Quantitative Seismology (2ND)

Quantitative Seismology (2ND)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 700 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780935702965
  • DDC分類 551.22

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition                      xiii
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Introduction 1 (10)
Suggestions for Further Reading 6 (5)
Basic Theorems in Dynamic Elasticity 11 (26)
Examples of representation theorems 12 (1)
Formulation 12 (8)
Notation 14 (5)
Euler or Lagrange? 19 (1)
Stress-Strain Relations and the 20 (4)
Strain-Energy Function
Theorems of Uniqueness and Reciprocity 24 (3)
Uniqueness theorem 24 (1)
Reciprocity theorems 24 (1)
Use of the term ``homogeneous'' as 25 (1)
applied to equations and boundary
conditions
Parallels 26 (1)
Introducing Green's Function for 27 (1)
Elastodynamics
Representation Theorems 28 (2)
Strain-Displacement Relations and 30 (7)
Displacement-Stress Relations in General
Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates
General properties of orthogonal 31 (3)
curvilinear coordinates
Suggestions for Further Reading 34 (1)
Problems 35 (2)
Representation of Seismic Sources 37 (26)
Representation Theorems for an Internal 38 (4)
Surface; Body-Force Equivalents for
Discontinuities in Traction and Displacement
Body-force equivalents 39 (2)
On the use of effective slip and 41 (1)
effective elastic moduli in the source
region
A Simple Example of Slip on a Buried Fault 42 (7)
General Analysis of Displacement 49 (4)
Discontinuities across an Internal Surface
Σ
On uses of the word ``moment'' in seismic 53 (1)
source theory
Volume Sources: Outline of the Theory and 53 (10)
Some Simple Examples
Body force eguivalents and the seismic 54 (1)
moment tensor
The strain energy released by earthquake 55 (3)
faulting
Suggestions for Further Reading 58 (1)
Problems 59 (4)
Elastic Waves From a Point Dislocation Source 63 (56)
Formulation: Introduction of Potentials 63 (5)
On the outgoing solution of g = 65 (2)
δ(x)δ(t) + c2 2g with Zero
initial conditions
Lame's theorem 67 (1)
Solution for the Elastodynamic Green 68 (8)
Function in a Homogeneous, Isotropic,
Unbounded Medium
On potentials 69 (2)
Evaluation of a surface integral 71 (2)
Properties of the far-field P-wave 73 (1)
Properties of the far-field S-wave 73 (1)
Properties of the near-field term 74 (2)
The Double-Couple Solution in an Infinite 76 (6)
Homogeneous Medium
Ray Theory for Far-Field P-waves and 82 (19)
S-waves from a Point Source
Properties of the travel-time function T 87 (3)
(x) associated with velocity field c(x)
Ray coordinates 90 (2)
The geometrical solution for P-waves in 92 (3)
spherically symmetric media
The geometrical solution for S-waves in 95 (1)
spherically symmetric media: Introduction
of the components
The geometrical ray solutions in general 96 (5)
inhomogeneous media
The Radiation Pattern of Body Waves in the 101 (18)
Far Field for a Point Shear Dislocation of
Arbitrary Orientation in a Spherically
Symmetric Medium
A method for obtaining the fault plane 102 (4)
orientation of an earthquake and the
direction of slip using teleseismic
body-wave observations
Arbitrary orientation of the double 106 (4)
couple in a homogeneous medium
Adapting the radiation pattern to the 110 (2)
case of a spherically symmetric medium
Cartesian components of the moment tensor 112 (1)
for a shear dislocation of arbitrary
orientation
Suggestions for Further Reading 113 (1)
Problems 114 (5)
Plane Waves in Homogeneous Media and Their 119 (70)
Reflection and Transmission at a Plane
Boundary
Basic Properties of Plane Waves in Elastic 120 (8)
Media
Notation 121 (2)
Potentials for plane waves 123 (1)
Separation of variables; steady-state 124 (1)
plane waves
The sign convention for Fourier 125 (3)
transforms used in solving
wave-propagation problems
Elementary Formulas for 128 (21)
Reflection/Conversion/Transmission
Coefficients
Boundary conditions 128 (1)
The distinction between kinematics and 129 (1)
dynamics
Reflection of plane P-waves and SV-waves 130 (2)
at a free surface
Impedance 132 (4)
Reflection and transmission of SH-waves 136 (3)
Reflection and transmission of P-SV 139 (6)
across a solid-solid interface
Energy flux 145 (2)
A useful approximation for 147 (2)
reflection/transmission coefficients
between two similar half spaces
Frequency independence of plane-wave 149 (1)
reflection/transmission coefficients
Inhomogeneous Waves, Phase Shifts, and 149 (8)
Interface Waves
