Sedation : A Guide to Patient Management (4 SUB)

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Sedation : A Guide to Patient Management (4 SUB)

  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 608 p.
  • 言語 ENG
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  • DDC分類 617.9676

Table of Contents

SECTION I INTRODUCTION                             1  (7)
Pain and Anxiety in Dentistry 2 (5)
Basic Fears 3 (1)
Dental Fears 4 (3)
SECTION II SPECTRUM OF PAIN AND ANXIETY CONTROL 7 (80)
Introduction to Conscious Sedation 9 (7)
The Stages of General Anesthesia 10 (4)
Stage I: Analgesia (Conscious Sedation) 11 (1)
Stage II: Delirium (Ultralight General 12 (1)
Anesthesia)
Stage III: Surgical Anesthesia 13 (1)
Stage IV: Medullary Paralysis 14 (1)
Summary 14 (2)
The Spectrum of Pain and Anxiety Control 16 (10)
No Anesthesia 17 (1)
Iatrosedation 18 (1)
Other Nondrug Psychosedative Techniques 18 (1)
Routes of Drug Administration 18 (6)
Oral 19 (1)
Rectal 20 (1)
Topical 20 (1)
Sublingual 20 (1)
Intranasal 21 (1)
Transdermal 21 (1)
Subcutaneous 21 (1)
Intramuscular 21 (1)
Inhalation (Pulmonary) 22 (1)
Intravenous 23 (1)
General Anesthesia 24 (2)
Physical and Psychological Evaluation 26 (29)
Goals of Physical and Psychological 26 (1)
Evaluation
Physical Evaluation 27 (19)
Medical History Questionnaire 27 (10)
Physical Examination 37 (8)
Dialogue History 45 (1)
Recognition of Anxiety 46 (2)
Determination of Medical Risk 48 (1)
Physical Status Classification System 48 (1)
ASA I 48 (1)
ASA II 48 (2)
ASA III 50 (1)
ASA IV 50 (1)
ASA V 50 (1)
Stress-Reduction Protocols 51 (1)
Stress-Reduction Protocols: Normal, 51 (1)
Healthy, But Anxious Patient
Stress-Reduction Protocol: Medical Risk 51 (4)
Patient (ASA II, III, and IV)
Monitoring during Conscious Sedation 55 (23)
Routine Preoperative Monitoring 57 (14)
Pulse (Heart Rate and Rhythm) 57 (3)
Blood Pressure 60 (2)
Electrocardiography 62 (1)
Respiration 63 (4)
Pulse Oximetry 67 (1)
Carbon Dioxide Monitoring 68 (1)
Temperature 69 (1)
Other Monitoring Devices and Techniques 70 (1)
Recordkeeping 71 (7)
Sedation Record 71 (2)
General Anesthesia Record 73 (5)
Nondrug Techniques: latrosedation and Hypnosis 78 (9)
Iatrosedation 79 (4)
Preparatory Communication 80 (1)
Euphemistic Language 81 (1)
latrosedation: Staff and Office 82 (1)
Clinical Demeanor 82 (1)
The Goal of Iatrosedation 83 (1)
Hypnosis 83 (1)
Hypnosis in Dentistry 84 (1)
The Success of Hypnosis 84 (1)
Education in Hypnosis 84 (1)
Summary 84 (3)
SECTION III ORAL, RECTAL, AND INTRAMUSCULAR 87 (80)
SEDATION
Oral Sedation 89 (27)
Advantages 89 (1)
Disadvantages 90 (2)
Absorption 91 (1)
Bioavailability 92 (1)
Rationale For Use 92 (1)
Drugs 93 (1)
Sedative-Hypnotics 94 (9)
Ethyl Alcohol 94 (1)
Barbiturates 95 (3)
Benzodiazepine Sedative-Hypnotics 98 (5)
Antianxiety Drugs 103(6)
Benzodiazepines 103(6)
Histamine (H1) Blockers (Antihistamines) 109(3)
Promethazine 109(2)
Hydroxyzine 111(1)
Opioids (Narcotics) 112(1)
Summary 112(4)
Rectal Sedation 116(7)
Advantages 116(1)
Disadvantages 117(1)
Drugs 117(3)
Phenobarbital 117(1)
Secobarbital 118(1)
Pentobarbital 118(1)
Thiopental 118(1)
Methohexital 119(1)
Hydromorphone 119(1)
Oxymorphone 119(1)
Promethazine 119(1)
Chloral Hydrate 119(1)
Diazepam 119(1)
Midazolam 120(1)
Ketamine 120(1)
Lytic Cocktail 120(1)
Complications of Rectal Administration 120(1)
Summary 121(2)
Sublingual, Transdermal, and Intranasal 123(9)
