Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, there are still 400 million people, worldwide who are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). For them, the vaccine, as currently applied, has no value. Given the possible consequences of HBV infection, the number of those chronically infected with HBV presents an enormous public health challenge. For example, the major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with HBV. Although fifth in cancer incidence, worldwide, HCC/liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death. The high mortality as- ciated with HCC arises because the disease is often detected late and is unresponsive to treatment. The number of deaths caused by PHCC is expected to rise over the next 20 years. Those chronically infected with HBV have a life risk of death to HCC of between 10 and 25%. Even the limited efficacy of drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV helps underscore the point that this disease is responsive to therapy. Drugs that target the polymerase (e. g. , hepsera and lamivudine) and interferon alpha represent two distinct strategies and show that both conventional antiviral and immunothe- peutic approaches can be used in management. However, the current inventory of therapeutics is inadequate. Interferon alpha is of limited value, only parenterally ava- able, and fraught with adverse reactions.
Part I. Viral-Specific Immunological and Other Host ResponsesStudying Host Immune Responses Against Duck Hepatitis B Virus InfectionDarren S. Miller, Edward M. Bertram, Catherine A. Scougall, Ieva Kotlarski, and Allison R. JilbertMeasurement of Cell-Mediated Immune Response in WoodchucksStephan Menne and Paul J. CoteStudy of Liver-Specific Expression of Cytokines During Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus InfectionMengji Lu and Michael RoggendorfInduction of Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Immune Responses Through DNA ImmunizationMichael Geissler, Robert Weth, Christian F. Grimm, Doerte Ortmann, and Hubert E. BlumMonitoring Gene Expression Using DNA Microarrays During Hepatitis B Virus InfectionMichael R. Beard and Stephen LocarniniDetermination of Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Activity in the LiverMichelina Nascimbeni and Barbara RehermannDetermining the Precursor Frequency of HBV Nucleocapsid Antigen-Specific T CellsJennifer A. Waters and Howard C. ThomasDetection and Characterization of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Using the Tetramer ApproachXiao-Song He and Harry B. GreenbergIn Vitro Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Specific CD4+ T CellsShilpa Chokshi and Nikolai V. NaoumovInduction of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis Delta Virus Through DNA Immunizaiton in BALB/c MiceRen-Shiang Lee, Shih-Jer Hsu, Li-Rung Huang, Hui-Lin Wu, Shiou-Lin Lin, Ding-Shinn Chen, and Pei-Jer ChenPart II. In Vitro and In Vivo ModelsInfection of Primary Chimpanzee Hepatocytes with Recombinant Hepatitis D Virus Particles: A Surrogate Model for Hepatitis B VirusAzeneth Barrera and Robert E. LanfordStudy of the Endocytosis and Intracellular Localization of Subviral Particles of Hepatitis B Virus in Primary HepatocytesDieter Glebe and Wolfram H.GerlichThe Tupaia Model for the Study of Hepatitis B Virus: Direct Infection and HBV Genome Transduction of Primary Tupaia HepatocytesFritz von Weizsacker, Josef Koeck, Sabine MacNelly, Shaotang Ren, Hubert E. Blum, and Michael NassalDelivery of Hepatitis B Virus Therapeutic Agents Using Asialoglycoprotein Receptor-Based Liver-Specific TargetingMasayoshi Konishi, Catherine H. Wu, and George Y. WuWoodchuck Hepatitis Virus Hepatocyte Culture ModelsNorma D. Churchill and Tomasz I. MichalakDuck Hepatitis B Virus Primary Hepatocyte Culture ModelOlivier Hantz and Fabien ZoulimEnhancement of Infection of HepG2 Cells in Culture by Predigestion of Hepadnavirus with V8 ProteaseXuanyong Lu and Timothy M. BlockConstruction of Recombinant Adenoviruses that Produce Infectious Hepatitis B VirusMartin Sprinzl, Jerome Dumortier, and Ulrike ProtzerBaculovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer for the Study of Hepatitis B VirusHarriet C. Isom, Ayman M. Abdelhamed, John P. Bilello, and Thomas G. MillerTransgenic Hepatitis B Virus Mouse Model in the Study of ChemotherapyJohn D. MorreyTransplantation of Human Hepatocytes in Immunodeficient UPA Mice: A Model for the Study of Hepatitis B VirusJoerg Petersen, Martin R. Burda, Maura Dandri, and Charles E. RoglerDuck Hepatitis B Virus Model in the Study of Hepatitis B VirusLucyna Cova and Fabien ZoulimHepatitis B Virus Transgenic Severe Combined Immunodeficient Mouse Model of Acute and Chronic Liver DiseaseMark A. Feitelson, Jonathan D. Larkin, and Raymond F. SchinaziThe Chimpanzee Model: Contributions and Considerations for Studies of Hepatitis B VirusPascal Gagneux and Elaine A. MuchmoreHepatitis B in Liver Transplant Recipients as a Special Model of Antiviral Drug DevelopmentRobert G. Gish and Adil