Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (4th ed. 1999. XVIII, 719 p. w. figs. 26 cm)

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Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (4th ed. 1999. XVIII, 719 p. w. figs. 26 cm)

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基本説明

Contents: General Constants and Units; Atoms and Molecules; Spectra; Radiation; Radio and Microwave Astronomy; Infrared Astronomy; Ultraviolet Astronomy; Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Astronomy; Earth; Planets and Satellites; Incidental Tables; and more.

Full Description


This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei - Clusters and groups of galaxies - Cosmology. As well as much explanatory material and extensive and up-to-date bibliographies.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            v
Contributors xv
Introduction 1 (6)
Arthur N. Cox
Background 1 (1)
Astronomical Symbols 2 (1)
Astronomical and Astrophysical Journals 2 (5)
General Constants and Units 7 (20)
Arthur N. Cox
Mathematical Constants 7 (1)
Physical Constants 8 (4)
General Astronomical Constants 12 (1)
Astronomical Constants Involving Time 13 (4)
Units 17 (5)
Electric and Magnetic Unit Relations 22 (5)
Atoms and Molecules 27 (26)
Werner Dappen
Online Databases and Other Sources 27 (1)
Elements, Atomic Mass, and Solar-System 28 (3)
Abundance
Excitation, Ionization, and Partition 31 (4)
Functions
Ionization Potentials 35 (1)
Electron Affinities 35 (1)
Atomic Cross Sections for Electronic 35 (8)
Collisions
Atomic Radii 43 (1)
Particles of Modern Physics 44 (1)
Molecules 45 (2)
Plasmas 47 (6)
Spectra 53 (42)
Charles Cowley
Wolfgang L. Wiese
Jeffrey Fuhr
Ludmila A. Kuznetsova
Online Database 53 (1)
Terminology for Atomic States, Levels, 54 (3)
Terms, etc.
Electronic Configurations 57 (3)
Spectrum Line Intensities 60 (5)
Relative Strengths Within Multiplets 65 (3)
Wavelengths and Wave Numbers 68 (1)
Atomic Oscillator Strengths for Allowed 69 (9)
Lines
Nuclear Spin and Hyperfine Structure: 78 (1)
Low-Level Hyperfine Transitions
Forbidden Line Transition Probabilities 79 (4)
Spectra of Diatomic Molecules 83 (2)
Energy Levels 85 (2)
Transitions 87 (2)
Selection Rules: Dipole Radiation 89 (6)
Radiation 95 (26)
J. J. Keady
D. P. Kilcrease
Radiation Quantities and Interrelations 95 (5)
Refractive Index and Average Polarizability 100(2)
Absorption and Scattering by Particles 102(4)
Photoionization and Recombination 106(3)
X-Ray Attenuation 109(1)
Absorption of Material of Stellar Interiors 110(4)
Absorption of Material of the Solar 114(1)
Photosphere
Solar Photoionization Rates 114(1)
Free--Free Absorption and Emission 115(2)
Reflection from Metallic Mirrors 117(1)
Visual Photometry 117(4)
Radio Astronomy 121(22)
Robert M. Hjellming
Introduction 121(2)
Atmospheric Window and Sky Brightness 123(2)
Radio Wave Propagation 125(3)
Radio Telescopes and Arrays 128(3)
Radio Emission and Absorption Processes 131(9)
Radio Astronomy References 140(3)
Infrared Astronomy 143(26)
A. T. Tokunaga
Useful Equations; Units 143(1)
Atmospheric Transmission 144(2)
Background Emission 146(2)
Detectors and Signal-to-Noise Ratios 148(1)
Photometry (λ < 30 μm) 149(5)
Photometry (λ > 30 μm) 154(1)
Infrared Line List 155(3)
Dust 158(3)
Solar System 161(2)
Stars 163(1)
Extragalactic Objects 164(5)
Ultraviolet Astronomy 169(14)
Terry J. Teays
Ultraviolet Wavelengths 169(1)
Ultraviolet Astronomy Satellite Missions 170(2)
Significant Atlases and Catalogs 172(2)
Interstellar Extinction in the Ultraviolet 174(1)
Commonly Observed Ultraviolet Emission Lines 175(3)
Ultraviolet Spectral Classification 178(2)
Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Standards 180(3)
X-Ray Astronomy 183(24)
Frederick D. Seward
Useful Conversions 183(1)
Characteristic X-Ray Transitions 184(1)
Emission Mechanisms and Spectra 184(10)
Transmission of X-Rays Through the 194(4)
Interstellar Medium
Cosmic X-Ray Sources 198(5)
Diffuse Background 203(2)
X-Ray Astronomy Missions 205(2)
γ-Ray and Neutrino Astronomy 207(32)