Sedation
Sublingual Sedation 123(2)
Nitroglycerin 124(1)
Opioids 124(1)
Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate 124(1)
(Fentanyl ``Lollipop'')
Sedatives 125(1)
Conclusions 125(1)
Transdermal Sedation 125(2)
Opioids 126(1)
Antiemetics 126(1)
Conclusions 127(1)
Intranasal Sedation 127(5)
Midazolam 127(1)
Sufentanil 128(1)
Conclusions 128(4)
Intramuscular Sedation 132(35)
Submucosal Sedation 134(1)
Sites of Intramuscular Drug Administration 134(3)
Gluteal Area 134(1)
Ventrogluteal Region 135(1)
Vastus Lateralis 136(1)
Deltoid 136(1)
Site Selection 137(1)
Armamentarium 137(1)
Technique 137(2)
Complications 139(1)
Determination of Dosage 140(1)
Drugs 141(22)
Antianxiety Drugs and Sedative-Hypnotics 142(3)
Histamine-Blockers (Antihistamines) 145(1)
Barbiturates 146(1)
Opioid Agonists 147(8)
Opioid Agonist/Antagonists 155(2)
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs 157(1)
Dissociative Anesthetic 157(1)
Anticholinergic Drugs 158(3)
Intramuscular Techniques 161(1)
Commonly Used Intramuscular Drug 162(1)
Combinations
Monitoring during Intramuscular Sedation 163(1)
Summary 163(4)
SECTION IV INHALATION SEDATION 167(112)
Morris S. Clark
Inhalation Sedation: Historical Perspective 170(15)
Beginnings (Pre-1844) 170(2)
The Early Days (1844-1862) 172(6)
Anesthesia Develops (1863-1898) 178(1)
The Twentieth Century 179(2)
Modern Times (1950-Present) 181(4)
The Development of Courses and Guidelines 181(1)
The Anesthesia Machine 182(3)
Pharmacosedation: Rationale 185(11)
Advantages 186(1)
Disadvantages 187(1)
Indications 188(2)
Anxiety 188(1)
Medically Compromised Patients 188(2)
Gagging 190(1)
Contraindications 190(2)
Patients with a Compulsive Personality 190(1)
Claustrophobic Patients 190(1)
Children with Severe Behavior Problems 191(1)
Patients with Severe Personality Disorders 191(1)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection or 191(1)
Other Acute Respiratory Conditions
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 191(1)
The Patient Who Does Not Want N2O-O2 191(1)
Pregnancy 191(1)
Restorative Dentistry 192(1)
Initial Dental Examination 192(1)
Removal of Provisional Crowns or Bridges 192(1)
Occlusal Adjustment 192(1)
Insertion of Matrix Bands or Wedges 192(1)
Periodontics and Dental Hygiene 192(1)
Initial Periodontal Examination 192(1)
Scaling, Curettage, and Root Planing 192(1)
Emergency Management of Necrotizing 193(1)
Ulcerative Gingivitis
Use of Ultrasonic Instruments 193(1)
Periodontal Surgery 193(1)
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 193(1)
Lengthy Surgical Procedures 193(1)
Management of Abscesses 193(1)
Management of Postoperative Complications 193(1)
Suture Removal 193(1)
Endodontics 193(1)
Rubber Dam Clamps 193(1)
Gaining Access to the Pulp Chamber 193(1)
Instrumenting Canals 194(1)
Filling of Root Canals 194(1)
Fixed Prosthodontics 194(1)
Impression Taking 194(1)
Removal of Provisional Crowns and Bridges 194(1)
Adjustment of Castings 194(1)
Removable Prosthodontics 194(1)
Preparation of Abutment Teeth 194(1)
Determination of Centric Relationships 194(1)
Occlusal Adjustments and Impression Taking 194(1)
Fitting of Immediate Dentures 194(1)
Oral Radiology 195(1)
Orthodontics 195(1)
Pediatric Dentistry 195(1)
Pharmacology, Anatomy, and Physiology 196(14)
Pharmacology 196(1)
Nitrous Oxide 196(5)
Preparation 196(1)
Properties 197(1)
Potency 198(1)
