History in Dispute : The Holocaust, 1933-1945 (History in Dispute) 〈11〉

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History in Dispute : The Holocaust, 1933-1945 (History in Dispute) 〈11〉

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 350 p.
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Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Tandy McConnell
Chronology xix
Tandy McConnell
Advanced Warning: Did German Jews have 1 (8)
sufficient warning of the Holocaust to flee
Germany prior to 1941 had they chosen to do
so?
Yes. German Jews had many clear 2 (2)
indications of what the Nazi regime
intended for them
Tandy McConnell
No. German Jews did not have enough 4 (5)
warning, and, according to William L.
Shirer, they were ``unduly optimistic''
about their circumstances
Melissa Jane Taylor
Allied Intervention: Could the Allies have 9 (8)
disrupted the Holocaust by bombing
extermination camps?
Allied air raids on concentration camps 10 (4)
would have been disruptive, but they also
would have prolonged the war by diverting
bombers and other military resources
needed elsewhere
Michael S. Casey
Allied bombing of extermination camps was 14 (3)
never a practical option because precise
targeting of bombs was not possible
William D. Rubinstein
Anti-Semitism: Did the Holocaust have its 17 (10)
origins in the Social Darwinism of the
nineteenth century?
Yes. Racial, as opposed to religious, 18 (3)
anti-Semitism originated in the
nineteenth century, and it was the
underlying cause of the Holocaust
Lisa Unterseher
No. The Holocaust was a culmination of 21 (6)
Christian anti-Judaism dating from the
Middle Ages
Robert Michael
Confessing Church: Did the actions of the 27 (9)
Confessing Church (Protestant clergymen
opposed to the intrusion of Nazi ideology
into the life of the church) constitute
resistance to the Holocaust?
Yes. The Confessing Church, though 28 (3)
limited by its own anti-Semitism,
provided meaningful resistance to the
implementation of the Final Solution
John W. Wells
No. The Confessing Church was too 31 (5)
disorganized, too patriotic, and too
anti-Semitic to provide meaningful
resistance to the Holocaust
John Kuykendall
Eichmann: Did Adolf Eichmann receive a fair 36 (9)
trial?
Yes. Adolf Eichmann received a fair trial 37 (3)
by the standards of international law
Jamie Wraight
No. The prosecution's use of the 40 (5)
courtroom as a classroom, as well as many
procedural irregularities, prevented
Adolf Eichmann from receiving a fair trial
Barry Sharpe
Ethical Limits: Is the Holocaust a suitable 45 (10)
subject for fiction?
Yes. Serious fiction aspires to a 46 (4)
representation of historical truth that
supersedes factual accounts
Menachem Feuer
No. The facts of the Holocaust and the 50 (5)
testimony of survivors carry such
profound significance they should not be
challenged by fictional truths that blur
the historical record
Kristina Busse
Evian Conference: Did the west do all that 55 (11)
it could before the beginning of WWII to
assist potential and actual refugees of the
Holocaust?
Yes. Though the Evian Conference failed 56 (3)
to provide substantial relief to Jews
fleeing Nazi oppression, the failure was
systemic rather than intentional
Tandy McConnell
No. The Evian Conference was intended 59 (7)
only as a politically expedient means of
avoiding action to assist the Jews
Dennis Laffer
Feminist Interpretation: Did men and women 66 (8)
experience the Holocaust differently?
Yes. Recognition of the significant 67 (4)
differences in the perceptions of men and
women assist in understanding the
complexities of the Holocaust
Susan M. Shaw
No. To study the Holocaust in terms of 71 (3)
gender responses is to diminish its
significance as racial genocide
Anne McCulloch
Forms of Power: Was the Holocaust shaped by 74 (7)
modern theories of power?
Yes. Forms of power conceived during the 75 (4)
Enlightenment helped produce the Holocaust
Kristina Busse
No. The Holocaust, though dependent on 79 (2)
modern technologies and ideologies, was
fundamentally medieval and feudal in its
structures of power
Tandy McConnell
Fuhrer Order: Did Adolf Hitler issue an 81 (12)
order to exterminate the Jews?
Yes. The plan to exterminate the Jews was 82 (5)
part of Hitler's original order for the
invasion of the Soviet Union
Clifford F. Porter
No. Although Hitler made his intentions 87 (6)
clear to his closest associates, he never
explicitly ordered the extermination of
European Jews
Mary Ann Mahony
Cynthia Klima
Gender Differences: Did Jewish women 93 (9)
perceive the dangers of the Nazi threat
differently from Jewish men?
