Pediatric CNS Tumors (Pediatric Oncology) (2004. XIX, 283 p. w. 153 figs. (some col.). 25 cm)

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Pediatric CNS Tumors (Pediatric Oncology) (2004. XIX, 283 p. w. 153 figs. (some col.). 25 cm)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 300 p., 108 illus.
  • 商品コード 9783540002949

Full Description


Pediatric CNS Tumors is a detailed review of childhood nervous system tumors with a particular emphasis on biological data and treatment algorithms for each tumor type. Additional detailed information is provided on the recent advances in chemotherapy, radiation and surgery for these tumors.

Table of Contents

Introduction                                       3  (1)
N. Gupta
D. Haas-Kogan
A. Banerjee
Etiology of Central Nervous System Tumors 1 (3)
Classification of CNS Tumors 4 (1)
Epidemiology of Childhood CNS Tumors 4 (1)
Future Directions 5 (1)
References 6 (1)
Supratentorial Gliomas
G. Evren Keles
A. Banerjee
D. Puri
M.S. Berger
Introduction 7 (1)
Astrocytomas 7 (9)
Epidemiology 7 (1)
Pathology 8 (1)
Low-Grade Astrocytoma 8 (1)
Other Low-Grade Subtypes 8 (1)
Anaplastic Astrocytoma and Glioblastoma 9 (1)
Multiforme
Genetics 9 (1)
Clinical Features 10 (1)
Diagnostic Imaging 10 (2)
Treatment 12 (1)
Surgical Indications 12 (1)
Chemotherapy for Low-Grade Glioma 13 (1)
Chemotherapy for High-Grade Astrocytoma 13 (1)
Radiation Therapy 14 (1)
Outcome 14 (2)
Optic Pathway Gliomas 16 (5)
Epidemiology 16 (1)
Pathology 16 (1)
Clinical Features 17 (1)
Diagnostic Imaging 17 (1)
Treatment 17 (1)
Surgical Indications 17 (2)
Surgical Technique 19 (1)
Radiation Therapy 19 (1)
Chemotherapy 20 (1)
Outcome 20 (1)
Oligodendroglioma 21 (2)
Epidemiology 21 (1)
Pathology 21 (1)
Clinical Features 21 (1)
Diagnostic Imaging 21 (1)
Treatment 22 (1)
Outcome 22 (1)
Conclusion 23 (4)
References 23 (4)
Cerebellar Astrocytomas
J.H. Chi
N. Gupta
Introduction 27 (1)
Epidemiology 28 (1)
Spontaneous Cerebellar Astrocytoma 28 (1)
Neurofibromatosis Type I 28 (1)
Pathology 29 (3)
Histopathology and Genetics 29 (2)
WHO Classification 31 (1)
Gross Pathology 32 (1)
Miscellaneous Grading Scales 32 (1)
Clinical Features: Signs and Symptoms 32 (1)
Natural History 33 (1)
Diagnosis and Neuroimaging 34 (2)
Computed Tomography and Magnetic 34 (1)
Resonance Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 35 (1)
Treatment 36 (3)
Preoperative Management 36 (1)
Operative Treatment 36 (1)
Gross Total Resection 36 (1)
Subtotal Resection 37 (1)
Follow-up Neuroimaging 37 (1)
Management of Recurrence 37 (1)
Adjuvant Therapy for Recurrence 38 (1)
Outcome 39 (3)
Prognostic Factors 39 (1)
Brain Stem Invasion 39 (1)
Tumor Grade 39 (1)
Tumor Appearance 40 (1)
Clinical Features 40 (1)
Gross Total and Subtotal Resection 40 (1)
Malignant Transformation 41 (1)
Metastasis 41 (1)
Survival 41 (1)
Complications 42 (2)
Neurological Complications 42 (1)
Cerebellar Dysfunction 42 (1)
Cerebellar Mutism 42 (1)
Neuropsychological Consequences 43 (1)
Non-neurological Complications 43 (1)
Pseudomeningocele 43 (1)
Hydrocephalus 43 (1)
Other 44 (1)
Conclusion 44 (5)
References 44 (5)
Brainstem Gliomas
E. Pan
M. Prados
Introduction 49 (2)
Epidemiology 51 (1)
Pathology 51 (1)
Histopathology 51 (1)
Diffuse Pontine Glioma 51 (1)
Nondiffuse Brainstem Glioma 51 (1)
Molecular Biology 52 (1)
Clinical Features 52 (2)
Growth Pattern 53 (1)
Prognostic Factors 54 (1)
Diagnosis and Imaging 54 (6)
Computed Tomography and Magnetic 54 (5)
Resonance Imaging
Role of Diagnostic Biopsy for Diffuse 59 (1)
Pontine Glioma
Treatment 60 (1)