Pharmacology 199(1)
Central Nervous System 200(1)
Cardiovascular System 200(1)
Respiratory System 200(1)
Gastrointestinal Tract 201(1)
Kidneys 201(1)
Hematopoiesis 201(1)
Skeletal Muscle 201(1)
Uterus and Pregnancy 201(1)
Physiologic Contraindications 201(1)
Oxygen 201(1)
Preparation 201(1)
Properties 202(1)
Effects of 100% Oxygen 202(1)
Anatomy 202(1)
Respiratory System 202(4)
Nose 202(2)
Mouth 204(1)
Pharynx 204(1)
Epiglottis 204(1)
Larynx 204(1)
Trachea 205(1)
Bronchi 205(1)
Bronchioles 205(1)
Alveolus 206(1)
Physiology 206(1)
Respiration 206(4)
Mechanics of Respiration 206(1)
Composition of Respiratory Gases 207(3)
Armamentarium 210(27)
Types of Inhalation Sedation Units 210(20)
Demand-Flow Units 211(1)
Continuous-Flow Units 212(1)
Portable System 213(1)
Central Storage System 213(1)
Central Storage System with Mobile Heads 214(1)
Compressed-Gas Cylinders 214(3)
Oxygen Cylinder and Contents 217(1)
Nitrous Oxide Cylinder and Contents 218(1)
Regulators 218(1)
Manifolds (Central System Only) 219(1)
Yokes (Portable System Only) 220(1)
Flowmeters 221(1)
Emergency Air Intake Valve 222(1)
Rubber Goods 223(7)
Safety Features 230(3)
Pin Index Safety System 230(1)
Diameter Index Safety System 230(1)
Minimum Oxygen Liter Flow 231(1)
Minimum Oxygen Percentage 231(1)
Oxygen Fail-Safe 231(1)
Emergency Air Inlet 232(1)
Alarm 232(1)
Oxygen Flush Button 232(1)
Reservoir Bag 232(1)
Color Coding 232(1)
Lock 232(1)
Quick-Connect for Positive-Pressure Oxygen 232(1)
Available Inhalation Sedation Units 233(4)
Inhalation Sedation: Techniques of 237(20)
Administration
General Description 238(1)
Administration 238(14)
Pretreatment Visit and Instructions 238(1)
Day of Appointment 239(13)
Subsequent Appointments 252(1)
Comparison of Techniques of Administration 252(1)
Constant Liter Flow Technique 252(1)
Constant O2 Flow Technique 252(1)
Normal Distribution Curve 253(1)
Titration and Time 254(1)
Signs and Symptoms of Oversedation 254(3)
Clinical Indicators of Oversedation 255(2)
Inhalation Sedation: Complications 257(5)
Inadequate/Incomplete Sedation 257(1)
Poor Patient Experience 258(1)
Equipment Performance 258(1)
Potential Complications 258(3)
Nausea and Vomiting 258(2)
Tooth Pain Associated with Sinus Pressure 260(1)
Vertigo 260(1)
Bowel Discomfort 260(1)
Claustrophobia 260(1)
Contact Lens Wearers 260(1)
Anatomic Obstruction 260(1)
Understanding of the Language 261(1)
Esoteric Potential Complications 261(1)
Managing Complications 261(1)
Contemporary Issues Surrounding Nitrous Oxide 262(8)
Potential Biohazards from Long-Term 262(4)
Exposure to Trace Anesthetic Gas
Scavenging 263(2)
Monitoring of Trace Nitrous Oxide 265(1)
Recreational Abuse of Nitrous Oxide 266(2)
Sexual Awareness Regarding Nitrous Oxide 268(2)
Practical Considerations 270(5)
Determination of Proper Titration at 270(1)
Subsequent Visits
Dental Anxiety 270(1)
Nondental Stresses 271(1)
Time of Day 271(1)
Level of Restfulness 271(1)
Poor Patient Evaluation 271(1)
Patient Unattended During Sedation 272(1)
Improper Recovery Procedures 272(1)
Postsedation Nausea, Headache, and Lethargy 272(1)
Who Administers Nitrous Oxide? 273(1)
Equipment 274(1)
Teaching Inhalation Sedation: History and 275(4)
Present Guidelines
General Principles of Conscious Sedation 276(1)
Course Level 276(1)
Objectives 276(1)
Inhalation Sedation (Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen) 276(3)
Course Objectives 276(1)
