 7 August 1885 49 (2)
Drummond-Wolff to Salisbury 16 January 1886 51 (1)
Britain gives diplomatic support to the
Unification of Bulgaria
Salisbury to Morier 2 December 1885 52 (1)
Malet to Iddesleigh 21 August 1886 52 (1)
Iddesleigh to Salisbury 31 August 1886 52 (1)
Salisbury's anxiety to preserve peace
Salisbury to Morier 19 January 1887 53 (1)
Salisbury to the Queen 30 January 1887 53 (1)
The negotiation of the First Mediterranean
Agreement
Salisbury to the Queen 2 February 1887 54 (1)
Salisbury to the Queen 10 February 1887 55 (1)
Anglo-Italian exchange of Notes 12 February 56 (2)
1887
The negotiations for an Egyptian Convention
in 1887
Salisbury to the Queen 10 February 1887 58 (1)
Salisbury to Drummond-Wolff 23 February 1887 58 (1)
Salisbury to Lyons 20 July 1887 59 (1)
Salisbury to White 2 November 1887 59 (1)
Salisbury rejects Russian overtures and
reluctantly extends the Mediterranean
Agreements
Morier to Salisbury 18 August 60 (1)
Salisbury to Morier 19 August 1887 60 (1)
Salisbury to Lumley 28 October 1887 61 (1)
Salisbury to Karolyi and Catalani 12 December 61 (2)
1887
V. PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA, 1885-91
Gladstone rejects annexationism in East
Africa
Gladstone to Granville 12 December 1884 63 (1)
Bismarck applies the Egyptian lever in
Zanzibar
Malet to Iddesleigh 2 October 1886 63 (1)
British interests clash with those of
Germany and Italy in Zanzibar
Salisbury to Goschen 14 October 1888 64 (1)
Salisbury rejects a German alliance
Herbert Bismarck to Prince Bismarck 22 March 64 (1)
1889
Hatzfeldt to Bulow 20 April 1898 65 (1)
Negotiations for an African Settlement with
Germany in 1890
Salisbury to the Queen 24 May 1890 65 (1)
Salisbury Memorandum for the Cabinet 2 June 66 (1)
1890
Salisbury to the Queen 4 June 1890 67 (1)
The protection of the Nile
Baring to Salisbury 15 June 1889 68 (1)
Baring to Salisbury 15 March 1890 68 (1)
Salisbury to Baring 31 August 1890 69 (1)
Salisbury to Baring 21 November 1890 69 (2)
VI. BRITAIN AND THE FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE
1888-92
British Military Weakness
Brackenbury Memorandum, Intelligence Branch 71 (1)
War Office, 22 March 1886
Brackenbury Memorandum, Intelligence Branch 72 (2)
War Office, 25 January 1887
The invasion scare of 1888 and the origin
of the Naval Defence Act
Brackenbury Memorandum 8 June 1888 74 (1)
Hamilton Memorandum 19 June 1888 74 (1)
Salisbury Memorandum 29 June 1888 75 (1)
Salisbury Memorandum 6 November 1888 75 (2)
Hamilton 10 November 1888, enclosing Hood 77 (6)
Memorandum of July
The development of the policy of limited
support for Italy in the Mediterranean
Salisbury to Dufferin 28 December 1888 83 (1)
Salisbury to Dering 25 July 1889 83 (1)
Salisbury to Dufferin 12 August 1890 84 (1)
Deym to Kalnoky 17 June 1891 85 (1)
The Defence of Constantinople
Memorandum by Salisbury 4 June in comment on 85 (7)
Joint Report of D.M.I. and D.N.I., 18 March
1892
VII. LIBERAL FOREIGN POLICY
Rosebery gives assurances on the continuity
of foreign policy
Deym to Kalnoky 3 November 1892 92 (1)
Memorandum by Rosebery 5 September 1892 92 (1)
Naval Expansion and Foreign Policy in 1893
Spencer Memorandum 8 December 1893 93 (1)
The deterioration of relations with the
Triple Alliance
Rosebery to Malet 3 January 1894 94 (1)
Deym to Kalnoky 13 June 1894 95 (1)
Rosebery to Malet 6 January 1895 95 (1)
Malet to Salisbury 7 July 1895 96 (1)
Rosebery urges the retention of Uganda
Rosebery Memorandum 16 September 1892 97 (1)
Kimberley suggests concessions in West
Africa in return fox an agreement on the
Nile
Kimberley to Dufferin 14 August 1894 98 (1)
Kimberley supports the Grey Declaration