Phase shifts: phase delay and phase 151 (1)
advance
The Hilbert transform and the 152 (5)
frequency-independent phase advance
A Matrix Method for Analyzing Plane Waves 157 (4)
in Homogeneous Media
Wave Propagation in an Attenuating Medium: 161 (16)
Basic Theory for Plane Waves
Different definitions of Q 162 (1)
The necessity for material dispersion in 163 (2)
an attenuating medium
Some suggested values for material 165 (2)
dispersion in an attenuating medium
Relations between the amplitude spectrum 167 (10)
and phase spectrum of a causal
propagating pulse shape
Wave Propagation in an Elastic Anisotropic 177 (12)
Medium: Basic Theory for Plane Waves
Shear-wave splitting due to anisotropy 181 (2)
Suggestions for Further Reading 183 (1)
Problems 183 (6)
Reflection and Refraction of Spherical Waves; 189 (60)
Lamb's Problem
Spherical Waves as a Superposition of Plane 190 (5)
Waves and Conical Waves
Fundamental significance of Weyl and 193 (2)
Sommerfeld integrals
Reflection of Spherical Waves at a Plane 195 (14)
Boundary: Acoustic Waves
Determining the branch cuts of 197 (3)
√α-2-p2=ξ in the complex
p-plane, so that Im ξ ≥ 0 for a
whole plane
The evaluation of I (x) = ∫C 200 (5)
F(ζ) exp[xf(ζ)] dζ by the
method of steepest descents
Outstanding features of head waves 205 (4)
Spherical Waves in an Elastic Half-Space: 209 (9)
The Rayleigh Pole
Independence of P-SV and SH motions for 210 (3)
piecewise homogeneous media in which the
material discontinuities are horizontal
On cylindrical coordinates 213 (4)
Outstanding features of Rayleigh waves, 217 (1)
from a buried point source
Cagniard-De Hoop Methods for Line Sources 218 (17)
An example of Jordan's Lemma 224 (5)
On writing down the multitransformed 229 (6)
solution, (64)
Cagniard-De Hoop Methods for Point Sources 235 (9)
transforms for functions symmetric about 240 (4)
a vertical axis
Summary of Main Results and Comparison 244 (5)
between Different Methods
Suggestions for Further Reading 245 (2)
Problems 247 (2)
Surface Waves in a Vertically Heterogeneous 249 (82)
Medium
Basic Properties of Surface Waves 249 (12)
Initial assumptions 250 (7)
Analysis of a simple surface-wave 257 (4)
seismogram
Eigenvalue Problem for the 261 (22)
Displacement-Stress Vector
Measurement of surface wave phase velocity 264 (3)
Numerical integration 267 (2)
Range-Kutta methods 269 (1)
Propagator matrix method 269 (6)
On avoiding potentials 275 (2)
Mixture of solid and liquid layers 277 (2)
Surface waves in the Gutenberg Earth model 279 (4)
Variational Principle for Love and Rayleigh 283 (10)
Waves
Love waves 283 (3)
Partial derivatives'' of phase velocity 286 (1)
Rayleigh waves 286 (2)
Rayleigh-Ritz method 288 (1)
Attenuation of surface waves 289 (3)
Some effects of anisotropy 292 (1)
Surface-Wave Terms of Green's Function for 293 (15)
a Vertically Heterogeneous Medium
Two-dimensional case 294 (4)
Sign convention on vertical motion 298 (1)
Three-dimensional case 298 (4)
On horizontal wave functions 302 (6)
Love and Rayleigh Waves from a Point Source 308 (4)
with Arbitrary Seismic Moment
Leaky Modes 312 (19)
Organ-pipe mode 321 (1)
Phase velocity and attenuation 322 (2)
Suggestions for Further Reading 324 (1)
Problems 325 (6)
Free Oscillations of the Earth 331 (54)
Free Oscillations of a Homogeneous Liquid 332 (10)
Sphere
Spherical surface harmonics 334 (8)
Excitation of Free Oscillations by a Point 342 (9)
Source
Identification of free-oscillation peaks 349 (2)
when the earthquake source mechanism is
known
Surface Waves on the Spherical Earth 351 (6)
An example of the Poisson sum formula 352 (2)
Different Legendre functions and their 354 (3)
asymptotic approximations
Free Oscillations of a Self-Gravitating 357 (9)
Earth
The Centroid Moment Tensor 366 (4)
Consideration of initial stress 367 (3)
Splitting of Normal Modes Due to the 370 (4)
Earth's Rotation
Spectral Splitting of Free Oscillations Due 374 (11)
to Lateral Inhomogeneity of the Earth's
Structure
Quasi-degeneracy 377 (4)
Suggestions for Further Reading 381 (1)
Problems 381 (4)
Body Waves in Media with Depth-Dependent 385 (106)
Properties
Cagniard's Method for a Medium with Many 388 (5)
Plane Layers: Analysis of a Generalized Ray
The Reflectivity Method for a Medium with 393 (14)
Many Plane Layers
Propagator matrices for SH and for P-SV 397 (6)
problems
Earth-flattening transformation and 403 (4)
approximations
Classical Ray Theory in Seismology 407 (6)
Inversion of Travel-Time Data to Infer 413 (16)
Earth Structure