Course Content 277(1)
Course Duration 277(1)
Participant Evaluation and Documentation 277(1)
of Inhalation Sedation Instruction
Faculty 277(1)
Facilities 278(1)
SECTION V INTRAVENOUS SEDATION 279(146)
Intravenous Sedation: Historical Perspective 281(4)
The Early Days 281(1)
The 1800s 282(1)
The 1900s 282(3)
Intravenous Conscious Sedation: Rationale 285(7)
Advantages 285(1)
Disadvantages 286(1)
Contraindications 287(2)
Indications 289(3)
Anxiety 289(1)
Amnesia 289(1)
Medically Compromised Patients 289(1)
Control of Secretions 290(1)
Analgesia 290(1)
Diminished Gagging 290(2)
Armamentarium 292(11)
Intravenous Drug Administration 292(1)
Direct Intravenous Administration 292(1)
Needle Maintained in the Vein without 292(1)
Continuous Infusion
Continuous Intravenous Infusion 293(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Various 293(1)
Methods
Intravenous Infusion Solution 294(2)
Choice of Solution 294(1)
Volume of Solution 295(1)
Intravenous Administration Set 296(2)
Needles 298(2)
Gauge 298(1)
Types 298(2)
Other Items 300(3)
Anatomy for Venipuncture 303(10)
Arteries of The Upper Limb 304(1)
Veins of The Upper Limb 305(1)
Anatomy 306(4)
Dorsum of the Hand 306(1)
Wrist 307(1)
Forearm 307(1)
Antecubital Fossa 308(1)
Foot 309(1)
Selection of Venipuncture Site 310(1)
Condition of the Superficial Veins 310(1)
Relation of the Vein to Other Anatomic 310(1)
Structures
Duration of the Venipuncture 310(1)
Clinical Status of the Patient 310(1)
Age (Size) of the Patient 310(1)
Type of Intravenous Procedure 310(1)
Recommended Sites For Venipuncture 311(2)
Venipuncture Technique 313(15)
Preparation of Equipment 313(2)
Preparation For Venipuncture 315(3)
Winged Infusion Set 318(6)
Dorsum of Hand 318(4)
Dorsum of Wrist 322(1)
Ventral Forearm 322(1)
Antecubital Fossa 322(2)
Indwelling Catheter: All Injection Sites 324(2)
Hollow Metal Needle 326(1)
Dorsum of Hand and Ventral Forearm 326(1)
Dorsal Wrist and Antecubital Fossa 326(1)
Terminating The Intravenous Infusion 327(1)
Pharmacology 328(49)
Benzodiazepines 329(11)
Diazepam 329(6)
Midazolam 335(3)
Lorazepam 338(1)
Flunitrazepam 339(1)
Chlordiazepoxide 340(1)
Summary 340(1)
Barbiturates 340(6)
Pentobarbital Sodium 341(3)
Secobarbital 344(1)
Methohexital Sodium 344(1)
Thiopental and Thiamylal 345(1)
Summary 346(1)
Histamine Blockers (Antihistaminics) 346(1)
Promethazine 346(1)
Hydroxyzine 346(1)
Summary 347(1)
Propofol 347(1)
Pharmacodynamics 347(1)
Miscellaneous Effects 347(1)
Availability 348(1)
Opioid Analgesics 348(1)
Opioid Agonists 349(3)
Meperidine 349(1)
Morphine 350(1)
Alphaprodine 350(1)
Fentanyl 351
Alfentanil, Sufentanil, and Remifentanil 350(2)
Opioid Agonist/Antagonists 352(6)
Pentazocine 353(1)
Nalbuphine 354(2)
Butorphanol 356(2)
Summary 358(1)
Opioid Antagonists 358(1)
Anticholinergics 358(5)
Pharmacology 358(1)
Mechanism of Action 358(1)
Central Nervous System 359(1)
Eye 359(1)
Respiratory Tract 359(1)
Cardiovascular Actions 359(1)
Gastrointestinal Tract 360(1)
Secretory Glands 360(1)
Biotransformation 360(1)
Atropine 360(1)
Scopolamine Hydrobromide 361(1)
Glycopyrrolate 362(1)
Summary 363(1)
Innovar 363(2)
Droperidol 363(1)
Effects of Innovar 364(1)
Summary 365(1)
Ketamine 365(1)
Antidotal Drugs 366(11)
Opioid Antagonists 366(2)
Benzodiazepine Antagonist 368(1)
Agents for Reversal of Emergence Delirium 369(1)
Vasodilator for Extravascular or 370(7)
Intraarterial Drug Administration
