Level of Detail for 3d Graphpics (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics) (1ST)

Level of Detail for 3d Graphpics (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics) (1ST)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 390 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781558608382
  • DDC分類 006.693

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           ix
Preface xix
About The Authors xxiii
PART I Generation
Introduction 3 (16)
Coverage and Organization 6 (1)
History 7 (1)
Simplifications in Computer Graphics 8 (1)
Lod Frameworks 9 (4)
Discrete LOD 9 (1)
Continuous LOD 10 (1)
View-Dependent LOD 10 (2)
LOD in Practice 12 (1)
Polygonal Meshes 13 (4)
Topology 14 (3)
Fidelity Metrics 17 (2)
Mesh Simplification 19 (28)
Overview 19 (2)
Fidelity-Based Simplification 20 (1)
Budget-Based Simplification 20 (1)
Local Simplification Operators 21 (7)
Edge Collapse 21 (2)
Vertex-Pair Collapse 23 (1)
Triangle Collapse 24 (1)
Cell Collapse 24 (1)
Vertex Removal 25 (1)
Polygon Merging 25 (1)
General Geometric Replacement 26 (1)
Comparing the Local Simplification 27 (1)
Operators
Global Simplification Operators 28 (10)
Volume Processing 29 (3)
Alpha-Hull-Based Topology Simplifications 32 (5)
When Is Topology Simplification Desirable? 37 (1)
When Is Topology Simplification 37 (1)
Unacceptable?
Simplification Frameworks 38 (8)
Nonoptimizing 39 (1)
Greedy 40 (1)
Lazy 41 (1)
Estimating 42 (1)
Independent 43 (1)
Interleaved Simplification Operators 44 (2)
Conclusions 46 (1)
Simplification Error Metrics 47 (40)
Why Measure Error? 48 (2)
Guide and Improve the Simplification 48 (1)
Process
Know the Quality of the Results 48 (1)
Know When to Show a Particular LOD 49 (1)
Balance Quality across a Large Environment 49 (1)
Key Elements 50 (11)
Geometric Error 50 (5)
Attribute Error 55 (5)
Combining Errors 60 (1)
Incremental and Total Error 60 (1)
Range of Approaches 61 (21)
Vertex-Vertex Distance 61 (4)
Vertex-Plane Distance 65 (4)
Vertex-Surface Distance 69 (3)
Surface-Surface Distance 72 (9)
Image Metric 81 (1)
Conclusions 82 (5)
PART II Application
Run-Time Frameworks 87 (34)
LOD Selection Factors 88 (8)
Distance 88 (2)
Size 90 (1)
Priority 91 (2)
Hysteresis 93 (1)
Environmental Conditions 94 (1)
Perceptual Factors 94 (2)
Fixed-Frame Rate Schedulers 96 (8)
Reactive Fixed-Frame Rate 96 (2)
Predictive Fixed-Frame Rate 98 (6)
View-Dependent Lod 104 (10)
Overview 104 (1)
The Vertex Hierarchy 105 (2)
Variations on the Vertex Hierarchy 107 (1)
View-Dependent Criteria 107 (3)
Tracking Mesh Dependencies 110 (3)
Global Simplification 113 (1)
Blending Between Transitions 114 (5)
Alpha Blending 114 (2)
Geomorphs 116 (3)
Conclusions 119 (2)
A Catalog of Useful Algorithms 121 (30)
Vertex Clustering 122 (6)
Overview 122 (1)
Vertex Importance 122 (1)
Clustering Vertices and Filtering 123 (1)
Degenerate Triangles
Displaying Degenerate Triangles 124 (1)
Advantages and Disadvantages 124 (1)
Floating-Cell Clustering 125 (2)
Simplifying Massive Models 127 (1)
Vertex Decimation 128 (5)
Overview 129 (1)
Classification of Vertices 129 (1)
Decimation Criteria 130 (1)
Triangulation 130 (1)
Advantages and Disadvantages 130 (1)
Topology-Modifying Continuous LOD 131 (2)
Quadric Error Metrics 133 (3)
Overview 133 (1)
Recap: Measuring Surface Error with 133 (1)
Quadrics
Candidate Vertex Pairs 134 (1)
Details of the Algorithm 135 (1)
Accounting for Vertex Attributes 135 (1)
RSimp: Reverse Simplification 136 (3)
Overview 136 (1)
Normal Variation Error Metric 137 (1)
Cluster Splitting 137 (1)
Advantages and Disadvantages 138 (1)
Simplifying Massive Models 139 (1)
Image-Driven Simplification 139 (3)
Overview 140 (1)
Image Metrics 141 (1)
Evaluating Edge Cost 142 (1)
Fast Image Updates 142 (1)
Skip Strips 142 (4)
An Aside: The Vertex Cache 146 (1)
Triangulation of Polygonal Models 146 (4)
Conclusions 150 (1)
Gaming Optimizations 151 (34)
Introduction 152 (1)
The Game Environment 152 (5)
Constant Frame Rate 152 (1)
Very Low Memory 153 (1)
Multiple Instantiations 153 (1)
Scalable Platforms 154 (1)
Fill Rate Versus Triangle Rate 154 (2)
Average Triangle Size 156 (1)
Game-Specific Difficulties with Lod 157 (6)
Modeling Practices 157 (3)
Hardware Transformation and Lighting 160 (1)