Radiotherapy 60 (1)
Chemotherapy for Diffuse Pontine Glioma 60 (1)
Surgery and Adjunctive Treatment for 61 (1)
Nondiffuse Tumors
Conclusion 61 (4)
References 62 (3)
Ependymoma
B.N. Horn
M. Smyth
Epidemiology 65 (1)
Incidence 65 (1)
Age and Sex Distribution 66 (1)
Etiology-Environmental and Viral Causes 66 (1)
Genetic Predisposition 66 (1)
Pathology 66 (4)
Histopathological Characteristics 66 (3)
Cytogenetics 69 (1)
Clinical Features 70 (1)
Natural History and Risk Factors 71 (1)
Diagnosis and Neuroimaging 72 (1)
Treatment 73 (3)
Surgery 73 (1)
Radiation Therapy 73 (1)
Chemotherapy 74 (2)
Treatment of Spinal Cord Ependymomas 76 (1)
Recurrent Disease 76 (1)
Outcome 76 (3)
Neurological Function 76 (1)
Progression-Free Survival 77 (2)
Conclusion 79 (4)
References 79 (4)
Embryonal Tumors
P.G. Fisher
Introduction 83 (1)
Medulloblastoma 84 (15)
Epidemiology 84 (1)
Pathology 84 (1)
Grading 84 (1)
Histopathology 84 (4)
Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics 88 (3)
Clinical Features 91 (1)
Natural History 91 (1)
Diagnosis, Surgery, and Staging 91 (1)
Diagnosis 91 (1)
Surgery 92 (1)
Staging 92 (1)
Treatment 93 (5)
Outcome 98 (1)
Future Directions 99 (1)
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor 99 (2)
Epidemiology 99 (1)
Pathology 99 (1)
Treatment 100(1)
Other Embryonal Tumors 101(1)
Pineoblastoma 101(1)
Other Non-Pineal Embryonal Tumors 101(1)
Conclusion 102(5)
References 102(5)
Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors
K.H. Lieuw
D. Haas-Kogan
A. Ablin
Introduction 107(1)
Epidemiology 108(1)
Anatomical Location 108(1)
Age, Sex, and Geographic Variation 108(1)
Pathology 108(3)
Etiology 108(1)
Classification 109(1)
Histopathology 110(1)
Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics 110(1)
Clinical Features: Signs and Symptoms 111(1)
Diagnosis 111(3)
Laboratory Investigations 112(1)
Diagnostic Imaging 112(2)
Obtaining Tissue Diagnosis 114(1)
Treatment 114(4)
Role of Surgery 114(1)
Chemotherapy 115(1)
Radiation Therapy 116(1)
Combined-Modality Treatment 117(1)
Treatment of Recurrent Disease 118(1)
Outcome 118(1)
Conclusion 119(4)
References 119(4)
Craniopharyngioma
R. Du
R. Lustig
B. Fisch
M.W. McDermott
Introduction 123(1)
Epidemiology 123(1)
Pathology 124(2)
Etiology 124(1)
Classification 124(1)
Histopathology 124(1)
Tumor Biology 125(1)
Clinical Features 126(1)
Signs and Symptoms 126(1)
Endocrine Abnormalities 127(1)
Natural History 127(1)
Diagnosis and Imaging 127(5)
Computed Tomography and Magnetic 127(4)
Resonance Imaging
Clinical Evaluation 131(1)
Treatment 132(4)
Surgery 132(1)
Surgical Indications 132(1)
Surgical Approaches 132(1)
Radiotherapy 133(1)
Conventional Radiotherapy 133(1)
Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy 133(1)
Radiosurgery 133(1)
Intracavitary Therapy 134(1)
Chemotherapy 135(1)
Outcome 136(2)
Complications 138(2)
Complications of Surgery 138(1)
Complications of Radiotherapy 139(1)
Conclusion 140(3)
References 140(3)
Neuronal Tumors
C.S. von Koch
M.H. Schmidt
V. Perry
Ganglioglioma and Gangliocytoma 143(4)
Epidemiology 143(1)
Pathology 143(1)
Gross Appearance 144(1)
Histopathology 144(1)
Immunohistochemistry and Electron 145(1)
Microscopy
Cytogenetics 145(1)
Clinical Features 145(1)
Natural History 145(1)
Diagnosis and Neuroimaging 145(1)
Treatment 146(1)
Outcome 146(1)
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor 147(2)
(DNET)
Epidemiology 147(1)
Pathology 148(1)
Gross Appearance 148(1)
Histopathology 148(1)
Immunohistochemistry and Molecular 148(1)
Genetics
Clinical Features 148(1)