Intravenous Sedation: Techniques of 377(23)
Administration
Monitoring Intravenous Sedation 377(1)
Basic Intravenous Techniques 378(14)
Intravenous Benzodiazepine (Diazepam or 379(8)
Midazolam)
The Jorgensen Technique 387(4)
Intravenous Promethazine 391(1)
Summary 392(1)
Modification of Basic Techniques 392(1)
Technique 393(1)
Advanced Techniques 393(2)
Rationale for Advanced Techniques 393(1)
Requirement: Sedation 393(1)
Requirement: Analgesia 394(1)
Techniques 394(1)
Other Techniques 395(2)
Diazepam with Methohexital (Foreman 396(1)
Technique)
The Berns Technique 396(1)
The Shane Technique 396(1)
Propofol 397(1)
Summary 397(3)
Intravenous Sedation: Complications 400(19)
Venipuncture Complications 400(5)
Nonrunning Intravenous Infusion 400(2)
Venospasm 402(1)
Hematoma 403(1)
Infiltration 404(1)
Localized Venous Complications 404(1)
Air Embolism 405(1)
Overhydration 405(1)
Local Complications of Drug Administration 405(5)
Extravascular Drug Administration 405(1)
Intraaterial Injection 406(2)
Local Venous Complications 408(2)
General Drug-Related Complications 410(6)
Nausea and Vomiting 410(1)
Localized Allergy 411(1)
Respiratory Depression 412(2)
Emergence Delirium 414(1)
Laryngospasm 415(1)
Specific Drug Complications 416(2)
Benzodiazepines 416(1)
Pentobarbital 417(1)
Promethazine 417(1)
Opioids 417(1)
Scopolamine 418(1)
Summary 418(1)
Practical Considerations 419(3)
Guidelines for Teaching 422(3)
SECTION VI GENERAL ANESTHESIA 425(34)
Fundamental of General Anesthesia 427(10)
Advantages 428(1)
Disadvantages 429(1)
Contraindications 430(1)
Indications 430(1)
Types of General Anesthesia 431(2)
Outpatient General Anesthesia 431(1)
Inpatient General Anesthesia 432(1)
Education in General Anesthesia 433(1)
Guidelines Relative to the Establishment 433(1)
of a Dental Residency in Anesthesiology
Accredited Anesthesiology Residencies in 434(3)
Which Dentists Can Enroll
Armamentarium, Drugs, and Techniques 437(22)
Armamentarium 437(8)
Anesthesia Machine 437(1)
Intravenous Equipment 438(1)
Ancillary Anesthesia Equipment 439(3)
Monitoring Equipment 442(2)
Emergency Equipment and Drugs 444(1)
Drugs 445(6)
Intravenous Induction Agents 445(1)
Opioids 446(1)
Neuroleptanesthesia 447(1)
Dissociative Anesthesia 447(1)
Muscle Relaxants (Neuromuscular Blocking 448(1)
Drugs)
Inhalation Anesthetics 449(2)
Techniques 451(5)
Inpatient General Anesthesia 451(3)
Outpatient General Anesthesia 454(2)
Summary 456(3)
SECTION VII EMERGENCY PREPARATION AND MANAGEMENT 459(64)
Preparation for Emergencies 462(5)
Office 462(1)
Office Personnel 463(1)
Basic Life Support 463(1)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support 463(1)
Pediatric Advanced Life Support 463(1)
Team Approach to Emergency Management 463(1)
Emergency Practice Drills 464(1)
Outside Medical Assistance 464(1)
Summary 465(2)
Emergency Drugs and Equipment 467(14)
Level 1: Basic Emergency Kit 470(4)
Injectable Drugs 470(1)
Noninjectable Drugs 470(2)
Primary (Basic) Emergency Equipment 472(2)
Level 2: Secondary (Noncritical) Drugs and 474(4)
Equipment
Injectable Drugs 474(2)
Noninjectable Drugs 476(1)
Secondary (Advanced) Emergency Equipment 476(2)
Level 3: Advanced Cardiac Life Support 478(1)
Level 4: Antidotal Drugs 478(1)
Summary 479(2)
Management of Emergencies 481(42)
Overdose 482(10)
Predisposing Factors and Prevention 483(1)
Clinical Manifestations 484(2)
Management 486(2)