Yes. Women were more likely than men to 94 (3)
see the dangers of Nazism and to express
a desire to flee Germany
Marion Kaplan
No. Though Jewish women and men in Nazi 97 (5)
Germany responded differently to the
increasingly hostile environment,
differences in perceptions of danger and
willingness to flee had less to do with
gender than with social status and
personal experience
Cynthia Klima
Intentional Strategy: Was the progressive 102 (8)
isolation of the Jews from German life
during the 1930s part of Nazi strategy
intended to culminate in extermination?
Yes. The persecution of the Jews was part 103 (3)
of an intentional strategy that resulted
in genocide
Larry L. Ping
No. Adolf Hitler did not seriously 106 (4)
consider the Final Solution until after
the invasion of the Soviet Union in June
1941
Melissa Jane Taylor
Irrationality: Was the Final Solution a 110 (10)
rationally conceived policy or the result
of madness inspired by anti-Semitism?
The only explanation for the Final 111 (3)
Solution was uncontrolled madness
inspired by anti-Semitic hatred. The
policy offered no discernible political
or military advantage
Larry L. Ping
The Final Solution was a carefully 114 (6)
designed policy to provide Lebensraum
(living space) for German settlement in
the east and to create a ``new order'' in
Europe
Rod Stackelberg
Israel: Was the Holocaust a decisive factor 120 (8)
in the creation of the modern State of
Israel?
Yes. The Holocaust was an important 120 (5)
catalyst for the creation of Israel,
focusing world attention on the need for
a Jewish State
Frances Glazer Sternberg
No. The political and moral foundation of 125 (3)
the modern State of Israel was
established long before World War II, and
the Jewish nation would have been created
eventually whether or not the Holocaust
had occurred
Steven Leonard Jacobs
Jehovah's Witnesses: Was the Jehovah's 128 (10)
Witnesses' commitment to neutrality a
defensible response to Nazi tyranny?
Yes. Political neutrality, as practiced 129 (4)
by the Jehovah's Witnesses, was their
only viable option
Jolene Chu
No. Neutrality was impossible in the Nazi 133 (5)
State
Henry R. Huttenbach
Jewish Councils: Were the Judenrate (Jewish 138 (8)
Councils) overly cooperative with the Nazi
authorities?
Yes. A variety of motives, ranging from 139 (2)
misguided idealism to selfish
opportunism, inclined the leaders of the
Jewish Councils to be overly cooperative
with the Nazi authorities
Robert J. Pauly Jr.
No. The Jewish Councils accommodated Nazi 141 (5)
demands in desperate and extraordinary
circumstances in order to preserve the
lives of fellow Jews
Eric Sterling
Medical Experiments: Should data derived 146 (9)
from Nazi medical experiments be used by
contemporary scientists?
Yes. Scientific evidence has no moral 147 (4)
quality, even though it might have been
gathered by unethical scientists
Tandy McConnell
No. Medical researchers today should 151 (4)
dissociate themselves from torturers and
murderers who abused their positions of
power and privilege in the name of science
Judith W. Kay
Movies: Is the Holocaust an appropriate 155 (11)
subject for the movies?
Yes. Popular representations provide a 156 (2)
useful forum for examining the Holocaust
Victor Ehly
No. The study of the Holocaust is best 158 (3)
left to professional historians because
they are more concerned with truth than
entertainment
J. Michael Butler
No. Some recent representations such as 161 (5)
the movie Schindler's List (1993)
actually downplay the plight of Holocaust
victims
Lauren Proll
Nazi Criminality: Were the Nazis more evil 166 (8)
than other genocidal regimes?
Yes. Because of the enormous scope of 167 (4)
criminal intent exhibited in the totality
of their actions, the Nazis were
exceptionally evil
Tandy McConnell
No. The morals, psychology, and 171 (3)
structural context of the genocide
sponsored by the Nazi regime did not
differ fundamentally from others in
history
Pieter Francois
Neutral States: Did the neutral states of 174 (9)
Europe act responsibly in the face of the
Holocaust?
Yes. Neutral governments acted within the 175 (3)
narrow limits available to them to assist
Jewish refugees
Wayne Bowen
No. Neutral states, especially 178 (5)
Switzerland, benefited from Nazi plunder
and expropriation of Jewish assets
Carolsue Holland
Ordinary Germans: Were ordinary Germans 183 (8)
culpable for the Holocaust?