Courcel to Hanotaux 2 April 1895 99 (1)
Dufferin congratulates Rosebery on the Siam
settlement
Dufferin to Rosebery 31 July 1893 100 (1)
The problem in the Pamirs, 1892-3
Memorandum by Bertie 24 January 1893 100 (1)
Britain adopts a negative policy in the Far
East
Kimberley to the Queen 23 April 1895 101 (2)
VIII. THE NEAR EAST AND AFRICA
The Armenian problem and the Straits
Salisbury to Currie 19, 23 August 1895 103 (1)
Goschen to Salisbury 7 December 1895 103 (1)
Salisbury to Currie 17 December 1885 104 (1)
Goschen to Salisbury 7 December 1895 105 (1)
Salisbury, Report on audience with the Tsar 105 (1)
at Balmoral 27 September 1896
Salisbury to Currie 23 November 1896 106 (1)
Salisbury to Currie 19 October 1897 107 (1)
Relations with the Triple Alliance
Deym to Goluchowski 6 February 1896 108 (1)
Salisbury to the Queen 19 February 1896 109 (1)
Salisbury to Lascelles 10 March 1896 110 (1)
Salisbury to Currie 15 December 1896 111 (1)
The reconquest of the Sudan
Hicks-Beach to Salisbury 19 October 1896 111 (1)
Baring to Salisbury 22 October 1897 112 (1)
Baring Memorandum 5 November 1897 113 (4)
Monson to Hanotaux 10 December 1897 117 (1)
Salisbury to Monson 12 October 1898 117 (1)
The Portuguese Colonies
Kimberley to Malet 5 December 1894 117 (1)
Balfour Memorandum 5 September 1898 118 (2)
IX. THE FAR EAST
Salisbury seeks an understanding with Russia
Salisbury to O'Conor 25 January 1898 120 (1)
The Cabinet decides against war over Port
Arthur
Balfour to the Queen 26 March 1898 121 (1)
Balfour opposes a forceful policy over
Manchurian railway concessions
Balfour Memorandum 15 August 1898 121 (1)
Chamberlain advocates an agreement with
Germany on the Open Door
Chamberlain Memorandum 10 September 1900 122 (1)
Negotiations with Germany on the Far East
in 1901
Lansdowne Memorandum 12 March 1901 123 (1)
Lansdowne to Lascelles 18 March 1901 124 (2)
Salisbury Memorandum 29 May 1901 126 (1)
Lansdowne to Lascelles 19 December 1901 127 (2)
Negotiations with Japan
Selborne Memorandum 4 September 1901 129 (3)
Lansdowne Memorandum 25 October 1901 132 (1)
Salisbury to Lansdowne 7 January 1902 133 (2)
Lansdowne to MacDonald 7 January 1902 135 (1)
The Anglo-Japanese Treaty: Draft of 23 136 (3)
January 1902
Salisbury (4th Marquis) to Balfour 9 November 139 (284)
1905
Preface xv
1. THE ANGLO-FRENCH ENTENTE
Lansdowne's views on France and Morocco
Lansdowne to Monson, 26 December 1904 423 (1)
Anglo-Japanese relations
Lansdowne to Bertie, 21 March 1905 423 (1)
Balfour to the King, 9 June 1905 424 (1)
The Moroccan Crisis of 1905
Lansdowne to Lascelles, 9 April 1905 425 (1)
Lansdowne to Bertie, 12 June 1905 426 (1)
Lansdowne to Lister, 10 July 1095 426 (1)
Grey on relations with France and Germany
Grey to Lascelles, 1 January 1906 426 (3)
2. BRITAIN, FRANCE AND GERMANY, 1908-12
Anglo-German-French relations: British views
Grey to Lascelles, 27 March 1907 429 (1)
Grey to Haldane, 4 September 1907 429 (1)
Minute by Eyre Crowe, 18 August 1908 430 (1)
Minute by Eyre Crowe, 13 April 1909 430 (1)
Hardinge to Goschen, 26 April 1910 431 (1)
Nicolson to Goschen, 28 February 1911 432 (1)
Bertie to Nicolson, 15 March 1911 432 (1)
The Agadir Crisis
Bertie to Nicolson, 14 May 1911 433 (1)
Asquith to the King, 19 July 1911 433 (1)
Tyrrell to Hardinge, 21 July 1911 434 (1)
Morley to Asquith, 27 July 1911 434 (1)
Note by Six Edward Grey, 2 August 1911 435 (1)
Nicolson to Hardinge, 17 August 1911 435 (1)
Loreburn to Grey, 26 August 1911 436 (2)
Grey to Loreburn, 30 August 1911 438 (1)
Grey to Nicolson, 13 September 1911 438 (1)
Grey to Bertie, 14 October 1911 438 (1)
Notes by C. P. Scott, 1 December 1911 439 (1)
