Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Terrorism and Other Hazards (3TH)

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Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Terrorism and Other Hazards (3TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 764 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780826108647
  • DDC分類 616.025

Full Description


The new edition of this AJN Book of the Year continues to provide nurses with the most comprehensive, current, and reliable information available so they can develop the skills to efficiently and effectively respond to disasters or public health emergencies. Meticulously researched and reviewed by the world's foremost experts in preparedness for terrorism, natural disasters, and other unanticipated health emergencies, the text has been revised and updated with significant new content, including 10 new chapters and a digital adjunct teacher's guide with exercises and critical thinking questions. This new edition has strengthened its pediatric focus with updated and expanded chapters on caring for children's physical, mental, and behavioural health following a disaster. New chapters address climate change, global complex human emergencies, caring for patients with HIV/AIDS following a disaster, information technology and disaster response, and hospital and emergency department preparedness.The text provides a vast amount of evidence-based information on disaster planning and response for natural and environmental disasters and those caused by chemical, biological, and radiological elements, as well as disaster recovery. It also addresses leadership, management, and policy issues in disaster nursing and deepens our understanding of the importance of protecting mental health throughout the disaster life cycle. Each chapter is clearly formatted and includes Key Messages and Learning Objectives. Appendices present diagnosis and treatment regimens, creating personal disaster plans, a damage assessment guide, a glossary of terms, and more. Consistent with the Federal Disaster Response Framework, the book promotes competency-based expert nursing care during disasters and positive health outcomes for small and large populations.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xxv
Ann R. Knebel
Foreword xxvii
Eric K. Noji
Foreword xxix
Loretta C. Ford
Foreword xxx
Susan B. Hassmiller
Preface xxxi
Acknowledgments xxxv
I DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
1 Essentials of Disaster Planning
Tener Goodwin Veenema and Colleen Woolsey 1 (1)
Chapter Overview 2 (1)
Introduction 2 (1)
Definition and Classification of Disasters 3 (1)
Declaration of a Disaster 4 (1)
Health Effects of Disasters 5 (1)
The Disaster Continuum 6 (1)
Disaster Planning 7 (1)
Types of Disaster Planning 8 (1)
Challenges to Disaster Planning 8 (2)
Hazard Identification, Vulnerability 10 (2)
Analysis, and Risk Assessment
Capacity to Respond 12 (1)
Core Preparedness Activities 13 (1)
Evaluation of a Disaster Plan 14 (1)
Situations Suggestive of an Increased 15 (1)
Need for Planning
Megacities 15 (1)
Disasters Within Hospitals 15 (1)
Bioterrorism/Pandemic Disease 16 (1)
Hazardous Materials Disaster Planning 16 (1)
Professional Nursing Mandate 17 (1)
Summary 18 (1)
Study Questions 18 (1)
Internet Activities 19 (2)
2 Leadership and Coordination in Disaster
Health Care Systems: the U.S. National
Response Framework
Lynn A. Slepski, Roberta Proffitt Lavin, 21 (1)
and Tener Goodwin Veenema
Chapter Overview 22 (1)
Introduction 22 (1)
Federal Preparedness Planning and 23 (2)
Emergency Response
National Response Framework 25 (1)
The NRF as It Relates to the NIMS 25 (3)
The NRF and a Local Event 28 (1)
Example: Use of the NRF in Responding to 28 (1)
a Catastrophic Event
Implementation of the NRF 29 (1)
Roles and Responsibilities 30 (1)
DHS (www.dhs.gov) 31 (1)
HHS (www.hhs.gov) 31 (1)
DOD (www.defense.gov) 31 (1)
Other Departments and Agencies 31 (1)
ESF8: Public Health and Medical Services 31 (1)
Federal Definition of a Disaster Condition 32 (1)
NRF Considerations 32 (1)
Federal Medical Response Resources 33 (1)
National Disaster Medical System 33 (1)
The USPHS (http://www.usphs.gov) 34 (1)
Civilian Volunteers 35 (1)
Federal Medical Stations (FMS) 36 (1)
Medical Response Actions 36 (1)
Assessment of Health/Medical Needs 36 (1)
Health Surveillance 36 (1)
Medical Care Personnel 36 (1)
Health/Medical Equipment and Supplies 37 (1)
Patient Evacuation 37 (1)
In-Hospital Care 37 (1)
Food/Drug/Medical Device Safety 37 (1)
Worker Health/Safety 37 (1)
Radiological/Chemical/Biological Hazards 37 (1)
Consultation
Mental Health Care 37 (1)
Public Health Information 37 (1)
Vector Control 37 (1)
Potable Water/Waste Water and Solid Waste 37 (1)
Disposal
Victim Identification/Mortuary Services 38 (1)
Veterinary Services 38 (1)
Challenges for U.S. Disaster Health 38 (1)
Systems
Increased Risk 38 (1)
Limited Resources 38 (1)
Workforce Management 38 (1)
A Blueprint for the Future for Disaster 38 (1)
Nursing
Leadership 38 (1)
Roles and Functions 39 (1)
Policy Development 39 (1)
Public Health 39 (1)
Surveillance 40 (1)
Quality Care 40 (1)
Crisis Standards of Care for Use in 40 (1)
Disaster Situations
Evidence-Based Practice 40 (1)
Education 40 (1)
Critical Thinking Skills 41 (1)
Collaboration 41 (1)
Communication 41 (1)
Opportunities 41 (1)
Summary 41 (1)
Editor's Note 42 (1)
Internet Resources 42 (3)
3 Emergency Health Services
Jeremy T. Cushman and Manish N. Shah 45 (1)
Chapter Overview 46 (1)
The EHS System 46 (1)
EHS Components 46 (1)
Standard Operation of EHS 47 (1)
Current State of EHS 47 (1)
Major EHS Concepts Associated With 48 (1)
Disasters
Resources for the EHS System 49 (1)
Regional and Federal Assets 49 (1)
Critical Resources 50 (1)
Patients' Access to EHS During a Disaster 51 (1)
Major EHS Issues 52 (1)
System Survey 52 (1)
Resource Availability 53 (1)
Communication and Coordination 54 (2)
How to Deal With the Influx 56 (1)
Summary 57 (1)
Critical Actions 58 (3)
4 Hospital and Emergency Department
Preparedness
David Markenson 61 (1)
Chapter Overview 62 (1)
Introduction 62 (1)
Hospital Preparedness 63 (1)