R. E. Lingenfelter
R. E. Rothschild
Continuum Emission Processes 207(1)
Line Emission Processes 208(5)
Scattering and Absorption Processes 213(3)
Astrophysical γ-Ray Observations 216(19)
Neutrinos in Astrophysics 235(2)
Current Neutrino Observatories 237(2)
Earth 239(54)
Gerald Schubert
Richard L. Walterscheid
Oblate Ellipsoidal Reference Figure 240(1)
Mass and Moments of Inertia 240(1)
Gravitational Potential and Relation to 241(2)
Products of Inertia
Topography 243(1)
Rotation (Spin) and Revolution About the Sun 244(1)
Gravity 245(1)
Geoid 245(1)
Coordinates 246(1)
Solid Body Tides 246(2)
Geological Time Scale 248(3)
Glaciations 251(1)
Plate Tectonics 252(1)
Earth Crust 252(3)
Earth Interior 255(2)
Earth Atmosphere, Dry Air at Standard 257(1)
Temperature and Pressure (STP)
Composition of the Atmosphere 258(1)
Water Vapor 259(1)
Homogeneous Atmosphere, Scale Heights and 259(1)
Gradients
Regions of Earth's Atmosphere and 260(2)
Distribution with Height
Atmospheric Refraction and Air Path 262(3)
Atmospheric Scattering and Continuum 265(3)
Absorption
Absorption by Atmospheric Gases at Visible 268(2)
and Infrared Wavelengths
Thermal Emission by the Atmosphere 270(1)
Ionosphere 271(8)
Night Sky and Aurora 279(3)
Geomagnetism 282(3)
Meteorites and Craters 285(8)
Planets and Satellites 293(22)
David J. Tholen
Victor G. Tejfel
Arthur N. Cox
Planetary System 293(1)
Orbits and Physical Characteristics of 294(4)
Planets
Photometry of Planets and Asteroids 298(2)
Physical Conditions on Planets 300(2)
Names, Designations, and Discoveries of 302(1)
Satellites
Satellite Orbits and Physical Elements 303(5)
Moon 308(3)
Planetary Rings 311(4)
Solar System Small Bodies 315(24)
Richard P. Binzel
Martha S. Hanner
Duncan I. Steel
Asteroids or Minor Planets 315(6)
Comets 321(7)
Zodiacal Light 328(3)
Infrared Zodiacal Emission 331(2)
Meteoroids and Interplanetary Dust 333(6)
Sun 339(42)
William C. Livingston
Basic Data 340(1)
Interior Model 341(1)
Solar Oscillations 342(6)
Photospheric--Chromospheric Model 348(3)
Spectral Lines 351(2)
Spectral Distribution 353(2)
Limb Darkening 355(2)
Corona 357(5)
Solar Rotation 362(2)
Granulation 364(1)
Surface Magnetism and its Tracers 364(3)
Sunspots 367(3)
Sunspot Statistics 370(3)
Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections 373(2)
Solar Radio Emission 375(6)
Normal Stars 381(16)
John S. Drilling
Arlo U. Landolt
Stellar Quantities and Interrelations 381(2)
Spectral Classification 383(2)
Photometric Systems 385(8)
Stellar Atmospheres 393(2)
Stellar Structure 395(2)
Stars with Special Characteristics 397(32)
J. Donald Fernie
Variable Stars 398(1)
Cepheid and Cepheid-Like Variables 399(1)
Variable White Dwarf Tables 400(6)
Long-Period Variables 406(1)
Other Variables 406(1)
Rotating Variables 407(1)
T Tauri Stars 408(1)
Flare Stars 409(1)
Wolf--Rayet and Luminous Blue Variable Stars 410(3)
Be Stars 413(2)
Characteristics of Carbon-Rich Stars 415(1)
Barium, CH, and Subgiant CH Stars 416(1)
Hydrogen-Deficient Carbon Stars 417(1)
Blue Stragglers 418(1)
Peculiar A and Magnetic Stars 419(1)
Pulsars 420(2)
Galactic Black Hole Candidate X-Ray Binaries 422(2)
Double Stars 424(5)
Cataclysmic and Symbiotic Variables 429(22)
W.M. Sparks
S.G. Starrfield
E.M. Sion
S.N. Shore
G. Chanmugam
R.F. Webbink
Types of Cataclysmic Variables 429(18)
Types of Symbiotic Variables 447(4)
Supernovae 451(20)
J. Craig Wheeler
Stefano Benetti
Spectral Types 451(1)
Older Population, Type Ia Supernovae 452(2)
Young Population Supernovae 454(6)
SN 1987A 460(3)
Characteristic Spectral Lines 463(3)
Radio Supernovae 466(1)
Polarization 466(1)
Supernova Rates 467(1)
Old Supernovae, Historical Supernovae, and 468(1)
Supernova Remnants
Radioactive Decay 468(3)
Star Populations and the Solar Neighborhood 471(28)
Gerard F. Gilmore
Michael Zeilik
The Nearby Stars 471(4)
The Brightest Stars 475(3)
Stellar Populations 478(2)
Star Counts at High Latitudes 480(1)
Vertical Stellar Density Profile 481(4)
Main Sequence Field Stellar Luminosity 485(1)
Function
White Dwarf Luminosity Function 485(1)