British military plans and preparations
Memorandum by Winston Churchill, 27 June 1908 440 (1)
Report of a C.I.D. sub-committee, 24 July 1909 441 (4)
Memorandum by the General Staff, 13 August 445 (3)
1911
Asquith to the King, 2 November 1911 448 (1)
16th meeting of the C.I.D., 25 April 1912 449 (1)
The Haldane Mission
Sanderson to Hardinge, 26 January 1912 450 (1)
Asquith to the King, 3 February 1912 450 (1)
Nicolson to Bertie, 8 February 1912 451 (1)
Memorandum by Bertie, 16 February 1912 452 (1)
Memorandum by Bertie, 19 February 1912 452 (1)
Nicolson to Bertie, 6 April 1912 453 (1)
British naval policy
Memorandum by Winston Churchill, 15 March 1911 454 (2)
Memorandum by Reginald McKenna, 24 June 1912 456 (1)
Asquith to the King, 16 July 1912 457 (1)
Memorandum by Bertie, 17 and 23 July 1912 457 (1)
Memorandum by the Admiralty, August 1912 458 (2)
3. ANGLO-RUSSIAN RELATIONS AND THE MIDDLE EAST
British policy towards Russia
Grey to Nicolson, 1 April 1907 460 (1)
Nicolson to Grey, 19 July 1908 460 (1)
Grey is gloomy about the prospects of
Turkish reform
Memorandum by Sir Edward Grey, January 1908 461 (3)
Hardinge's views on the Young Turk
Revolution
Hardinge to Barclay, 30 June 1908 464 (1)
Britain and the Bosnian Crisis
Hardinge to Lowther, 1 December 1908 465 (1)
Hardinge to Nicolson, 12 April 1909 465 (2)
Grey and Hardinge gaze into the crystal ball
Grey to Bertie, 30 April 1909 467 (1)
Hardinge to Lowther, 18 May 1909 467 (1)
The Baghdad Railway
Hardinge to Marling, 16 November 1909 468 (1)
Grey to Hardinge, 16 May 1911 468 (1)
Potsdam and Turkey
Nicolson to Lowther, 23 January 1911 469 (1)
The Tripoli War and Anglo-Turkish relations
Asquith to the King, 2 November 1911 470 (1)
Anglo-Russian relations, Persia and Central
Asia
Nicolson to Barclay, 24 October 1911 470 (2)
Hardinge to Crewe, 17 September 1912 472 (1)
Crewe to Hardinge, 26 September 1912 472 (1)
Grey to Spender, 24 September 1912 473 (1)
Grey to Harcourt, 26 September 1912 473 (1)
Nicolson to Hardinge, 11 June 1914 473 (2)
5. BRITAIN AND EUROPE, 1912-14
The Balkan wars
Minute by Winston Churchill, 3 April 1913 475 (1)
Grey to Hardinge, 13 May 1913 475 (1)
Nicolson to Cartwright, 8 July 1913 476 (1)
Grey to Bertie, 31 July 1913 476 (1)
The naval estimate's crisis, 1913-14
Memorandum by David Lloyd George, December 477 (1)
1913
Memorandum by Winston Churchill, 10 January 478 (3)
1914
Harcourt, Grey and the Triple Entente
Harcourt to Grey, 8 January 1914 481 (1)
Harcourt to Grey, 9 January 1914 482 (1)
Grey to Harcourt, 10 January 1914 482 (1)
Grey to Harcourt, 11 January 1914 483 (1)
Nicolson on Anglo-Russian relations and
Britain's weakness
Nicolson to Hardinge, 29 October 1913 484 (1)
Nicolson to de Bunsen, 30 March 1914 484 (1)
Nicolson to Buchanan, 7 April 1914 485 (1)
The Anglo-Russian naval conversations
Asquith to the King, 14 May 1914 486 (1)
Nicolson to Grey, 7 July 1914 487 (1)
Grey on Germany's strategic predicament
Memorandum by Bertie, 16 July 1914 488 (1)
British policy during the Sarajevo crisis
Asquith to the King, 28 July 1914 489 (1)
Herbert Samuel to Mrs Samuel, 2 August 1914 489 (2)
Notes by C. P. Scott, 3 August 1914 491 (1)
Nicolson to Hardinge, 5 September 1914 491 (2)
1. STRATEGY AND FOREIGN POLICY
Sonnino proposes an interim agreement
Rodd to Grey, 7 November 1914 493 (1)
The Cabinet agrees to Italian terms
Asquith to the King, 24 March 1915 494 (1)
Grey protests against extent of Italian
demands
Grey to Rodd, 1 April 1915 495 (1)
Italian influence upon Balkan States
Rodd to Grey, 2 April 1915 496 (2)
Summary of negotiations with the Balkan
States
Drummond to Asquith, 26 October 1915 498 (2)