Hazard Vulnerability Analyses 63 (1)
The Hospital Emergency Management 64 (1)
Committee
Alliance Building and Community-Based 64 (1)
Planning
Hospital Preparedness for Children 64 (1)
Phases of Emergency Planning 65 (1)
Mitigation Measures 65 (1)
Preparedness Efforts 65 (1)
The Response Phase 66 (1)
The Recovery Function 66 (1)
Disaster Standards of Care 66 (1)
Hospital Disaster Planning 67 (1)
Surge Capacity 67 (1)
Staffing 67 (1)
Credentialing 68 (1)
Stockpiling and Logistics 68 (1)
Resource Inventories 68 (1)
Security Issues 68 (1)
HAZMAT/CBRNE Readiness 69 (1)
Collaboration and Integration With Public 69 (1)
Health
Equipment and Supplies 69 (1)
Utilities 69 (1)
Facility Evacuation 70 (1)
Drills and Exercises 70 (1)
ED Disaster Operations 70 (1)
Trauma Centers 70 (1)
Alternate Care Sites (ACS) 71 (1)
Incident Command System 71 (1)
Management of a Mass Casualty Situation 72 (1)
Initial Evolvement of MCS 72 (1)
Casualties Flow to the Hospital 72 (1)
Casualties Flow Within the Hospital 73 (1)
Patient Triage 73 (2)
Principles of Initial Hospital Management 75 (1)
Use of Radiology 75 (1)
Operating Room 75 (1)
Secondary Transport 75 (1)
Re-Assessment Phase 75 (1)
Communication and Manpower Control 75 (1)
Information Center and Public Relations 76 (1)
Technology Issues 76 (1)
Hospital-Based Decontamination and 77 (1)
Pediatric Considerations
Summary 78 (1)
5 Human Services in Disasters and Public
Health Emergencies: Social Disruption,
Individual Empowerment, and Community
Resilience
Juliana Sadovich and Jonathan D. White 79 (1)
Chapter Overview 80 (1)
Introduction 80 (1)
Human Services "Under Clear Skies" 80 (1)
Human Security 81 (1)
What Is Social Well-Being? 82 (1)
Empowerment 82 (1)
Human Services in Disaster Response and 83 (1)
Recovery
Theories Supporting the Role of Nurses in 84 (1)
Human Services
The Role of Nurses in Human Services 84 (1)
Case Management in Disasters 85 (1)
Summary 86 (1)
Study Questions 86 (7)
II DISASTER MENTAL HEALTH
6 Understanding the Psychosocial Impact of
Disasters
Kathleen Coyne Plum and Elizabeth C. 93 (1)
Meeker
Chapter Overview 94 (1)
Bioterrorism and Toxic Exposures 95 (1)
Community Impact and Resource Assessment 96 (1)
Reducing Resistance to Psychosocial 97 (1)
Intervention
Normal Reactions to Abnormal Events 97 (1)
Resiliency in the Face of Disaster 98 (1)
Special Needs Popluations 98 (1)
Children and Youth 99 (1)
Older Adults 99 (2)
The Seriously Mentally Ill 101 (1)
Cultural and Ethnic Subgroups 101 (1)
Disaster Relief Personnel 101 (1)
Nurses and Hospital Personnel 102 (1)
Mental Health Counselors 103 (1)
Community Reactions and Responses 103 (1)
Mourning, Milestones, and Anniversaries 104 (1)
Summary 105 (1)
Study Questions 106 (1)
Internet Activities 106 (5)
7 Management of the Psychosocial Effects of
Disasters
Elizabeth C. Meeker, Kathleen Coyne Plum, 111 (1)
and Tener Goodwin Veenema
Chapter Overview 112 (1)
The Mental Health Response Team 112 (1)
Recruitment, Screening, and Training 113 (1)
Disaster Mental Health Interventions 114 (1)
Psychological First Aid 114 (1)
Crisis Intervention 115 (1)
Social Support 115 (1)
Psychological Triage 116 (1)
Mental Health Referrals 116 (1)
Acute Stress Disorder 117 (1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 117 (1)
PTSD in Children 118 (1)
Interventions With Special Populations 118 (1)
Children and Youth 118 (1)
Children's Disaster Mental Health Concept 119 (1)
of Operations Model
Older Adults 119 (1)
Individuals With Mental Illness 119 (1)
Cultural, Ethnic, and Religious Subgroups 119 (1)
Disaster Relief Personnel 119 (1)
Managing Transitions 120 (1)
When Grief and Stress Go Awry 120 (1)
Traumatic Grief (Complicated Bereavement) 121 (1)
Evidence-Based Practices in the Treatment 122 (1)
of ASD and PTSD
Recommended with Substantial Clinical 123 (1)
Confidence (Level I)
Recommended with Moderate Clinical 123 (1)
Confidence (Level II)
May Be Recommended in Some Cases (Level 123 (1)
III)
Not Recommended (No Evidence) 123 (1)
Utilizing Technology as an Adjunct to 123 (1)
Intervention and Treatment
Critical Incident Stress Management 123 (1)
Psychological Debriefing 123 (1)
The Debriefing Controversy 124 (1)
Summary 125 (1)
Study Questions 125 (1)
Internet Activities 125 (6)
8 American Red Cross Disaster Health
Services and Disaster Nursing: National
Capability---Local Community Impact
Dianne Yeater, Sharon A. R. Stanley, and 131 (1)
Valerie Cole
Chapter Overview 132 (1)
Introduction 132 (1)
International Red Cross and Red Crescent 132 (1)
Movement
Congressional Charter 132 (1)
American Red Cross Historical Background 133 (2)
Overview of American Red Cross Disaster 135 (1)
Services
American Red Cross Disaster Partners 136 (1)
The NRF and the Red Cross 136 (1)
The National Emergency Repatriation Plan 137 (1)
and the Red Cross
The Aviation Disaster Family Assistance 137 (1)
Act and the Red Cross
American Red Cross at the Local, 138 (1)
Regional, and National Levels
Red Cross Nursing 138 (1)
Office of the Chief Nurse and Red Cross 139 (1)
Nursing
The Future of Red Cross Nursing: a 139 (1)
Blueprint for Action
Role of the American Red Cross Nurse 140 (1)
During a Disaster
Disaster Health Services Concept of 140 (1)
Operations
Functional Needs and Support Services 140 (1)
Disaster Health Services 141 (1)
What They Do 141 (1)
Disaster Health Services Team 141 (1)
Assignment Settings 141 (1)
Disaster Mental Health 142 (1)
What They Do 142 (1)
Staff Mental Health 142 (1)
Staff Wellness 142 (1)
What They Do 142 (1)
Shelter Nursing---The Art of Disaster Care 143 (1)
Disaster Health Services Competencies 143 (1)
Shelter---Initiating the Response 143 (1)
Equipment and Supply Lists 143 (1)
Shelter Intake Screening Tool 144 (1)
Maintaining Shelter Operations 144 (1)
Transition and Closing of Shelters 144 (1)
Summary 144 (5)
III DISASTER MANAGEMENT
9 Legal and Ethical Issues in Disaster
Response
Kevin D. Hart 149 (1)
Chapter Overview 150 (1)
Legal and Ethical Framework and Background 150 (1)
Introduction to the Legal System 150 (1)
Effect of Law on Nursing Professionals 150 (1)
Relationship Between Ethical and Legal 151 (1)
Obligations
Proposed Model State Acts 152 (1)
