英語の歴史(第6版)
A History of the English Language (6TH)

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英語の歴史(第6版) A History of the English Language (6TH)

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  • Routledge(2012/08発売)
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基本説明

New features of the sixth edition include: *a new chapter examining the future of Engilsh and other global languages, which includes an assessment of Chinese as a world language *an in-depth treatment of phonological changes * further coverage of corpus lilnguistics *fresh sections on accent and register *new material on the origins of African American Varnacular English.

Full Description


**NOT FOR SALE IN THE USA, CANADA OR THE PHILIPPINES** A History of the English Language explores the linguistic and cultural development of English from the Roman conquest of England to the present day to provide a comprehensive overview of the different aspects of its history. This best-selling classic textbook has been revised and updated and encourages the reader to develop both an understanding of present-day English and an enlightened attitude toward the issues affecting the language today. New features of the sixth edition include: an additional chapter titled 'English in the Twenty-first Century', which examines the future of English and other global languages and includes an assessment of Chinese as a world language an in-depth treatment of phonological changes, such as the placement of the Great Vowel Shift as a bridge between Middle English and Renaissance English further coverage of corpus linguistics, especially for Renaissance English fresh sections on accent and register a new survey of the recent debate between "creolists" and "neo-Anglicists" on the origins of African American Vernacular English.Balanced and wide-ranging, this textbook is a must-read for any student studying the history of the English language