Opioid Analgesics 488(1)
Summary 489(3)
Allergy 492(8)
Prevention of Allergic Reactions 493(1)
Clinical Manifestations 494(1)
Onset 494(1)
Management 495(3)
Signs of Allergy Present 498(1)
No Signs of Allergy Present 499(1)
Hypotension 500(4)
Causes of Hypotension 501(1)
Management of Hypotension 502(1)
Hypotension in Patients Receiving 503(1)
Corticosteroid Therapy
Hypotension in Patients Receiving 504(1)
β-Blockers
Hypertensive Episodes 504(2)
Management of a Hypertensive Crisis 505(1)
Cardiac Dysrhythmias 506(1)
Precipitating Factors 507(1)
Angina Pectoris 507(1)
Signs and Symptoms 508(1)
Myocardial Infarction 508(1)
Signs and Symptoms 508(1)
Management 508(1)
Airway Obstruction 508(2)
Management 509(1)
Laryngospasm 510(2)
Management 510(2)
Emesis and Aspiration of Foreign Material 512(1)
Under Anesthesia
Management 512(1)
Hyperventilation 513(1)
Management 513(1)
Respiratory Depression 513(2)
Management 514(1)
Seizures 515(1)
Management 515(1)
Hypoglycemia 516(2)
Management 517(1)
Syncope 518(2)
Management 519(1)
Summary 520(3)
SECTION VIII SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 523(69)
The Pediatric Patient 525(19)
Factors Influencing Patient Response 525(2)
Behavioral Evaluation of The Pediatric 527(1)
Patient
Determining The Need for Sedation 527(1)
Goals and Techniques 528(2)
Monitoring 530(1)
Physical Restraint 530(1)
Mouth-Stabilizing Devices 531(1)
Drugs 531(9)
General Rules for Preoperative Medication 532(1)
Oral Sedation 533(2)
Oral Combinations 535(1)
Parenteral Sedation 536(1)
Inhalation Sedation 537(2)
Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen with Other Techniques 539(1)
Intravenous Sedation 539(1)
Discharge from The Office 540(1)
Recordkeeping 541(1)
General Anesthesia 541(3)
The Geriatric Patient 544(6)
Christine L. Quinn
Common Health Problems 546(1)
Arthritis 547(1)
Hypertension 547(1)
Heart Disease 547(1)
Emphysema 547(1)
Glaucoma 547(1)
Management of Pain and Anxiety 547(3)
The Medically Compromised Patient 550(29)
Cardiovascular Disease 551(8)
Angina Pectoris 551(1)
Unstable Angina 552(1)
Myocardial Infraction 553(1)
High Blood Pressure 554(1)
Dysrhythmias 555(1)
Congestive Heart Failure 556(2)
Congenital Heart Disease 558(1)
Valvular Heart Disease 559(1)
Renal Disease 559(1)
Respiratory Disease 560(3)
Asthma 560(1)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 561(1)
Emphysema 561(1)
Chronic Bronchitis 562(1)
Neurologic Disorders 563(4)
Seizure Disorders 563(2)
Cerebrovascular Accident 565(1)
Myasthenia Gravis 566(1)
Liver Disease 567(1)
Endocrine Disorders 568(4)
Thyroid Gland Dysfunction 568(1)
Hyperthyroidism 568(1)
Hypothyroidism 569(1)
Adrenal Disorders 570(2)
Metabolic and Genetic Disorders 572(3)
Diabetes Mellitus 572(2)
Porphyria 574(1)
Malignant Hyperthermia 574(1)
Atypical Plasma Cholinesterase 575(1)
Hematologic Disorders 575(4)
Anemia 576(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia 576(1)
Polycythemia Vera 577(1)
Hemophilia 577(2)
The Physically Compromised Patient 579(6)
Kenneth L. Reed
Multiple Sclerosis 579(1)
Environmental 579(1)
Genetic 579(1)
Immunologic 580(1)
Viral 580(1)
Muscular Dystrophy 580(1)
Parkinson's Disease 581(1)
Stroke 582(3)
Neurologic Illnesses and Other Conditions 585(7)
Kenneth L. Reed
Alzheimer's Disease 585(1)
Autism 586(1)
Cerebral Palsy 587(1)
Down Syndrome 588(1)
Mental Retardation 589(1)
Schizophrenia 590(2)
Appendix 592