The Role of Government in a Public Health 153 (1)
Crisis
Local Government 153 (1)
State Government 153 (1)
Federal Government 154 (1)
Specific Legal and Ethical Issues 154 (1)
Privacy Issues 154 (1)
Reporting of Diseases 154 (1)
Disclosure of Health Information 155 (1)
Quarantine, Isolation, and Civil 156 (1)
Commitment
Vaccination 157 (1)
Treatment for Diseases 158 (1)
Screening and Testing 158 (1)
Professional Licensing 159 (1)
Resource Allocation 160 (1)
Professional Liability 161 (1)
Provision of Adequate Care 162 (1)
Selected Ethical Issues 163 (1)
Summary 164 (1)
Study Questions 164 (3)
10 Crisis Communication: The Role of the
Media
Brigitte L. Nacos 167 (1)
Chapter Overview 168 (1)
Introduction 168 (1)
Effects of Media Coverage on Perceptions 169 (1)
of Preparedness
Divergent Objectives of Terrorists 170 (1)
Crisis and Emergency Risk Communications 171 (1)
Emergency Risk 172 (1)
Communication Principles 172 (1)
What the Public Will Ask First 172 (1)
What the Media Will Ask First 172 (1)
Judging the Message 172 (1)
Five Key Elements to Build Trust 172 (1)
Media Platforms to "Go Public" 173 (1)
Mass-Mediated Emergency Response Efforts 174 (1)
The Case for Media-Monitors 174 (1)
Cooperation Is Better Than Confrontation 174 (1)
Reporters Are Not Always Entitled to 175 (1)
Access
How to Work With Reporters 176 (1)
Information Sought by the Media 176 (1)
What Is News? 176 (1)
Media and Crisis Coverage 176 (1)
Media Availability or Press Conferences 176 (1)
"In Person" Tips
Social Media and the Internet 177 (1)
The Human Face of Emergency Responders 177 (1)
Summary: Mass-Mediated Emergency Response 178 (1)
Study Questions 178 (3)
11 Disaster Management
Kristine M. Gebbie and Kristine Qureshi 181 (1)
Chapter Overview 182 (1)
Introduction 182 (1)
Classifications of Disasters 183 (1)
Internal Disaster 183 (1)
External Disaster 184 (1)
Combined External/Internal Disaster 184 (1)
The Role of Leadership 185 (1)
The Disaster Management Process 186 (3)
Introduction to HICS 189 (2)
HICS Structure 191 (1)
Specific HICS Functional Roles 192 (3)
Communication During an Emergency Event 195 (1)
Adapting Care to the Context 195 (1)
Recovery 196 (1)
Evaluation and Follow-Through 197 (1)
Summary 197 (1)
Study Questions 198 (1)
Useful Links 198 (3)
12 Disaster Triage
Lou Romig 201 (1)
Chapter Overview 202 (1)
Basic Principles of Disaster Triage 202 (3)
Phases of Disaster Triage: From the Field 205 (2)
to the Hospital
Basic Differences Between Daily Triage 207 (1)
and Disaster Triage at the Hospital
Daily Triage in the Hospital Setting 208 (1)
In-Hospital Triage Systems for Daily 208 (1)
Operations
Disaster Triage in the Hospital Setting 209 (2)
Prehospital Disaster Triage 211 (2)
Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment 213 (1)
Jumpstart 214 (3)
Triage Tags 217 (1)
Disaster Triage for Hazardous Material 218 (1)
Disasters
In the Field (Sidell, William, & 219 (1)
Dashiell, 1998)
Hot Zone 219 (1)
Warm Zone 219 (1)
Cold Zone 219 (1)
At the Hospital 219 (1)
Warm (Dirty) Zone 219 (1)
Clean Zone 219 (1)
Summary 220 (1)
Study Questions 221 (2)
13 Emergency Medical Consequence Planning
for Special Events, Mass Gatherings, and
Mass Casualty Incidents
Tener Goodwin Veenema 223 (1)
Chapter Overview 224 (1)
Mass Gatherings and Special Events 224 (1)
Health Care Emergency Management 225 (1)
Emergency Medical Consequence Planning 225 (1)
Ancillary Personnel 226 (1)
Lack of Guidelines 226 (1)
Goals of Emergency Care at Mass Gatherings 226 (1)
Historical Lessons 227 (1)
Type of Event 227 (1)
Duration of the Event 227 (1)
Characteristics of the Crowd 227 (1)
Weather and Environmental Influences 228 (1)
Heat 228 (1)
Heat Rash 228 (1)
Heat Cramps 228 (1)
Heat Syncope 228 (1)
Heat Exhaustion 228 (1)
Classic Heat Stroke 228 (1)
Exertional Heat Stroke 229 (1)
Cold 229 (1)
Frostnip 229 (1)
Frostbite 229 (1)
Hypothermia 229 (1)
Alcohol and Drug Use 229 (1)
Crowd Density and Mood 230 (1)
Site Layout 230 (1)
Medical and Nursing Aid Stations 230 (1)
Transportation Considerations 230 (1)
Communication Systems 231 (1)
Staffing 231 (1)
Documentation 231 (1)
Mass Casualty Incidents 231 (1)
Practice Parameters for Nursing Care 232 (1)
Nursing Assessments 232 (1)
Nursing Therapeutics and Core Competencies 233 (1)
Summary 233 (4)
14 Management of Burn Mass Casualty
Incidents
Christopher Lentz, Dixie Reid, and Brooke 237 (1)
Primomo
Chapter Overview 238 (1)
Preparedness/Planning 238 (1)
Mitigation 239 (1)
Response 240 (1)
Burn Triage in MCIs 240 (1)
Pathophysiology of Burn Injury 240 (1)
Management of a Mass Casualty Burn Patient 241 (1)
Primary Survey 241 (1)
Stop the Burning Process 241 (1)
Airway/Breathing/Circulation 241 (1)
Other Considerations 241 (1)
Fluid Resuscitation 241 (1)
Other Initial Priorities 242 (1)
Secondary Survey 242 (1)
Burn Wound Care 243 (1)
Pain Control 243 (1)
Walking Wounded 243 (1)
Special Topics 243 (1)
Chemical Burn Injury 243 (1)
Electrical Injury 244 (1)
Radiation Injury 244 (1)
Recovery 244 (1)
Evaluation 244 (1)
Summary 245 (8)
15 Traumatic Injury Due to Explosives and
Blast Effects
Tarn L. Sacco 253 (1)
Chapter Overview 254 (1)
Introduction 254 (1)
Explosives: Classification and Physics 254 (2)
Mechanisms and Patterns of Injury 256 (2)
Blast Injuries and Clinical Care of 258 (1)
Survivors
Traumatic Brain Injury 258 (1)
TM Rupture 259 (1)
Pulmonary Injury 259 (1)
Abdominal Injury 260 (1)
Additional Considerations 261 (1)
Military and Civilian Casualties 262 (1)
Event Management 262 (1)
Summary 262 (1)
Study Questions 263 (2)
IV GLOBAL DISASTERS AND COMPLEX HUMAN
EMERGENCIES
16 Natural Disasters
Tener Goodwin Veenema and Linda Young 265 (1)
Landesman
Chapter Overview 266 (1)
Introduction 266 (1)
Types and Consequences of Natural and 266 (1)
Environmental Disasters
Severity of Damage 267 (1)
Trends in Natural Disasters 267 (1)
Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons 268 (3)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 271 (1)
Drought 271 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 272 (1)
Earthquake 272 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 272 (1)
Prevention/Mitigation 273 (1)
Epidemics 273 (1)