Natural History 148(1)
Diagnosis and Neuroimaging 148(1)
Treatment 149(1)
Outcome 149(1)
Central Neurocytoma 149(4)
Epidemiology 149(1)
Pathology 149(1)
Gross Appearance 149(1)
Histopathology 149(1)
Immunohistochemistry and Electron 150(1)
Microscopy
Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics 150(1)
Clinical Features 151(1)
Natural History 151(1)
Diagnosis and Neuroimaging 151(1)
Treatment 152(1)
Surgery 152(1)
Radiation Therapy and Radiosurgery 152(1)
Chemotherapy 152(1)
Outcome 153(1)
Conclusion 153(4)
References 153(4)
Choroid Plexus Tumors
N. Gupta
Introduction 157(1)
Epidemiology 157(1)
Pathology 158(1)
Gross Appearance 158(1)
Histopathology 158(1)
Immunohistochemistry 158(1)
Genetics 159(1)
Clinical Features: Signs and Symptoms 159(1)
Diagnosis and Neuroimaging 160(2)
Computed Tomography 160(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 160(2)
Treatment 162(2)
Pre-operative Planning 162(1)
Operative Treatment 163(1)
Choroid Plexus Carcinomas 164(1)
Outcome 164(1)
Conclusion 165(2)
References 165(2)
Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors
A. Quinones-Hinojosa
M. Gulati
M.H. Schmidt
Introduction 167(1)
Ependymoma 168(4)
Epidemiology and Etiology 168(1)
Pathology 168(1)
Grading 168(1)
Histopathology 168(1)
Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics 169(1)
Clinical Features 170(1)
Diagnostic Imaging 170(2)
Astrocytoma 172(4)
Epidemiology and Etiology 173(1)
Pathology 174(1)
Grading 174(1)
Histopathology 174(1)
Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics 174(1)
Clinical Features 175(1)
Diagnostic Imaging 175(1)
Treatment 176(3)
Surgery 176(1)
Surgical Approach 176(1)
Technical Considerations During Tumor 176(2)
Removal
Radiation Therapy 178(1)
Chemotherapy 178(1)
Outcome 179(1)
Conclusion 180(3)
References 180(3)
Neurocutaneous Syndromes and Associated CNS
Tumors
B.S. Tseng
D. Haas-Kogan
Introduction 183(1)
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 184(4)
Epidemiology 184(1)
Genetics and Molecular Biology 184(1)
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical 184(2)
Features
Natural History and Prognosis 186(1)
Laboratory Studies 186(1)
Imaging Studies 186(1)
Treatment 187(1)
Neurofibromatosis Type 2 188(3)
Epidemiology 188(1)
Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics 189(1)
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical 189(1)
Features
Natural History and Prognosis 189(1)
Laboratory Studies 190(1)
Imaging Studies 190(1)
Treatment 191(1)
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 191(4)
Epidemiology 191(1)
Molecular Biology and Genetics 191(1)
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical 191(2)
Features
Natural History and Prognosis 193(1)
Laboratory Studies 193(1)
Imaging Studies 193(1)
Treatment 194(1)
Ataxia-Telangiectasia 195(2)
Epidemiology 195(1)
Molecular Biology and Genetics 195(1)
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical 195(1)
Features
Natural History and Prognosis 196(1)
Laboratory Studies 196(1)
Imaging Studies 196(1)
Treatment 197(1)
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease 197(2)
Epidemiology 197(1)
Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics 197(1)
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical 197(1)
Features
Natural History and Prognosis 198(1)
Laboratory Studies 198(1)
Imaging Studies 198(1)
Treatment 199(1)
Sturge-Weber Syndrome 199(3)
Epidemiology 199(1)
Genetic and Molecular Biology 200(1)
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical 200(1)
Features
Natural History and Prognosis 201(1)