Dardanelles operations hindered by Russian
attitude
Grey to Buchanan, 4 March 1915 500 (1)
Russia and Constantinople
War Council, 10 March 1915 501 (11)
Conditions under which Russia to have
Constantinople
Aide-memoire of 12 March 1915 512 (2)
Grey's view of Bulgarian claims
Grey to Crewe, 15 June 1915 514 (1)
The state of negotiations with Bulgaria
G. H. Fitzmaurice to Eric Drummond, 4 July 515 (3)
1915
Roumanian policy
A. P. Bennett to T. Russell, 6 November 1915 518 (2)
Lack of co-ordination in Balkan policy
Memo. by Eustace Percy, Comments by Eric 520 (4)
Drummond, 11 October 1915
2. THE MIDDLE EAST, 1914-18
The partition of Turkey in Asia
War Committee, 19 March 1915 524 (3)
The negotiations with the Arabs
McMahon to Grey, 18 October 1915 527 (2)
Minutes on McMahon to Grey, 18 October 1915 529 (2)
Grey to McMahon, 20 October 1915 531 (1)
Separate peace with Turkey
Grey to Buchanan, 16 November 1915 531 (2)
Buchanan to Grey, 17 November 1915 533 (2)
Persia and Turkey-limitations on policy
Minutes on the Aga Khan's Memoranda on the 535 (1)
Middle East, March 1916
Pan-Islamism
Memo. by Sir A. Hirtzel, Political Dept., 536 (1)
India Office, 25 May 1916
The Sykes-Picot Agreement
Crewe to Bertie, 17 December 1915 537 (2)
Memo. by Sykes, January 1916 539 (4)
Italy and Asia Minor
Grey to Rodd, 21 September 1916 543 (2)
Balfour to Rodd, 25 April 1917 545 (1)
Zionism
War Cabinet, 2 October 1917 546 (3)
Cecil to Balfour, 24 October 1917 549 (1)
War Cabinet, 31 October 1917 550 (2)
Zionism and the Arabs
To Wingate, 4 January 1918 552 (1)
Lloyd George rejects the Sykes-Picot
Agreement
War Cabinet, 3 October 1918 553 (2)
3. WAR AIMS AND PEACE TERMS
Situation in America
Spring Rice to Grey, 21 July 1915 555 (1)
Spring Rice to Grey, 15 September 1916 556 (2)
U.S. policy unreliable
Minutes on Spring Rice to Grey, 6 October 1916 558 (1)
Peace negotiations rejected
War Committee, 21 March 1916 558 (4)
Grey to Buchanan, 15 May 1916 562 (1)
War aims, 1916
General Staff Memo. by Robertson, 31 August 563 (3)
1916
The peace settlement in Europe
Memo. by Balfour, 4 October 1916 566 (3)
Memo. by R. Cecil, 6 November 1916 569 (3)
Memo. by Lansdowne, 13 November 1916 572 (1)
Memo. by Grey, 27 November 1916 573 (5)
Memo. by Cecil, 22 December 1916 578 (3)
Balfour critical of French war aims
Balfour to Bertie, 2 July 1917 581 (2)
German peace proposals
War Cabinet, 24 September 1917 583 (5)
War Cabinet, 27 September 1917 588 (4)
The future of enemy colonies
Memo. by Curzon, 5 December 1917 592 (5)
War aims, January 1918
Cecil to Balfour, 28 December 1917 597 (2)
War Cabinet, 3 January 1918 599 (4)
War Cabinet, 3 January 1918 603 (3)
War Cabinet, 4 January 1918 606 (2)
Negotiations with Austria-Hungary for a
separate peace
Draft by Balfour of 28 December 1917 of 608 (1)
telegram to President Wilson
War Cabinet, 1 March 1918 609 (5)
Memo. by Smuts, 14 March 1918 614 (3)
Rumbold to Balfour, 26 March 1918 617 (1)
War Cabinet, 15 April 1918 617 (2)
Imperial objectives, August 1918
War Cabinet, 13 August 1918 619 (6)
War Cabinet, 14 August 1918 625 (1)
War Cabinet, 15 August 1918 625 (6)
4. THE FAR EAST
Essential to renew the Japanese Alliance
Grey, 26 May 1911 631 (1)
British interests in China-the twenty-one
demands
Memo. by Alston, 1 February 1915 632 (3)
Grey to Greene, 20 February 1915 635 (1)
Jordan to Grey, 1 March 1915 636 (1)
Grey to Jordan, 7 May 1915 637 (1)
Expulsion of Germans in China
Grey to Jordan, 11 February 1916 638 (1)
Jordan to Grey, 15 February 1916 (minutes) 639 (1)
Recognition of Japanese claims
Colonial Office to Foreign Office, 2 February 640 (1)
1917
Incompatibility of Japan and the U.S.A.