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
1 English Present and Future 1 (13)
1 The History of the English Language as
a Cultural Subject
2 Influences at Work on Language
3 Growth and Decay
4 The Importance of a Language
5 The Importance of English
6 The Future of the English Language:
Demography
7 External and Internal Aspects of English
8 Cosmopolitan Vocabulary
9 Inflectional Simplicity
10 Natural Gender
2 The Indo--European Family of Languages 14 (25)
11 Language Constantly Changing
12 Dialectal Differentiation
13 The Discovery of Sanskrit
14 Grimm's Law
15 The Indo-European Family
16 Indian
17 Iranian
18 Armenian
19 Hellenic
20 Albanian
21 Italic
22 Balto-Slavic
23 Germanic
24 Celtic
25 Twentieth-century Discoveries
26 The Home of the Indo-Europeans
3 Old English 39 (31)
27 The Languages in England before English
28 The Romans in Britain
29 The Roman Conquest
30 Romanization of the Island
31 The Latin Language in Britain
32 The Germanic Conquest
33 Anglo-Saxon Civilization
34 The Names "England" and "English."
35 The Origin and Position of English
36 The Periods in the History of English
37 The Dialects of Old English
38 Old English Pronunciation
39 Old English Vocabulary
40 Old English Grammar
41 The Noun
42 Grammatical Gender
43 The Adjective
44 The Definite Article
45 The Personal Pronoun
46 The Verb
47 The Language Illustrated
48 The Resourcefulness of the Old English
Vocabulary
49 Self-explaining Compounds
50 Prefixes and Suffixes
51 Syntax and Style
52 Old English Literature
4 Foreign Influences on Old English 70 (34)
53 The Contact of English with Other
Languages
54 The Celtic Influence
55 Celtic Place-Names and Other Loanwords
56 Three Latin Influences on Old English
57 Chronological Criteria
58 Continental Borrowing (Latin Influence
of the Zero Period)
59 Latin through Celtic Transmission
(Latin Influence of the First Period)
60 Latin Influence of the Second Period:
The Christianizing of Britain
61 Effects of Christianity on English
Civilization
62 The Earlier Influence of Christianity
on the Vocabulary
63 The Benedictine Reform
64 Influence of the Benedictine Reform on
English
65 The Application of Native Words to New
Concepts
66 The Extent of the Influence
67 The Scandinavian Influence: The Viking
Age
68 The Scandinavian Invasions of England
69 The Settlement of the Danes in England
70 The Amalgamation of the Two Peoples
71 The Relation of the Two Languages
72 The Tests of Borrowed Words
73 Scandinavian Place-names
74 The Earliest Borrowing
75 Scandinavian Loanwords and Their
Character
76 The Relation of Borrowed and Native
Words
77 Form Words
78 Scandinavian Influence outside the
Standard Speech
79 Effect on Grammar and Syntax
80 Period and Extent of the Influence
5 The Norman Conquest and the Subjection of 104(18)
English, 1066--1200
81 The Norman Conquest
82 The Origin of Normandy
83 The Year 1066
84 The Norman Settlement
85 The Use of French by the Upper Class
86 Circumstances Promoting the Continued
Use of French
87 The Attitude toward English
88 French Literature at the English Court
89 Fusion of the Two Peoples
90 The Diffusion of French and English
91 Knowledge of English among the Upper
Class
92 Knowledge of French among the Middle
Class
6 The Reestablishment of English, 1200--1500 122(30)
93 Changing Conditions after 1200
94 The Loss of Normandy
95 Separation of the French and English
Nobility
96 French Reinforcements
97 The Reaction against Foreigners and
the Growth of National Feeling
98 French Cultural Ascendancy in Europe
99 English and French in the Thirteenth
Century
100 Attempts to Arrest the Decline of
French
101 Provincial Character of French in
England
102 The Hundred Years' War
103 The Rise of the Middle Class
104 General Adoption of English in the
Fourteenth Century
105 English in the Law Courts
106 English in the Schools
107 Increasing Ignorance of French in the
Fifteenth Century
108 French as a Language of Culture and
Fashion
109 The Use of English in Writing
110 Middle English Literature
7 Middle English 152(43)
111 Middle English a Period of Great
Change
112 From Old to Middle English
113 Decay of Inflectional Endings
114 The Noun
115 The Adjective
116 The Pronoun
117 The Verb
118 Losses among the Strong Verbs
119 Strong Verbs That Became Weak
120 Survival of Strong Participles
121 Surviving Strong Verbs
122 Loss of Grammatical Gender
123 Middle English Syntax
124 French Influence on the Vocabulary
125 Governmental and Administrative Words
126 Ecclesiastical Words
127 Law
128 Army and Navy
129 Fashion, Meals, and Social Life
130 Art, Learning, Medicine
131 Breadth of the French Influence
132 Anglo-Norman and Central French
133 Popular and Literary Borrowings
134 The Period of Greatest Influence
135 Assimilation
136 Loss of Native Words
137 Differentiation in Meaning
138 Curtailment of OE Processes of
Derivation
139 Prefixes
140 Suffixes
141 Self-explaining Compounds
142 The Language Still English
143 Latin Borrowings in Middle English
144 Aureate Terms
145 Synonyms at Three Levels
146 Words from the Low Countries
147 Dialectal Diversity of Middle English
148 The Middle English Dialects
149 The Rise of Standard English
150 The Importance of London English
151 The Spread of the London Standard
152 Complete Uniformity Still Unattained
8 The Renaissance, 1500--1650 195(52)
153 From Middle English to Modern
154 The Great Vowel Shift
155 Weakening of Unaccented Vowels
156 Changing Conditions in the Modern
Period
157 Effect upon Grammar and Vocabulary
158 The Problems of the Vernaculars
159 The Struggle for Recognition
160 The Problem of Orthography
161 The Problem of Enrichment
162 The Opposition to Inkhorn Terms
163 The Defense of Borrowing
164 Compromise
165 Permanent Additions
166 Adaptation
167 Reintroductions and New Meanings
168 Rejected Words
169 Reinforcement through French
170 Words from the Romance Languages
171 The Method of Introducing New Words
172 Enrichment from Native Sources
173 Methods of Interpreting the New Words
174 Dictionaries of Hard Words
175 Nature and Extent of the Movement
176 The Movement Illustrated in
Shakespeare
177 Shakespeare's Pronunciation
178 Changes Shown through Corpus
Linguistics
179 Grammatical Features
180 The Noun
181 The Adjective
182 The Pronoun
183 The Verb
184 Usage and Idiom
185 General Characteristics of the Period
9 The Appeal to Authority, 1650--1800 247(42)
186 The Impact of the Seventeenth Century
187 The Temper of the Eighteenth Century
188 Its Reflection in the Attitude toward
the Language
189 "Ascertainment."
190 The Problem of "Refining" the Language
191 The Desire to "Fix" the Language
192 The Example of Italy and France
193 An English Academy
194 Swift's Proposal, 1712
195 Objection to an Academy
196 Substitutes for an Academy
197 Johnson's Dictionary
198 The Eighteenth-century Grammarians
and Rhetoricians
199 The Aims of the Grammarians
200 The Beginnings of Prescriptive Grammar
201 Methods of Approach
202 The Doctrine of Usage
203 Results
204 Weakness of the Early Grammarians
205 Attempts to Reform the Vocabulary
206 Objection to Foreign Borrowings
207 The Expansion of the British Empire
208 Some Effects of Expansion on the
Language
209 Development of Progressive Verb Forms
210 The Progressive Passive
10 The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 289(52)
211 Influences Affecting the Language
212 The Growth of Science
213 Automobile, Film, Broadcasting
Computer
214 The World Wars
215 Language as a Mirror of Progress
216 Sources of the New Words: Borrowings
217 Self-explaining Compounds
218 Compounds Formed from Greek and Latin
Elements
219 Prefixes and Suffixes
220 Coinages
221 Common Words from Proper Names
222 Old Words with New Meanings
223 The Influence of Journalism
224 Changes of Meaning
225 Slang
226 Register
227 Accent
228 British and Irish English
229 English World-Wide
230 Pidgins and Creoles
231 Spelling Reform
232 Purist Efforts
233 Gender Issues and Linguistic Change
234 The Oxford English Dictionary
235 Grammatical Tendencies
236 Verb-adverb Combinations
237 A Liberal Creed
11 The English Language in America 341(56)
238 The Settlement of America
239 The Thirteen Colonies
240 The Middle West
241 The Far West
242 Uniformity of American English
243 Archaic Features in American English
244 Early Changes in the Vocabulary
245 National Consciousness
246 Noah Webster and an American Language
247 Webster's Influence on American
Spelling
248 Webster's Influence on American
Pronunciation
249 Pronunciation
250 The American Dialects
251 The Controversy over Americanisms
252 The Purist Attitude
253 Present Differentiation of Vocabulary
254 American Words in General English
255 Scientific Interest in American
English
256 American English and World English
12 The Twenty--first Century 397(11)
257 The Future of English: Three Circles
258 How Many Speakers?
259 Cross-linguistic Influence and the
Spread of Languages
260 The Relative Difficulty of Languages
261 The Importance of Chinese
262 India and the Second Circle
263 The Expanding Circle
264 Coming Full Circle
Appendix A Specimens of the Middle English 408(13)
Dialects
Appendix B English Spelling 421(7)
Index 428