Flood 273 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 274 (1)
Heat Wave 274 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 274 (1)
Prevention 275 (1)
Tornado 276 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 276 (1)
Prevention/Mitigation 276 (1)
Thunderstorms 277 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 277 (1)
Tsunamis 277 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 278 (1)
Volcanic Eruptions 278 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 279 (1)
Activities for When a Volcano Erupts 279 (1)
Protection From Falling Ash 279 (1)
Winter/Ice Storms 279 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 280 (1)
Prevention/Mitigation 280 (1)
Wildfires 281 (1)
Risk of Morbidity and Mortality 281 (1)
Prevention/Mitigation 281 (1)
Summary 282 (1)
Study Questions 282 (1)
Internet Activities 283 (4)
17 Restoring Public Health Under Disaster
Conditions: Basic Sanitation, Water and
Food Supply, and Shelter
Joy Reed, Tener Goodwin Veenema, and Adam 287 (1)
B. Rains
Chapter Overview 288 (1)
Basic Public Health Functions 288 (1)
Health Promotion 289 (1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 289 (1)
Risk Factors for Infectious Disease 290 (1)
Outbreaks From Disasters
Rapid Assessment of Population Health 290 (1)
Needs
The Role of the Public Health Nurse 291 (1)
Following a Disaster
The Sphere Project 291 (1)
Vulnerabilities and Capacities of 292 (1)
Disaster-Affected Populations
Water 292 (2)
Sanitation 294 (1)
Access to Toilets 295 (1)
Excreta Disposal Standard 1: Access to, 295 (1)
and Numbers of, Toilets
Design of Toilets 295 (1)
Excreta Disposal Standard 2: Design, 295 (1)
Construction, and Use of Toilets
Foodborne Illness 295 (1)
Food Safety 296 (1)
Magnitude of Foodborne Illness 296 (1)
Major Foodborne Diseases From 297 (1)
Microorganisms
Foodborne Illness Investigation 297 (1)
Challenges in Food Safety 298 (1)
Food Safety Is Essential for Disease 298 (1)
Prevention in the Aftermath of a Disaster
Shelter From the Elements 299 (1)
Personal Hygiene 300 (1)
Vector Control 300 (1)
Methods of Vector Control 301 (1)
Summary 301 (1)
Study Questions 302 (3)
18 Climate Change and the Nurse's Role in
Policy and Practice
Karen L. Levin and Thomas Chandler 305 (1)
Chapter Overview 306 (1)
Introduction 306 (1)
Basic Climate Change 306 (1)
Climate Change Impact on Human Health 307 (1)
U.S. and Global Climate Change Health 307 (1)
Effects
Climate Change Relationship to Health 308 (1)
Effects
Cross-Cutting Issues---Vulnerable and 308 (1)
Susceptible Populations
Children 308 (1)
Elderly 309 (1)
Urban Poor 309 (1)
Regional U.S. Variations 309 (1)
Selected Health Outcomes 309 (1)
Thermal Extremes (Heat and Cold) 309 (1)
Extreme Weather Events 309 (1)
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 310 (1)
Food- and Water-Borne Diseases 310 (1)
Climate Change and the Nursing Interface: 310 (1)
Mitigation Versus Adaptation
What's Being Done? 311 (1)
Global Efforts---WHO 311 (1)
Federal Efforts 311 (1)
National/State/Local 311 (1)
Nurses in Action: Educate-Advocate 311 (1)
Professional Position Papers/Statements 311 (1)
Responding to the "Call for Action" 311 (1)
Framing Nurses' Roles and Response 312 (1)
What Still Needs to Be Done? 312 (1)
Summary 313 (1)
Additional Recommended Reading and Useful 314 (1)
Links
Study Questions 314 (1)
Internet Activities 314 (3)
19 Environmental Disasters and Emergencies
Tener Goodwin Veenema 317 (1)
Chapter Overview 318 (1)
Environmental Emergencies 318 (1)
Environmental Disasters 318 (1)
Environmental Public Health Tracking: 319 (1)
Protecting Communities Through Integrated
Environmental Public Health Surveillance
Environmental Protection Agency 319 (1)
Examples of Environmental Hazards and 319 (1)
Their Impact
Air Pollutants 319 (1)
Chemical Spills 320 (1)
Risk Management Program Rule (40 CFR 68) 320 (1)
Land, Waste, and Brownfields 320 (1)
Mold 321 (1)
Oil Spills 321 (1)
Pesticides 322 (1)
Radiation Release 323 (1)
Water 323 (1)
Pharmaceuticals 323 (1)
Summary 323 (1)
Study Questions 324 (1)
Internet Activities 324 (9)
20 Complex Humanitarian Emergencies
Frederick M. Burkle, Jr. 333 (1)
Chapter Overview 334 (1)
Defining CHEs 334 (1)
Conventional Warfare 334 (1)
Unconventional Warfare 334 (1)
Major Characteristics 335 (1)
International Response 335 (1)
Measuring the Human Cost 336 (1)
Assessments, Data Collection, and Analysis 336 (1)
Direct Indices 337 (1)
Indirect Indices 337 (1)
Epidemiological Models 337 (1)
Developing Country Health Profiles 338 (1)
Developed Country Health Profiles 339 (1)
Chronic/Smoldering Country Health Profiles 339 (1)
Postconflict Phase Consequences 340 (1)
Shifting Aid From Rural to Urban 340 (1)
Environments
Future Complex Humanitarian Emergencies 341 (1)
Professionalization of the Humanitarian 342 (1)
Workforce
Summary 342 (3)
21 Disaster Relief Nursing in the 21st
Century
Pat Deeny and Kevin Davies 345 (2)
Chapter Overview 347 (1)
Introduction 347 (1)
The Scale of Disasters Worldwide 348 (2)
The Growth of Aid Relief Organizations 350 (1)
The Contribution of Nursing 351 (1)
Development of an International Nursing 351 (1)
Workforce
Cultural Awareness and Sensitivity 352 (1)
Ethical Issues in Disaster Relief Nursing 352 (2)
Background 354 (1)
Issue 354 (1)
Solution 354 (1)
Quality Assurance in International 354 (2)
Disaster Response: The Humanitarian
Charter and the Minimum Standards
Communication and Transport as Major 356 (1)
Obstacles to the Relief Effort in
International Disasters
Care of Displaced Persons or Refugee 357 (1)
Populations
Application of the Nursing Metaparadigm 358 (1)
and Selected Grand Theories From Nursing
Science
Selection of Appropriate Models or Grand 358 (1)
Theories
Background 359 (1)
Issue 359 (1)
Solution 359 (1)
Summary 360 (1)
Study Questions 360 (3)
V DISASTERS CAUSED BY CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL,
AND RADIOLOGICAL AGENTS
22 Biological and Chemical Terrorism: A
Unique Threat
Eric Croddy and Gary Ackerman 363 (1)
Chapter Overview 364 (1)
Chemical Terrorism and Bioterrorism 365 (1)
Defined
CB Warfare Agents: Quick Definitions 365 (1)
Why Would Terrorists Use Chemical or 366 (1)
Biological Agents?