War Cabinet, 22 May 1917 641 (2)
Japanese intervention in Siberia
War Cabinet, May 1918 643 (4)
Renewal of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Report of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance 647 (2)
Committee, 21 January 1921
Cabinet, 30 May 1921 649 (3)
Cabinet, 30 June 1921 652 (4)
Washington Conference
Balfour to Lloyd George, 11 November 1921 656 (2)
5. BRITAIN AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
The two Russias
War Cabinet, 21 December 1917 658 (3)
Cecil to Buchanan, 3 December 1917 661 (1)
War Cabinet, 26 December 1917 661 (3)
Balfour prepared to work with the Bolsheviks
War Cabinet, 10 December 1917 664 (5)
Balfour to Lindley (Petrograd), 24 January 669 (1)
1918
Balfour to Lockhart (Petrograd), 6 March 1918 670 (1)
The growth of disillusion
Balfour to Lockhart, 13 March 1918 671 (2)
The necessity of Japanese intervention
Balfour to Reading, 29 March 1918 673 (1)
Balfour to Jordan (Peking), 30 April 1918 674 (2)
Intervention to support Russia against
Germany
War Cabinet, 11 May 1918 676 (6)
War Cabinet, 17 May 1918 682 (2)
War Cabinet, 6 June 1918 684 (3)
Balfour to Young (Archangel), 2 July 1918 687 (1)
Helping our friends
Balfour to Barclay (Washington), 2 October 688 (1)
1918
War Cabinet, 14 November 1918 689 (5)
War Cabinet, 10 December 1918 694 (1)
Withdrawal from Russia
Lloyd George to Churchill, 16 February 1919 695 (1)
Churchill to Lloyd George, 8 March 1919 696 (2)
Churchill v. Lloyd George
Churchill to Lloyd George, 26 April 1919 698 (2)
Memo. by Lloyd George, 30 August 1919 700 (2)
Churchill to Lloyd George, 20 September 1919 702 (1)
Lloyd George to Churchill, 22 September 1919 703 (2)
The limits of support to Poland
Curzon to Rumbold (Warsaw), 27 January 1920 705 (2)
Resolution of the Hythe Conference, 9 August 707 (2)
1920
The object of the Genoa Conference
Cabinet Minutes, 28 March 1922 709 (8)
6. THE PEACE SETTLEMENT, 1919-22
The object of the Peace
War Cabinet, 26 October 1918 717 (4)
Reparations: the British case
War Cabinet, 25 February 1919 721 (5)
Churchill urges a quick settlement with
Germany
Churchill to Lloyd George, 20 June 1919 726 (2)
Churchill's foreign policy
Churchill to Lloyd George, 24 March 1920 728 (2)
Anglo-French relations
Hardinge to Curzon, 13 June 1921 730 (1)
Lloyd George-Briand conversation, 21 December 731
1921
Reparations and war debts: the Cannes
Conference
Cabinet Minutes, 22 December 1921 730 (8)
Hardinge on the main problems in
Anglo-French relations
Hardinge to Curzon, 3 February 1922 738 (2)
Hardinge to Curzon, 23 February 1922 740 (3)
The problem of Syria
Memo. by Balfour, 11 August 1919 743 (1)
Peace with Turkey
Memo. by Montagu, 18 December 1919 743 (4)
Memo. by Curzon, 7 January 1920 747 (1)
The limitations of the League of Nations
Memo. by Balfour, 15 March 1920 748 (2)
Turkish policy mismanaged
Hardinge to Harcourt-Butler, 9 April 1920 750 (1)
Revision of the Treaty of Sevres
Conference of Ministers, 18 February 1921 751 (4)
Military situation in the Middle East
War Office Memo. 19 February 1921 755 (2)
The Cabinet prepared to fight for Gallipoli
and Constantinople
Cabinet Minutes, 7 September 1922 757
Acknowledgments xi
Introduction 1 (29)
Beust, 1866-71 30 (30)
Andrassy, 1871-9 60 (43)
The Making of the Alliances, 1879-85 103 (51)
The Decline of the Alliances, 1885-95 154 (57)