The Herglotz-Wiechert formula 414 (3)
Abel's problem 417 (6)
Travel-time inversion for structures 423 (3)
including low-velocity layers
Measurement of r(p) 426 (3)
Wave Propagation in Media Having Smoothly 429 (18)
Varying Depth-Dependent Velocity Profiles
within Which Turning Points Are Present
Scalar potentials for P-, SV-, and 431 (3)
SH-waves in spherically symmetric media
WKBJ theory 434 (5)
A sample application of the Watson 439 (6)
transform
Useful transform pairs 445 (2)
Body-Wave Problems for Spherically 447 (34)
Symmetric Earth Models in Which
Discontinuities are Present between
Inhomogeneous Layers
Generalized scattering from a stack of 451 (8)
inhomogeneous layers; and the special
example of one spherical interface
between two radially inhomogeneous layers
A uniformly asymptotic approximation for 459 (8)
vertical wavefunctions
Poles of scattering coefficients 467 (4)
The moment tensor and generalized rays 471 (10)
Comparison between Different Methods 481 (10)
Suggestions for Further Reading 483 (1)
Problems 484 (7)
The Seismic Source: Kinematics 491 (46)
Kinematics of an Earthquake as Seen at Far 492 (24)
Field
Far-field displacement waveforms observed 492 (2)
in a homogeneous, isotropic, unbounded
medium
Far-field displacement waveforms for 494 (1)
inhomogeneous isotropic media, using the
geometrical-spreading approximation
General properties of displacement 495 (2)
waveforms in the tar field
Behavior of the seismic spectrum at low 497 (1)
frequencies
A fault model with unidirectional 498 (5)
propagation
Nucleation, spreading, and stopping of 503 (7)
rupture
On the concept of ``self similarity'' 510 (1)
Corner frequency and the high-frequency 511 (3)
asymptote
Allowance for finite faulting in 514 (2)
calculating far-field body waves within
depth-dependent structures
Kinematics of an Earthquake as Seen at Near 516 (21)
Field
Synthesis of near field seismograms for a 517 (4)
finite dislocation
High-frequency motions near a propagating 521 (1)
fault
Anti-plane problems 522 (4)
In-plane problems 526 (7)
Suggestions for Further Reading 533 (1)
Problems 534 (3)
The Seismic Source: Dynamics 537 (58)
Dynamics of a Crack Propagating with 539 (26)
Prescribed Velocity
Relations between stress and slip for a 539 (3)
propagating crack
Stress singularities for static, 542 (3)
in-plane, and anti-plane shear cracks of
finite width 2a
Energetics at the crack tip 545 (3)
Cohesive force 548 (1)
Fracture criteria 549 (3)
Near field of a growing elliptical crack 552 (8)
The far-field spectrum for a circular 560 (5)
crack that stops
Dynamics of Spontaneous Planar Rupture 565 (25)
Propagation
Spontaneous propagation of an anti-plane 566 (6)
crack: general theory
Examples of spontaneous anti-plane crack 572 (1)
propagation
The stress-intensity factor associated 573 (9)
with cohesive force alone
Spontaneous propagation of an in-plane 582 (8)
shear crack
Rupture Propagation Associated with Changes 590 (5)
in Normal Stress
Suggestions for Further Reading 592 (1)
Problems 593 (2)
Principles of Seismometry 595 (52)
Basic Instrumentation 598 (11)
Basic inertial seismometer 598 (4)
Stable long-period vertical suspension 602 (2)
Measurement of horizontal acceleration 604 (3)
Measurement of strain and rotation 607 (2)
Frequency and Dynamic Range of Seismic 609 (14)
Signals and Noise
Surface waves with periods around 20 611 (1)
seconds
Terminology associated with large ranges 612 (1)
in value
Recording media 613 (1)
P-waves for 5° > Δ > 614 (1)
110°
Range of amplitude spectral densities for 614 (1)
surface waves and P-waves
Microearthquake waves at short distance 615 (1)
Ambient seismic noise 616 (1)
Amplitude of free oscillations 617 (1)
Amplitudes of solid Earth tide, Chandler 618 (1)
wobble, plate motion, and moonquakes
Seismic motion in the epicentral area 618 (2)
Strain amplitudes of gravitational waves 620 (1)
Engineering response spectra 621 (2)
Detection of Signal 623 (24)
Brownian motion of a seismometer pendulum 623 (2)
Electromagnetic velocity sensor 625 (4)
The response characteristics of 629 (3)
traditional observatory seismographs
High sensitivity at long periods 632 (2)
General features of the response of a 634 (2)
traditional electromagnetic seismograph
The nonlinearity of the seismic sensor 636 (1)
Poles and zeros 637 (2)
Feedback seismometers 639 (3)
Suggestions for Further Reading 642 (1)
Problems 643 (4)
Appendix 1: Glossary of Waves 647 (8)
Appendix 2: Definition of Magnitudes 655 (2)
Bibliography 657 (30)
Index 687