Disinformation or Hoaxes 366 (1)
How Might the Choice of CB Weapons Differ 367 (1)
Between Military and Terrorist Use?
Some Unique Aspects of a Chemical or 368 (1)
Biological Terrorist Incident
What Are the Real Risks of Chemical 368 (1)
Terrorism/Bioterrorism?
Chemical Terrorism 368 (1)
Delivery of Chemical Agents 368 (1)
Nerve Agents 369 (1)
Tissue (Blood) Agents 369 (1)
Lung Irritants 370 (1)
Vesicants 370 (1)
Psychoincapacitants 370 (1)
Pesticides 371 (1)
Effects of Chemical Terrorism 371 (1)
Chemical Contamination of Water, Food, 371 (1)
Beverages, and Consumer Products
Challenges Posed By a Chemical Terrorist 372 (1)
Attack
Bioterrorism 372 (1)
Bioterrorism and Delivery of BW Agents 373 (1)
What Agents Might the Bioterrorist Use? 373 (1)
Smallpox 374 (1)
Sabotage (Food and Water Contamination) 374 (1)
Threats
Challenges Posed by Bioterrorism 375 (1)
Case Examples 375 (1)
The Rajneeshees 375 (1)
Aum Shinrik Yo 376 (1)
The 2007 Anthrax Attacks 377 (1)
Mass Psychogenic Illness 377 (1)
Summary 378 (1)
Study Questions 378 (3)
23 Surveillance Systems for Detection of
Biological Events
Erica Rihl Pryor and Gary W. Milligan 381 (1)
Chapter Overview 382 (1)
Introduction 382 (1)
How Is Disease Occurrence Measured? 382 (1)
What Is Public Health Surveillance? 383 (1)
Data Collection 383 (1)
Data Analysis and Interpretation 383 (1)
Data Dissemination 383 (1)
Surveillance System Evaluation 384 (1)
What Systems Are Used to Collect 384 (1)
Surveillance Data?
Surveillance System Example: Influenza 384 (1)
Other Infectious Disease Surveillance 385 (2)
Systems
What Surveillance Initiatives Have 387 (1)
Occurred in Response to Bioterrorist
Threats?
What Are the Roles of State and Local 387 (1)
Health Departments in Disease
Surveillance Systems?
The Role of Clinicians in Infectious 387 (1)
Disease Surveillance
Syndromic Surveillance 388 (1)
Future Directions: Biosurveillance 389 (1)
Infoveillance 389 (2)
Surveillance Partners 391 (1)
What Is the Role of Veterinary 391 (1)
Surveillance Systems?
How Do Emergency Information Systems Fit 391 (1)
Into a Biosurveillance System?
Summary 392 (1)
Study Questions 392 (3)
24 Biological Agents of Concern
David C. Pigott, Ziad N. Kazzi, and Sarah 395 (1)
D. Nafziger
Chapter Overview 396 (1)
Classification of Biological Agents of 396 (1)
Concern
Category A Agents 396 (1)
Category B Agents 397 (1)
Category C Agents 397 (1)
Biosafety Laboratory Classification 397 (1)
Anthrax 397 (1)
History 397 (1)
Epidemiology 398 (1)
Classification and Etiology 398 (1)
Pathogenesis 399 (1)
Biosafety Issues, Protection, and 400 (1)
Isolation
Public Health Implications 401 (1)
Vaccination and Postexposure Prophylaxis 401 (1)
Treatment 401 (1)
Botulism 401 (1)
History 401 (1)
Epidemiology 402 (1)
Classification and Etiology 402 (1)
Pathogenesis 402 (1)
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis 402 (1)
Laboratory Issues, Protection, and 403 (1)
Isolation
Public Health Implications 403 (1)
Vaccination and Postexposure Prophylaxis 403 (1)
Treatment 403 (1)
Plague 403 (1)
History 403 (1)
Epidemiology 404 (1)
Classification and Etiology 404 (1)
Pathogenesis 404 (1)
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis 404 (1)
Biosafety Issues, Protection, and 404 (1)
Isolation
Public Health Implications 404 (1)
Vaccination and Postexposure Prophylaxis 405 (1)
Treatment 405 (1)
Tularemia 405 (1)
History 405 (1)
Epidemiology 405 (1)
Classification and Etiology 405 (1)
Pathogenesis 405 (1)
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis 406 (1)
Biosafety Issues, Protection, and 406 (1)
Isolation
Public Hearth Implications 406 (1)
Vaccination and Postexposure Prophylaxis 406 (1)
Treatment 406 (1)
Smallpox 406 (1)
History 406 (1)
Epidemiology 407 (1)
Classification and Etiology 407 (1)
Pathogenesis 407 (1)
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis 407 (1)
Biosafety Issues, Protection, and 408 (1)
Isolation
Public Health Implications 408 (1)
Vaccination and Postexposure Prophylaxis 408 (1)
Treatment 408 (1)
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers 409 (1)
Epidemiology 409 (1)
Classification and Etiology 409 (1)
Pathogenesis 410 (1)
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis 410 (1)
Biosafety Issues, Protection, and 411 (1)
Isolation
Public Health Implications 411 (1)
Vaccination and Postexposure Prophylaxis 411 (1)
Treatment 411 (1)
Summary 412 (1)
Study Questions 412 (3)
25 Early Recognition and Detection of
Biological Events
Erica Rihl Pryor 415 (1)
Chapter Overview 416 (1)
Introduction 416 (1)
Early Recognition of Events 416 (1)
Surveillance 416 (1)
Clinical Recognition 417 (1)
Acute Care Settings 417 (1)
Community-Based Settings 417 (1)
Community-Health Settings 418 (1)
Epidemiological Approach to Recognition 418 (1)
Recognition of Unusual Patterns 418 (1)
Health Indicator Data 418 (1)
Epidemiological Clues to a Biological 418 (1)
Event
Syndromic (Clinical) Approach to 419 (1)
Recognition
Syndromes Associated With CDC Category A 419 (1)
Agents
Botulism-Like Syndrome 420 (1)
Hemorrhagic Illness 421 (1)
Rash 421 (1)
Respiratory Syndrome 421 (1)
Other Syndromes 421 (1)
Clinical Presentations for Other 421 (1)
Potential Bioterror Agents
Laboratory Detection 421 (1)
Laboratory Methods for Detection 422 (1)
Laboratory Response Network 422 (1)
Future Directions for Detection 423 (1)
Biosensors 423 (1)
Syndromic Surveillance 423 (1)
Diagnostic Decision Support Systems 423 (1)
Educational Preparation 424 (1)
Summary 424 (1)
Study Questions 424 (1)
Internet-Based Activities 425 (4)
26 Infectious Disease Emergencies
Kristine M. Gebbie and Tener Goodwin 429 (1)
Veenema
Chapter Overview 430 (1)
Brief History 430 (1)
The Burden of Infectious Disease 431 (1)
Factors Contributing to the Spread of 431 (1)
Infectious Diseases
Immune Status 431 (1)
Climate and Weather 432 (1)