Laboratory Studies 201(1)
Imaging Studies 201(1)
Treatment 201(1)
Conclusion 202(3)
References 202(3)
Modern Neuroimaging of Pediatric CNS Tumors
S.O. Bryant
S. Cha
A.J. Barkovich
MR Spectroscopy 205(5)
Principles 205(1)
Technique 206(1)
Applications 207(3)
MR Perfusion 210(4)
Principles 210(1)
Technique 210(1)
Applications 211(3)
Limitations 214(1)
Nuclear Medicine 214(3)
Principles 214(1)
Mechanism and Technique 214(1)
Applications and Limitations 215(2)
Bold/MSI 217(2)
Principles 217(1)
Mechanism of Bold Imaging 217(1)
Mechanism of MSI 217(1)
Applications of Bold and MSI 218(1)
Limitations 219(1)
Diffusion Imaging 219(4)
Principles 219(1)
Technique 219(1)
Applications 220(3)
Magnetization Transfer 223(1)
Principles 223(1)
Technique 223(1)
Applications 223(1)
Improving Image Sensitivity with Surface 223(1)
Coils
Conclusion 224(7)
References 224(7)
Current Surgical Management
N. Gupta
V. Perry
M.S. Berger
Introduction 231(1)
Technical Adjuncts for Resection of Brain 232(5)
Tumors
Neuronavigation 232(2)
Functional Imaging 234(1)
Cortical Mapping for Supratentorial 235(1)
Tumors
Mapping of Seizure Foci 236(1)
Posterior Fossa Tumors 237(1)
Surgical Principles 237(1)
Complications 237(1)
Injury to Local Structures 238(1)
Cerebellar Mutism 238(1)
Hydrocephalus 238(1)
Cognitive Consequences 239
The Role of Second Look Surgery 229(11)
Conclusion 240(3)
References 240(3)
Chemotherapy
A. Banerjee
K.K. Matthay
Introduction 243(1)
General Principles of Chemotherapy 244(1)
Specific Chemotherapeutic Agents 244(2)
Platinums 244(1)
Nitrosoureas 245(1)
Cyclophosphamide and Ifosfamide 245(1)
Temozolomide 246(1)
Etoposide 246(1)
Vincristine 246(1)
Combination Chemotherapy for Infant Brain 246(2)
Tumors
High Dose Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic 248(1)
Stem Cell Rescue
Rationale 248(1)
Recurrent Medulloblastoma 248(1)
Gliomas 248(1)
Other Tumor Types 249(1)
New Strategies 249(6)
Radiation Sensitizers 249(1)
Targeting Drug Resistance 249(1)
P-glycoprotein Pump 249(1)
Alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase 250(1)
Molecular Targets and Signal 250(1)
Transduction Inhibition
Angiogenesis Inhibitors 250(1)
Overcoming the Blood Brain Barrier 251(1)
BBB Disruption 251(1)
Intra-arterial Delivery 252(1)
Intratumoral Drug Delivery 252(1)
Differentiation of Neoplastic Cells 252(1)
Gene Therapy 253(1)
Immunotherapy 254(1)
Conclusion 255(6)
References 255(6)
Advances in Radiation Therapy
D. Haas-Kogan
B.M. Fisch
Introduction 261(1)
Radiobiology 261(1)
Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation 262(3)
Therapy
Immobilization and Imaging 262(1)
Target Definition and Planning 263(2)
Treatment Verification and Delivery 265(1)
New Technical Approaches 265(4)
Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy 265(3)
Proton Beam Therapy 268(1)
Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT) 268(1)
Temporary or Permanent Brachytherapy 268(1)
Radiosurgery 268(1)
Neutron Beam Therapy 269(1)
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) 269(1)
Toxicity of Radiation Therapy 269(3)
Spinal Cord 270(1)
Brain 270(1)
Eye 271(1)
Ear 271(1)
Endocrine 271(1)
Molecular Targets For Radiosensitization 272(3)
Tyrosine Kinase Receptors 272(1)
EGF Receptor Family Inhibitors 272(1)
PDGF Receptor Inhibitors 272(1)
VEGF Receptor Inhibitors 273(1)
Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors 273(1)
Molecular Targeting Combined with 274(1)
Conventional Antineoplastic Treatment
P53 Tumor Suppressor 274(1)
Conclusion 275(4)
References 275(4)
Subject Index 279