The Austro-Russian Entente, 1895-1908 211 (99)
Austro-Russian Confrontation, 1908-14 310 (70)
Conclusion 380 (10)
Documents 390 (61)
Bibliography 451 (8)
Index of Names 459 (13)
General Index 472
Preface ix
French Diplomacy in the War of 1914-18 1 (10)
Introduction 1 (2)
Winning the War 3 (3)
Peace Feelers and War Aims 6 (3)
The Armistice 9 (2)
The Peace Settlement 11 (15)
A Pyrrhic Victory 11 (1)
The Quest for Security 12 (4)
Alsace-Lorraine and the Saar 16 (2)
The Principle of Reparations 18 (3)
Central and Eastern Europe 21 (2)
The League of Nations 23 (1)
Conclusion 24 (2)
From Versailles to the Ruhr 26 (21)
The Disappearance of the Anglo-American 26 (2)
Guarantee
The Efforts to Recover the Anglo-American 28 (3)
Guarantee
The Difficulties of Carrying Out the Treaty 31 (7)
of Versailles
The `Eastern Alliances' 38 (7)
Retreat in the Middle East 45 (2)
The Occupation of the Ruhr, and the Dawes Plan 47 (16)
The Preliminaries 47 (5)
The Entry into the Ruhr and the `Passive 52 (3)
Resistance'
Poincare Faced with the German Chaos 55 (1)
The Dawes Plan 56 (4)
Central Europe during the Ruhr Crisis 60 (3)
The Early Days of the Cartel des Gauches 63 (6)
The Implementation of the Dawes Plan 64 (2)
In Quest of Security 66 (3)
The Briand Era 69 (24)
The Locarno Treaties and Germany's Entry 71 (5)
into the League of Nation
Thoiry and the Young Plan 76 (9)
The Briand-Kellogg Pact 85 (2)
The Proposal for European Unity 87 (2)
The Early Evacuation of the Rhineland, and 89 (2)
the Renewal of the German Threat
Conclusion 91 (2)
The Problem of National Defence after the 93 (7)
Evacuation of the Rhineland
The World Economic Crisis and its 100 (17)
Repercussions on the Foreign Policy of France
The End of Reparations: the Hoover 102 (5)
Moratorium and the Lausanne Conference
The Economic Conference at Stresa 107 (2)
(September 1932)
The End of the Interallied Debts, and the 109 (8)
London Conference
The Disarmament Conference and the Rearming 117 (15)
of Germany
The Tardieu Plan and Germany's First Sortie 119 (1)
The Herriot-Paul-Boncour `Constructive Plan' 120 (4)
Disintegration of the French `Constructive 124 (2)
Plan'
The French Plan of the Two Periods and the 126 (2)
Resignation of Germany from the League of
Nations
The Note of 17 April 1934 128 (2)
German Rearmament and French Disarmament 130 (2)
The Franco-Italian Rapprochement and the 132 (23)
Attempt to Consolidate Central Europe
The Franco-Italian Affair 132 (2)
Central and Eastern Europe at the Beginning 134 (3)
of 1933
The de Jouvenel Mission and the Four-Power 137 (4)
Pact
The Proposal for an Association of the 141 (8)
Peoples of Central Europe
The Austrian Crisis of 1934 and Italian 149 (2)
Policy
The Rome Agreements (January 1935) 151 (1)
The `Stresa Front' 152 (3)
The Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance 155 (18)
The Non-Aggression Pact of November 1932 156 (4)
The Turning-Point of 1933 160 (5)
Barthou's Venture 165 (4)
The Policy of Laval and the Conclusion of 169 (4)
the Mutual Assistance Pact
The Abyssinia Conflict and the 173 (22)
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
The Origins of the Abyssinia Conflict 173 (2)
The Sanctions 175 (5)
A New Attempt at Conciliation: the 180 (4)
Laval-Hoare Plan
Remilitarization of the Rhineland 184 (8)
The Last Attempt at a Rapprochement with 192 (3)
Italy
The Foreign Policy of the Popular Front 195 (26)