The Changing Environment 432 (1)
Risk Behaviors 432 (1)
International Travel and Commerce 432 (1)
Diseases of Importance 433 (1)
Cholera 433 (1)
HIV/AIDS 433 (1)
Influenza 434 (2)
Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever 436 (1)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 436 (2)
Smallpox 438 (1)
Future Directions 438 (1)
Summary 439 (1)
Study Questions 440 (5)
27 Medical Countermeasures Dispensing
Susan Sullivan 445 (1)
Chapter Overview 446 (1)
Introduction 446 (1)
The Division of Strategic National 446 (1)
Stockpile
The CHEMPACK Program 447 (1)
Radiological Countermeasures 448 (1)
Shelf-Life Extension Program (SLEP) 448 (1)
Organizing to Respond 448 (1)
Structuring Dispensing Programs 449 (3)
Cities Readiness Initiative 452 (1)
Medical Countermeasures Planning Elements 452 (1)
The Public Readiness and Emergency 453 (1)
Preparedness (PREP) Act
Pediatric Countermeasures Planning 454 (2)
Cross-Jurisdictional Planning 456 (1)
Summary 456 (3)
28 Chemical Agents of Concern
John G. Benitez 459 (1)
Chapter Overview 460 (1)
Introduction 460 (1)
Chemical Agents in the Environment 460 (1)
Hazmat Emergency Response 461 (1)
Detection of Chemical Agents 461 (2)
Chemical Agents of Concern 463 (1)
Antidotes 463 (1)
Nerve Agents 463 (1)
Recognizing Nerve Agents 464 (1)
Duration/Mortality 464 (1)
Patient Assessment 464 (1)
Clinical Diagnostic Tests 465 (1)
Patient Management 465 (1)
Treatment 465 (1)
Vesicating/Blister Agents 466 (1)
Recognizing Vesicants 466 (1)
Exposure Types and Onsets 467 (1)
Treatment 467 (1)
Duration/Mortality 467 (1)
Patient Assessment 467 (1)
Clinical Diagnostic Tests 467 (1)
Patient Management 467 (1)
Therapy 468 (1)
Blood Agents 468 (1)
Recognizing Tissue (Blood) Agents 468 (1)
Patient Assessment 468 (1)
Cyanide Poisoning 468 (1)
Arsine/Phosphine Poisoning 469 (1)
Clinical Diagnostic Tests 469 (1)
Treatment 469 (1)
Patient Management 470 (1)
Therapy 470 (1)
Cyanide Poisoning 470 (1)
Pulmonary/Choking Agents 470 (1)
Recognizing Pulmonary Agents 470 (1)
Exposure Type(s)/Onset 470 (1)
Duration/Mortality 471 (1)
Patient Assessment 471 (1)
Clinical Diagnostic Tests 471 (1)
Patient Management 472 (1)
Supportive Therapy 472 (1)
Therapy/Antidote 472 (1)
Treatment 472 (1)
Riot Control Agents 472 (1)
Recognizing Riot Control Agents 472 (1)
Treatment 473 (1)
Duration/Mortality 473 (1)
Patient Assessment 473 (1)
Emergency Department Procedures in 473 (3)
Chemical Hazard Emergencies
Summary 476 (1)
Study Questions 476 (1)
Internet Activities 476 (5)
29 Decontamination and Personal Protective
Equipment
Tener Goodwin Veenema 481 (1)
Chapter Overview 482 (1)
Introduction 482 (1)
Triage of Contaminated Patients in the 483 (1)
Field
Triage in the Zones of Operation 483 (1)
Triage in the Hospital Setting 483 (1)
Decontamination for Chemical Warfare 484 (1)
Agents
Personal Protective Equipment 484 (2)
Respirators 486 (1)
Patient Decontamination 486 (1)
Patient Decontamination in the Field 487 (1)
Patient Decontamination in the ED 487 (1)
Decontamination Procedures 488 (1)
Victim Decontamination 489 (1)
Pediatric Considerations 490 (1)
Evacuation of the ED 491 (1)
Supportive Medical and Nursing Care 491 (1)
Seizures 491 (1)
State of the Science 491 (2)
Summary 493 (1)
Study Questions 493 (2)
30 Radiological Incidents and Emergencies
Andrew Karam 495 (1)
Chapter Overview 496 (1)
Radiation Basics 496 (1)
Types of Radiation 496 (1)
Alpha Radiation 496 (1)
Beta Radiation 497 (1)
Gamma Radiation 497 (1)
Units of Radiation Dose 497 (1)
Background Radiation Exposure 498 (1)
Health Effects of Radiation Exposure 498 (1)
Acute Exposure to High Doses of Radiation 499 (1)
Prodromal Syndrome 500 (1)
Hematopoietic Syndrome 500 (1)
Gastrointestinal Syndrome 501 (1)
Cerebrovascular Syndrome 501 (1)
Chronic Exposure to Low Levels of 502 (1)
Radiation
LNT Model 502 (1)
Threshold Model 502 (1)
Reproductive Effects of Radiation Exposure 503 (1)
Radiology and the Pregnant Patient 503 (1)
Radiological Incidents and Emergencies 504 (1)
Samples 504 (1)
On-Scene Medical Assistance 504 (1)
Caring for Patients Exposed to High 505 (2)
Levels of Radiation
Clinical Signs of Radiation Exposure 507 (1)
Treatment for Patients Exposed to High 508 (1)
Levels of Whole-Body Radiation
Patient Management---Doses Greater Than 509 (1)
200 rad
Caring for Radioactively Contaminated 509 (1)
Patients
Caring for Patients With Internal 510 (1)
Radioactivity
Radiological Control Methods 510 (1)
Patient Decontamination 510 (1)
Emergency Department Contamination Control 511 (1)
Medical Staff Contamination Control 511 (1)
Emergency Care for Badly Injured, 511 (1)
Contaminated Patients
Responsibilities of Radiation Safety 512 (1)
Personnel, if Present
Medical Response to Nuclear and 512 (1)
Radiological Terrorism
Medical Response to RDD (Dirty Bomb) 512 (1)
Medical Response to a Radiation-Emitting 513 (1)
Device Attack
Medical Response to Nuclear Attack 514 (1)
Questions to Ask When Receiving and 515 (1)
Caring for Radiological Patients
About the Incident 515 (1)
About the Patient 515 (1)
Follow-Up 515 (1)
Contents of a Contamination Control Kit 515 (1)
Study Questions 516 (1)
Internet Activities 516 (3)
VI HIGH-RISK HIGH-VULNERABILITY POPULATIONS
31 Identifying and Accommodating High-Risk,
High-Vulnerability Populations in Disasters
Elizabeth A. Davis, Rebecca Hansen, Jane 519 (1)
Kushma, Lori Peek, and Brenda Phillips
Chapter Overview 520 (1)
Defining and Understanding Vulnerability 520 (1)
Models for Understanding Vulnerability 521 (1)
Medical Model 521 (1)
Functional Model 521 (1)
Application 522 (1)
Understanding Vulnerability 522 (2)
Systematically as a Basis for Intervention
The Life Cycle of Disasters 524 (1)
Preparedness 524 (1)
Personal Preparedness 524 (1)
Organizational Planning 525 (1)
Training and Exercises 525 (1)
Response 526 (1)
Collaboration 526 (1)