Luminosity Class Distribution for Nearby 486(1)
Field Stars
Mass Density in the Solar Neighborhood 487(1)
Stellar Mass Function 488(5)
Solar Motion and Kinematics of Nearby Stars 493(6)
Theoretical Stellar Evolution 499(24)
Arthur N. Cox
Stephen A. Becker
W. Dean Pesnell
Basic Equations of Stellar Structure 500(2)
Stellar Nuclear Energy Generation 502(1)
Equations of State 503(2)
Stellar Opacities 505(1)
Electron Conduction 506(1)
Element Diffusion 506(1)
Mixing in Stars 506(1)
Star Formation 507(1)
Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution 508(1)
Main-Sequence Population I Stars 509(1)
Main-Sequence Population II Stars 509(1)
Stellar Winds 509(2)
Stellar Evolution Tracks: Massive and 511(3)
Intermediate-Mass Stars
Evolution to Red Giant Branch 514(1)
Horizontal Branch Evolution 514(1)
Red Giant Mass-Loss Rates 515(3)
Asymptotic Giant Branch Evolution 518(1)
White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars 518(1)
Binary Star Evolution 519(1)
Theory Versus Observation in the HR Diagram 520(3)
Circumstellar and Interstellar Material 523(22)
John S. Mathis
Overview of the Interstellar Medium 523(4)
Galactic Interstellar Extinction 527(2)
Abundances in Interstellar Gas 529(1)
Line Emissions from the ISM 530(2)
H2 and Molecular Clouds 532(2)
Neutral Gas; Clouds; Depletions 534(2)
H II Regions, Ionized Gas, and the Galactic 536(2)
Halo
Planetary Nebulae (PNe) 538(2)
Supernova Remnants 540(1)
Cosmic Rays (Excluding Photons and 541(4)
Neutrinos)
Star Clusters 545(24)
Hugh C. Harris
William E. Harris
Open Clusters 545(9)
Globular Clusters in the Milky Way 554(8)
Globular Clusters in Other Galaxies 562(7)
Milky Way and Galaxies 569(16)
Virginia Trimble
Milky Way Galaxy 569(7)
Normal Galaxies 576(9)
Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei 585(28)
Belinda J. Wilkes
Introduction 585(1)
The Types of Active Galactic Nuclei 586(5)
Catalogs and Surveys 591(2)
Commonly Measured Parameters 593(2)
Emission Lines 595(6)
Absorption Lines 601(1)
Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) 602(3)
Luminosity Functions and the Space 605(2)
Distribution of Quasars
BL Lacs, HPQs, and OVVs 607(1)
Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei 608(1)
(LLAGN)
AGN Environments 608(5)
Clusters and Groups of Galaxies 613(30)
Neta A. Bahcall
Typical Properties of Clusters and Groups 614(1)
of Galaxies
Cluster Catalogs 615(2)
Catalog of Nearby Rich Clusters of Galaxies 617(3)
Cluster Properties 620(5)
Cluster Classification 625(2)
cD Galaxies 627(1)
Luminosity Function of Galaxies in Clusters 627(1)
Mass Function of Clusters 628(2)
X-Ray Emission from Clusters 630(2)
The Sunyaev--Zeldovich Effect in Clusters 632(1)
Clusters and Large--Scale Structure 633(4)
Groups of Galaxies 637(2)
Quasar--Cluster Association 639(1)
Clusters as Gravitational Lenses 640(1)
Recent Results 640(3)
Cosmology 643(24)
Douglas Scott
Joseph Silk
Edward W. Kolb
Michael S. Turner
Friedmann--Robertson--Walker Metric and 644(2)
Distance Measures
The Age of the Universe 646(1)
Conversion Factors for the Early Universe 647(1)
Other Useful Conversion Factors 648(1)
Cosmological Parameters 649(1)
Friedmann--Lemaitre Model 650(1)
Epochs of Interest 650(2)
Age Limits 652(1)
Cosmological Tests: Ho 653(1)
Cosmological Tests: qo 653(1)
Other Cosmological Parameters 654(1)
Primordial Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos 654(1)
Power Spectrum of Density Fluctuations 655(1)
Structure Formation Scales 656(2)
Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies 658(1)
Large-Scale Structure 659(1)
Densities 660(1)
Velocities 661(1)
Intergalactic Medium 662(1)
Extragalactic Diffuse Backgrounds 663(4)
Incidental Tables 667(34)
Alan D. Fiala
William F. van Altena
Stephen T. Ridgway
Roger W. Sinnott
The Julian Date 667(1)
Standard Epochs 668(1)
Reduction for Precession 669(1)
Solar Coordinates and Related Quantities 670(2)
Constellations 672(2)
The Messier Objects 674(3)
Astrometry 677(10)
Optical and Infrared Interferometry 687(2)
The World's Largest Optical Telescopes 689(12)
Index 701