Static and Dynamic Geometry 161 (1)
Cache Coherence and Triangle Strips 162 (1)
Vector Unit Packetization 162 (1)
Classic Lod Suitability to Games 163 (8)
Discrete LOD 163 (3)
Continuous LOD 166 (3)
Higher-Order Surfaces 169 (1)
Shadow LOD 169 (2)
Nongeometric Level of Detail 171 (4)
Shader LOD 171 (1)
Vertex-Processing LOD 172 (2)
Object Priority 174 (1)
Lighting 175 (1)
Imposters 175 (5)
Prerendered Texture Imposters 176 (2)
Render-to-Texture 178 (1)
Geometric Imposters 179 (1)
Selection and Metrics 180 (2)
Distance Selection 180 (1)
Game-Specific Metrics 180 (1)
LOD Blending 181 (1)
Conclusions 182 (3)
Terrain Level of Detail 185 (46)
Introduction 186 (1)
Multiresolution Techniques for Terrain 187 (13)
Top Down and Bottom Up 187 (1)
Regular Grids and TINs 188 (2)
Quadtrees and Bintrees 190 (3)
Tears, Cracks, and T-Junctions 193 (1)
Paging, Streaming, and Out of Core 194 (4)
Texture-Mapping Issues 198 (2)
Catalog of Useful Terrain Algorithms 200 (18)
Continuous LOD for Height Fields 200 (2)
The Roam Algorithm 202 (4)
Real-Time Generation of Continuous LOD 206 (2)
View-Dependent Progressive Meshes for 208 (3)
Terrain
Multitriangulation 211 (2)
Visualization of Large Terrains Made Easy 213 (5)
Georeferencing Issues 218 (7)
Ellipsoids 218 (2)
Geoids 220 (2)
Datums 222 (1)
Coordinate Systems 222 (3)
Geospatial File Formats 225 (1)
Terrain Data on the Web 226 (2)
Conclusions 228 (3)
PART III Advanced Issues
Perceptual Issues 231 (48)
Motivation 232 (1)
Some Perceptually Motivated Lod Criteria 232 (7)
Eccentricity Level of Detail 233 (2)
Velocity Level of Detail 235 (1)
Depth-of Field Level of Detail 236 (1)
Applicability of Gaze-Directed Techniques 237 (2)
The Need for Better Perceptual Models 239 (1)
Introduction to Vision 239 (9)
The Visual System 239 (1)
The Eye 240 (5)
The Visual Cortex 245 (1)
Sensitivity to Visual Detail 245 (2)
The Multichannel Model 247 (1)
Measuring Visual Sensitivity 248 (16)
Contrast Gratings and Spatial Frequency 248 (2)
The Contrast Sensitivity Function 250 (1)
An Aside: Visual Acuity 250 (2)
Applicability of the CSF Model 252 (3)
Other Perceptual Phenomena 255 (8)
Further Reading 263 (1)
Managing Lod Through Visual Complexity 264 (1)
Modeling Contrast Sensitivity 265 (7)
Incorporating Velocity into the Model 266 (1)
Incorporating Eccentricity into the Model 267 (2)
Modeling Visual Acuity 269 (1)
Incorporating the Display into the Model 269 (1)
Visualizing the Effect of the Perceptual 270 (2)
Model
Example Implementations 272 (5)
Perceptually Modulated LOD 272 (1)
Imperceptible Gaze-Directed Simplification 273 (2)
Perceptually Optimized 3D Graphics 275 (2)
Conclusions 277 (2)
Measuring Visual Fidelity 279 (22)
Why Measure Fidelity? 280 (1)
Experimental Measures 280 (6)
Search Performance 280 (1)
Naming Times 281 (2)
Subjective Ratings 283 (1)
Threshold Testing 284 (1)
Comparing Experimental Measures 285 (1)
Automatic Measures for Static Imagery 286 (5)
Digital Measures 286 (1)
Single-Channel Measures 287 (1)
Multi-Channel Measures 288 (1)
Evaluating Measure Accuracy 289 (2)
Applications in Graphics 291 (1)
Automatic Measures for Run-Time Lod 291 (3)
Fidelity Measurement for Run-Time Lod 292 (1)
Contrast Sensitivity in Run-Time Lod 292 (2)
Automatic Measures for Simplification 294 (1)
Evaluation of Lod Techniques and Measures 295 (3)
Search with Low Fidelity Peripheries 295 (1)
Visual Fidelity Measures and 295 (3)
Simplification
Conclusions 298 (3)
Temporal Detail 301 (30)
Introduction 301 (1)
Measuring Temporal Detail 302 (7)
Frame Rate and Refresh Rate 303 (2)
System Latency and Responsiveness 305 (2)
Two Example Systems 307 (2)
Controlling Temporal Detail 309 (6)
Frame-Only Manipulation 309 (1)
Latency-Only Manipulation 310 (2)
Frame-Latency Manipulation 312 (1)
Comparing and Using Manipulations 313 (2)
Temporal Detail and User Performance 315 (9)
Perceptual Limits 315 (1)
Open- and Closed-Loop Tasks 316 (1)
Closed-Loop Tasks as Dynamic Control 317 (2)
Systems
Designing for Successful Dynamic Control 319 (2)
Temporal Detail and Complex Tasks 321 (3)
Trading Off Temporal and Visual Detail 324 (2)
A Practical Summarization 326 (3)
Conclusions 329 (2)
Glossary of Terms 331 (18)
References 349 (22)
Index 371