Response Activities 526 (1)
Recovery 527 (1)
Recovery Programs 528 (2)
Mitigation 530 (1)
Guiding Principles 531 (1)
Conditions Fostering Change 532 (1)
Examples Organized Around the Ecosystem 533 (1)
Model
Micro-Level Example: Personal Preparedness 533 (1)
Meso-Level Example: Safe Centers in 534 (1)
Alabama
Exo-Level Example: FEMA Trailers and 535 (1)
Housing Policy
Macro-Level Example: Muslim 535 (1)
Americans---Targeting and Tolerance After
9/11
Summary 536 (7)
32 Unique Needs of Children During
Disasters and Other Public Health
Emergencies
Michael Beach and Lisa Marie Bernardo 543 (1)
Chapter Overview 544 (1)
Introduction 544 (1)
Epidemiology of Pediatric Injuries and 544 (1)
Illnesses During Disasters and Public
Health Emergencies
Natural Disasters 544 (1)
Earthquakes 544 (1)
Hurricanes 545 (1)
Floods 546 (1)
Heat and Cold 546 (1)
Public Health Emergencies 546 (2)
Acts of Terrorism 548 (1)
Acts of War 549 (1)
Physiological Considerations in Pediatric 550 (1)
Care Following a Disaster or Public
Health Emergency
Pulmonary 550 (1)
Cardiovascular 550 (1)
Integumentary 551 (1)
Musculoskeletal 551 (1)
Cognitive 552 (1)
Nutritional Requirements 552 (1)
Genetic 553 (1)
Immunologic 553 (1)
Children With Special Health Care Needs 554 (1)
Psychosocial Considerations in Pediatric 554 (1)
Care
Pediatric Care During Disasters 554 (1)
Pediatric Disaster Triage 555 (1)
Prehospital Treatment 555 (1)
Emergency Department Treatment 556 (1)
Inpatient Treatment 557 (1)
Care in Shelters 558 (1)
Care in Refugee Camps and Camps for 559 (1)
Displaced Populations
Long-Term Care Following a Disaster 560 (1)
Pediatric Care During Public Health 560 (1)
Emergencies
Exposure to Nuclear and Radiological 560 (1)
Agents
Prehospital Treatment 560 (1)
Emergency Department Treatment 560 (1)
Definitive Treatment 561 (1)
Exposure to Biological Agents 561 (3)
Prehospital Treatment 564 (1)
Emergency Treatment 564 (1)
Definitive Treatment 564 (1)
Anthrax 564 (1)
Botulism 565 (1)
Avian Influenza 565 (1)
Ricin 565 (1)
Exposure to Chemical Agents 565 (1)
Prehospital Treatment 565 (1)
Emergency Treatment 566 (1)
Definitive Treatment 567 (1)
Ethical and Legal Considerations in 567 (1)
Pediatric Disaster Care
Pediatric Death Following Disasters and 568 (1)
Public Health Emergencies
Planning for 568 (1)
Disasters---Pediatric-Specific
Considerations
Pediatric Considerations in Community 569 (3)
Emergency Preparedness
Pediatric Considerations in Health Care 572 (1)
Preparations
Equipment 572 (1)
Education 573 (1)
Summary 574 (1)
Study Questions 574 (1)
Internet Activities 575 (8)
33 Disaster Nursing in Schools and Other
Community Congregate Child Care Settings
Cheryl K. Schmidt, Devin Terry, Dona M. 583 (1)
Dorman, Shannon Finley, Joy Jennings,
Susan Ritchie, Kelly Betts, and Debbie
Cooley Huff
Chapter Overview 584 (1)
Growth and Developmental/Cognitive 585 (1)
Considerations
Elementary and Secondary Schools 585 (2)
Preparedness 587 (2)
Response 589 (1)
Recovery 589 (1)
Child Welfare Agencies 590 (1)
Preparedness 590 (2)
Response 592 (1)
Recovery 592 (1)
Juvenile Justice and Residential Settings 593 (1)
Preparedness 594 (1)
Response 594 (1)
Recovery 595 (1)
Child Care Settings 595 (1)
Preparedness 595 (1)
Response 596 (1)
Recovery 596 (1)
Universities/Colleges 597 (1)
The College/University Environment 597 (1)
Student Health Concerns 597 (1)
Emergency Planning Guidelines 597 (2)
Prevention 599 (1)
Preparedness 599 (2)
Response 601 (1)
Recovery 602 (1)
Churches/Parishes 602 (1)
Preparedness 602 (1)
Response 603 (1)
Recovery 603 (1)
Summary 603 (1)
Study Questions 603 (1)
Internet Activities 604 (11)
34 Care of the Pregnant Woman and Newborn
Following a Disaster
Kathleen Capitulo and Robbie Preppas 615 (1)
Chapter Overview 616 (1)
Introduction 616 (1)
Physiology of Normal Pregnancy 616 (1)
Pregnancy During Disaster Conditions 617 (1)
Complications of Pregnancy 617 (1)
Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced 617 (2)
Hypertension (PIH), and Eclampsia
Diabetes Mellitus 619 (1)
Bleeding and Blood Disorders 619 (1)
Blood Disorders 620 (1)
Other Medical Conditions in Pregnancy 620 (1)
Occurring During a Disaster
Assessment of the Pregnant Woman and Baby 620 (1)
Cardiovascular System 620 (1)
Childbirth During Disasters 620 (1)
Stages of Childbirth 621 (1)
First Stage (Can Last up to 20 Hours) 621 (1)
Second Stage: Birth 621 (1)
Third Stage: Delivery of the Placenta 621 (1)
Complications of Labor and Delivery: 621 (1)
Malpresentation
Care of the Umbilical Cord 621 (1)
Physiology of Postpartum Mother and 622 (1)
Newborn
Major Considerations Postdelivery 622 (1)
Assessment of the Newborn 622 (1)
Special Assessment/Conditions of the 622 (1)
Newborn
Postpartum Management in Disasters 622 (1)
Special Considerations for Mother and 622 (1)
Baby in Disasters
Infections and Communicable Diseases 623 (1)
Special Infectious Disease Considerations 623 (1)
Respiratory Isolation 623 (1)
Environmental Cleanliness and Sanitation 623 (1)
Bioterrorism 623 (1)
Trauma in Pregnancy 623 (1)
Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 624 (1)
Breastfeeding and Infant Nutrition 624 (1)
Crisis Conditions Associated With 624 (1)
Pregnancy
Hemorrhage 624 (1)
Infections in Postpartum and Lactating 625 (1)
Women During Disasters
Shelters and Practical Considerations for 625 (1)
Austere Environments
Death of the Mother or 625 (1)
Infant---Bereavement Concerns and
Interventions
Maternal Death 625 (1)
Perinatal Death 626 (1)
Healing Professional Interventions in 626 (1)
Maternal/Perinatal Bereavement
Returning Home Safely 626 (1)
Flood Water in Streets and Buildings 626 (1)
Toxic Exposures During Pregnancy 626 (2)
Returning Home 628 (1)
Summary 628 (7)
35 Caring for Patients With HIV and AIDS
Following a Disaster
Susan Strasser 635 (1)
Chapter Overview 636 (1)
Introduction 636 (1)