General Reflections 195 (1)
Franco-British Relations and the 196 (4)
Negotiation for a `New Locarno'
The Tripartite Monetary Agreement and its 200 (2)
Political Significance
The Belgian Defection 202 (3)
Franco-German Relations: the Schacht Mission 205 (3)
Franco-Soviet Relation 208 (3)
Break-Up of the Eastern Alliances 211 (3)
The War in Spain: Non-Intervention and 214 (7)
Attempt at Mediation
Munich 221 (12)
The Calm before the Storm 221 (1)
The Annexation of Austria 221 (1)
The Preliminaries of the Czech Affair 222 (3)
Britain Appears on the Scene 225 (1)
The September Crisis 226 (4)
The Consequences of Munich 230 (3)
The Beginning of the War 233 (13)
The Italian Claims 233 (1)
The Prague Coup 234 (1)
The Policy of Guarantees 235 (1)
Negotiations with the USSR 236 (3)
The Last Hesitations and the Declaration of 239 (3)
War
The `Phoney War' 242 (4)
Woe to the Vanquished 246 (14)
Military Disaster and Political Disaster 246 (2)
The Impotence of the Vichy Regime 248 (3)
The Impotence of Free France 251 (9)
Conclusion 260 (2)
Appendix: Documents 262 (92)
Introduction 262 (1)
List of Documents 262 (3)
Documents 265 (89)
Select Bibliography 354 (4)
Index 358 (13)
Acknowledgments ix
Abbreviations xi
Part I
The Sixth Wheel 3 (10)
From Independence to Alliance 13 (15)
Mancini, Robilant and the Mediterranean, 28 (19)
1882-7
The Egyptian Crisis 28 (4)
Via Tripoli to Massowa 32 (3)
Massowa 35 (4)
Robilant's Fortress 39 (8)
The Crispi Era 47 (22)
Crispi and France 48 (3)
Crispi, Austria and the Ottoman Empire 51 (3)
Crispi and Africa 54 (7)
The road to Adowa 61 (8)
Back from Africa 69 (43)
Rudini and the settlement with France 70 (12)
The Prinetti-Barrere agreement 82 (8)
Giolitti, Tittoni and the Entente Cordiale 90 (3)
The Moroccan Crisis 93 (3)
Italy, Austria and the Balkans 96 (9)
The Bosnian Crisis 105 (7)
The Revival of Italian Nationalism 112 (21)
Neutrality and War, 1914-15 133 (27)
Italy at the Peace Conference 160 (23)
Colonial diversions 169 (3)
Nitti and D'Annunzio 172 (5)
The Treaty of Rapallo 177 (6)
Part II
Mussolini and the New Diplomacy 183 (28)
Mussolini's ideas 183 (2)
The Near East 185 (6)
Reparations 191 (3)
The Corfu Incident 194 (6)
Towards Locarno 200 (11)
Italo-French Relations after Locarno 211 (12)
The Watch on the Brenner 223 (17)
The Four Power Pact 224 (4)
The Tardieu Plan 228 (3)
Negotiations with Austria 231 (9)
The Abyssinian War 240 (51)
The rise of the Africanisti 242 (8)
Wal-Wal 250 (5)
Diplomatic preparations 255 (28)
Sanctions 283 (8)
The Brenner Abandoned 291 (24)
Belgrade 292 (5)
The Rome-Berlin Axis 297 (12)
An opening to the West? 309 (6)
Munich and After 315 (22)
The loss of the initiative 315 (11)
The seizure of Albania 326 (5)
The Pact of Steel 331 (6)
War, 1940 337 (34)
Avoiding the catastrophe 337 (16)
A neutral bloc? 353 (9)
Intervention 362 (9)
Documents 371 (45)
Notes 416 (42)
Bibliography 458 (11)
Index 469
Introduction vii
Part one THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK: THE REICH AND 1 (22)
EUROPEAN DIPLOMACY
The Second German Empire - Historical 3 (14)
Background and Social Structure
The Pattern of European Diplomacy, 1871-1914 17 (6)
Part two GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 23 (50)
PRE-IMPERIALIST ERA, 1871-95
From The Founding of the German Empire to the 25 (10)
Congress of Berlin, 1871-8
Dual And Triple Alliance, 1879-82 35 (9)