Yes. Ordinary Germans were culpable, but 184 (3)
not all of them shared the same level of
responsibility
Wendy A. Maier
No. Ordinary Germans did not, as a group, 187 (4)
perpetrate the Holocaust
Tandy McConnell
Pius XII: Was Pope Pius XII culpable in the 191 (11)
destruction of the Jews?
Yes. Though he could have wielded 192 (4)
enormous moral influence, Pope Pius XII
did little to protect Jewish lives from
Nazi genocide
John Davis
No. Pope Pius XII worked effectively to 196 (6)
save hundreds of thousands of Jews from
the Holocaust
Robert McCormick
Schindler: Was Oskar Schindler a hero? 202 (8)
Yes. Schindler was fundamentally 202 (4)
altruistic
Eric Sterling
No. Schindler was an opportunist 206 (4)
John Kuykendall
Slave Labor: Do German industries that 210 (7)
employed slave laborers have an obligation
to pay reparations?
Yes. Slave laborers were worked to death 211 (2)
to enrich private companies supporting
the German war effort. Reparations are a
moral imperative
Steven F. Sage
No. Private industry did not voluntarily 213 (4)
employ slave labor, and the workers they
did employ would otherwise have gone to
the gas chambers
Leslie Magrath
Survival: Was survival for Jews during the 217 (9)
Holocaust purely a matter of chance?
Yes. Chance alone determined who survived 218 (2)
and who perished during the Holocaust
Tandy McConnell
No. Even though chance played some role 220 (6)
in survival, a wide variety of other
factors, such as national origin, race,
class, gender, and family, proved much
more important
Caroline Schaumann
Survivor Narratives: Are survivor 226 (9)
narratives of the Holocaust reliable as
historical evidence?
Yes. Survivor narratives are a rich 227 (4)
source of evidence that provides both
eyewitness testimony and a measure of the
emotional effect of the Holocaust
Caroline Schaumann
Not necessarily. While their importance 231 (4)
is undeniable, survivor narratives are
filtered by the emotional trauma of the
Holocaust, which can distort memories and
limit perspectives
Meili Steele
Victim Psychology: Did the concentration 235 (7)
camp experience rob the victims of what
Bruno Bettelheim called their ``psychic
independence''?
Yes. The concentration camp experience 236 (2)
had the effect of rendering its victims
dependent on the guards and unable to
assert their full humanity in the face of
extremity
Tandy McConnell
No. Reliable eyewitness accounts cite 238 (4)
many examples of dignified and courageous
behavior on the part of concentration
camp inmates who, despite all odds,
refused to allow their humanity to be
debased
Peter R. Erspamer
The Victims: Did the Nazi T--4 euthanasia 242 (10)
program discriminate among victims in the
targeted groups?
Homosexuals received different treatment 243 (3)
from other targeted groups
Nancy C. Unger
Trial Nazi extermination programs 246 (6)
initially targeted the disabled, sick,
and aged, but their function was to
develop procedures for the indiscriminate
extermination of non-Aryans
J. Michael Butler
Victors' Justice: Were Nazis tried for war 252 (12)
crimes subjected to victors' justice?
Yes. The prosecution of German war 253 (4)
criminals was judicially unfair because
the United States was more concerned with
geopolitical issues than the rule of law
Robert J. Pauly Jr
No. Trials of Nazi war criminals 257 (3)
constituted reasonable efforts to achieve
justice in the immediate postwar period
James J. Weingartner
No. In spite of charges of victors' 260 (4)
justice and the questionable inclusion of
Soviet judges, the Nuremberg trials were
fair
G. Michael Stathis
Willing Executioners: Were Nazi soldiers 264 (9)
who participated in the Holocaust committed
anti-Semites who believed extermination was
necessary for the preservation of social
order?
Yes. Though only a small minority of 265 (2)
Germans killed Jews, they would not have
done so had they not had good reason to
believe that many other Germans shared
their eliminationist anti-Semitic
attitudes
Karsten Uhl
No. The testimony of perpetrators, 267 (6)
victims, and bystanders suggests that
most Germans were ordinary people caught
up in extraordinary circumstances and
under enormous pressure to engage in or
acquiesce to genocide
Richard McGaha
Appendix 273 (38)
References 311 (10)
Contributors' Notes 321 (4)
Index 325