The Sphere Project and Minimum Standards 636 (1)
Reproductive Health and Sexually 636 (1)
Transmitted Diseases
Disasters and Disruption of the Social 637 (1)
Fabric of Communities
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence 637 (1)
Reduced Access to Preventive Health 637 (1)
Services
Sexually Transmitted Infection 638 (1)
Disaster Preparedness Continuum 638 (1)
Primary Prevention 639 (1)
Prevention of Disease Transmission 639 (1)
Blood Donations and Transfusions 639 (1)
Secondary Prevention---Securing Essential 640 (1)
Drugs for HIV Positive People
Practical Considerations for Nurse Safety 640 (1)
Identifying Patients in Need 640 (3)
Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission 643 (1)
The Basics of ART 643 (1)
Access and Adherence to ART 643 (1)
Clinical Considerations in Caring for 644 (1)
Patients with HIV and AIDS
Special Considerations in Children and 644 (1)
Pregnant Women
Nursing Care Guidelines 644 (1)
Nutrition, Hygiene, and Sanitation 645 (1)
Drug Supplies and Drug Dumping 645 (1)
Psychological Considerations of Caring 645 (1)
for Patients With HIV/AIDS
Summary 646 (9)
VII SPECIAL TOPICS IN DISASTERS
36 Information Technology in Disaster
Management
Adam B. Rains 655 (1)
Chapter Overview 656 (1)
Introduction 656 (1)
Information and Disaster Management 656 (1)
Telecommunications 656 (1)
Alerting and Warning Technology 657 (1)
Direct and Remote Sensing 657 (2)
Information Management and Processing 659 (1)
Logistics and Resource Management 660 (1)
Decision Support Systems 661 (1)
Early Warning Systems 662 (1)
Telemedicine 663 (1)
The Internet as a Disaster 664 (1)
Management Resource Summary 665 (4)
37 National Nurse Preparedness: Achieving
Competency-Based Practice
Susan Speraw and Deborah J. Persell 669 (1)
Chapter Overview 670 (1)
Becoming Competent in Disaster Nursing 670 (1)
What Does It Mean to Be Competent in 671 (2)
Disaster Nursing?
Do All Nurses Need to Be Competent in 673 (1)
Disaster Care?
How Is Competency Obtained and Measured 674 (1)
in Disaster Nursing?
When Should Nurses Begin the Journey to 675 (4)
Competency in Disaster Nursing?
Multidisciplinary Education and Training 679 (1)
The Ethics of Achieving and Maintaining 680 (1)
Preparedness and Response Competence
The Future of Nursing 681 (1)
Summary 681 (1)
Study Questions 682 (1)
Internet Activities 682 (5)
38 The Role of the Public Health Nurse in
Disaster Response
Linda Spencer and Joy Spellman 687 (1)
Chapter Overview 688 (1)
Introduction 688 (1)
The Unique Contribution of the PHN 688 (1)
Historical Perspective 689 (1)
A New Focus 689 (1)
Role of the PHN in a Disaster 689 (1)
ESF6 Mass Care 690 (1)
ESF8 Health and Medical Services 690 (1)
Role of the PHN in Prevention and Health 691 (1)
Education
Families 691 (1)
Community Groups 691 (1)
Primary and Secondary Schools 692 (1)
Faith-Based Groups 692 (1)
Correctional Institutions 692 (1)
Vulnerable Populations 693 (1)
Postdisaster Assistance 693 (1)
Care of the Caregiver 693 (1)
Role of the PHN in a Biological Event 693 (1)
Role of the PHN in Infectious Disease 694 (1)
Emergencies
Role of the PHN in Medical Countermeasure 695 (1)
Dispensing
Role of the PHN in a Chemical Disaster 695 (1)
Role of the PHN in a Radiological Event 696 (1)
Role of the PHN on a Multidisciplinary 696 (1)
Response Team
Summary 697 (1)
Study Questions 697 (2)
39 Directions for Disaster Nursing Research
and Development
Roberta Proffitt Lavin, Lynn Slepski, and 699 (1)
Lisa Rettenmeier
Chapter Overview 700 (1)
Personal Accounts of Nurses in Disaster 701 (1)
Situations
Military Nursing Research 702 (1)
Preparation and Readiness 703 (1)
Conceptual Frameworks for Disaster 704 (1)
Nursing Research
Assumptions 704 (1)
Concepts 705 (1)
Relationships Among the Concepts 705 (1)
Crisis Conceptual Nursing Model 705 (2)
Assumptions 707 (1)
Concepts 707 (1)
Relationships Among the Concepts 707 (1)
Merits of Models 707 (1)
Haddon Matrix 707 (1)
Crisis Conceptual Nursing Model 708 (1)
Comparison of Haddon Matrix and CCNM 708 (1)
Implication for Nursing Research 708 (3)
Future Nursing Research Agenda 711 (2)
Summary 713 (2)
Study Questions 715 (1)
Internet Activities 715 (4)
EPILOGUE. Disaster Recovery: Creating
Sustainable Disaster-Resistant Communities
Tener Goodwin Veenema 719 (1)
Issues in Disaster Recovery 719 (1)
Physical Rebuilding 719 (1)
Restoration of Livelihoods 720 (1)
Shelter 720 (1)
Humanitarian Aid and the Sphere Project 720 (1)
Disaster Diplomacy 720 (1)
Donations 720 (1)
Resiliency and Recovery 721 (1)
The Role of the Nurse 721 (2)
APPENDIX I Public Health Preparedness and 723 (3)
Response: Core Competency Model
Performance Goal 723 (1)
Tenets, Target Audience, and Performance 724 (1)
Level for the Public Health Preparedness
and Response Core Competency Model
Version 1.0 (December 17, 2010)
Tenets 724 (1)
Target Audience 725 (1)
Performance Level 725 (1)
APPENDIX II Glossary of Terms Commonly Used 726 (8)
in Disaster Preparedness and Response
APPENDIX III Patient Isolation Precautions 734 (1)
Standard Precautions 734 (1)
Airborne Precautions 734 (1)
Droplet Precautions 734 (1)
Contact Precautions 734 (1)
APPENDIX IV Federal Emergency Management 735 (3)
Agency: Emergency Response Action Steps
Disaster Alert: If You Have Advanced 735 (1)
Warning
Safety First! 735 (1)
Getting Started Off Site 735 (1)
Stabilize the Building and Environment 736 (1)
Documentation 736 (1)
Retrieval and Protection 736 (1)
Damage Assessment 736 (1)
Salvage Priorities 736 (1)
Historic Buildings: General Tips 737 (1)
APPENDIX V Creating a Personal Disaster Plan 738 (5)
Emergency Planning for People With 738 (1)
Special Needs
Disaster Supply Kits 739 (1)
Water: The Absolute Necessity 739 (1)
Food: Preparing an Emergency Supply 740 (1)
First-Aid Supplies 740 (1)
Tools and Emergency Supplies 740 (1)
Clothes and Bedding 741 (1)
Specialty Items 741 (2)
Index 743