Colonial Expansion as a First Step Towards 44 (8)
Imperialism, 1882-5
The Tangle of Alliances, 1885-90 52 (8)
`New Course' - Years of Indecision, 1890-5 60 (13)
Part three `WELTPOLITIK' AND NO WAR - 1896-1912 73 (46)
The Emergence of `Weltpolitik' From Domestic 75 (9)
Policy, 1896-8
The Diplomacy of `Weltpolitik', 1897-1902 84 (12)
The Beginning of Germany's Containment, 1902-6 96 (10)
Triple Entente and the Bosnian Crisis, 1907-9 106 (13)
Part four THE COMING OF WAR, 1909-14 119 (42)
`Encirclement' and Germany' Self-Isolation 121 (7)
Germany's Political Offensive Against 128 (11)
`Encirclement', 1909-12
The Decision to go the War, January to 8 139 (7)
December 1912
Preparing for War, December, 1912-June 1914 146 (15)
Part five GERMANY'S WAR OF AGGRESSION AND 161 (21)
CONQUEST
Germany's War of Aggression: The Crisis and 163 (10)
the Outbreak of War, 28 June-4 August 1914
Germany's War of Conquest: German and AIMS, 173 (9)
1914
Documents 182 (37)
Notes 219 (26)
Bibliography 245 (8)
Index 253
Preface vii
Introduction 1 (52)
European Imperialism and Us Expansionism 53 (42)
The Growth of Nationalistic Expansionism 95 (56)
The United States in World Politics 151 (41)
Co-Operation and Competition 192 (46)
Selected Documents 238 (116)
Notes 354 (7)
Index 361
Acknowledgments ix
Foreign Ministers x
Introduction 1 (8)
The Iwakura Period, 1869-83 9 (17)
Origins of the Foreign Ministry 12 (5)
Iwakura's policy 17 (4)
Korean crisis and its aftermath 21 (5)
The Mutsu Period, 1884-96 26 (18)
Mutsu's Foreign Ministry 27 (2)
Treaty Revision 29 (5)
War with China 34 (5)
Peace Overtures 39 (2)
Assessment 41 (3)
The Aoki Period, 1896-1901 44 (15)
Aoki's Role in Treaty Revision 46 (5)
Far Eastern Crisis of 1898 51 (1)
Boxer Disturbances 52 (7)
The Komura Period, 1901-11 59 (24)
Genro and foreign policy 62 (2)
Anglo-Japanese alliance 64 (5)
Prelude to the Russian war 69 (3)
The Portsmouth Peace 72 (5)
Second term at Kasumigaseki 77 (6)
The Kato Period, 1911-15 83 (22)
Autonomy of the Foreign Ministry 86 (2)
The Chinese Revolution 88 (5)
First World War 93 (3)
The Twenty-one Demands 96 (7)
Assessment 103 (2)
The Ishii Period, 1915-19 105 (21)
Russo-Japanese alliance 106 (5)
Mission to Washington 111 (7)
Paris Peace Conference 118 (8)
The Shidehara Period, 1920-7 126 (26)
Washington years, 1919-22 131 (2)
The Washington Conference of 1921-2 133 (2)
Shantung 135 (3)
Washington Naval Treaty 138 (3)
Washington aftermath 141 (4)
Relations with the Soviets 145 (7)
The Tanaka Period, 1927-31 152 (23)
Shidehara's China policy, 1924-7 154 (4)
Tanaka's China policy, 1927-9 158 (2)
Manchurian developments 160 (5)
Back to Shidehara 165 (1)
London Naval Conference, 1930 166 (6)
Tanaka and Shidehara - some concluding 172 (3)
thoughts
The Uchida Period, 1931-3 175 (22)
Mukden incident 176 (7)
Uchida as foreign minister 183 (5)
League of Nations imbroglio 188 (5)
Aftermath of Manchukuo 193 (4)
The Hirota Period, 1933-7 197 (21)
Changes in Kasumigaseki's role 199 (4)
Naval Disarmament 203 (6)
China, 1933-7 209 (9)
The Konoe Period, 1937-40 218 (17)
The China ulcer 222 (5)
Entracte in several short movements 227 (8)
The Matsuoka Period, 1944-1 235 (16)
Tripartite Pact 237 (3)
Japanese-Soviet Relations 240 (3)
The American Dilemma 243 (3)
Tojo and the Supreme Gamble 246 (5)
Postscript 251 (15)
Documents 266 (44)
Notes 310 (19)
Select Bibliography 329 (9)
Index 338