Concrete Manual : A Manual for the Control of Concrete Construction

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Concrete Manual : A Manual for the Control of Concrete Construction

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780894990267
  • DDC分類 691

Table of Contents

Preface to Seventh Edition                         v
A Pertinent Quotation vii
Concrete and Concrete Materials
Introduction
Concrete defined 1 (1)
Progress in concrete 1 (1)
Making good concrete 2 (1)
Important Properties of Concrete
General comments 3 (2)
Workability 5 (2)
Durability 7 (1)
Weathering resistance 7 (1)
Resistance to chemical deterioration 8 (5)
Resistance to erosion 13 (2)
Watertightness 15 (1)
Volume change 16 (4)
Strength 20 (7)
Elasticity 27 (1)
Creep and extensibility 28 (1)
Creep 29 (3)
Extensibility 32 (1)
Thermal properties 33 (1)
Weight 34 (1)
Effects of Various Factors on the
Properties of Concrete
Entrained air content, cement content, 35 (1)
and water content
Effects on workability 35 (1)
Effects on durability 36 (4)
Effects on permeability 40 (1)
Effects on volume change 40 (1)
Effects on strength 41 (2)
Effects on elasticity 43 (1)
Effects on creep and extensibility 43 (1)
Effects on thermal properties 43 (1)
Effects on unit weight 43 (1)
Composition and fineness of portland 43 (1)
cement
Compound composition of cement 44 (3)
Types of cement 47 (6)
Fineness of cement 53 (1)
False set in cement 54 (1)
Use of pozzolans 55 (1)
Quality and gradation of aggregates 56 (1)
Contaminating substances 57 (1)
Soundness 58 (1)
Strength and resistance to abrasion 59 (1)
Volume change 60 (1)
Particle shape 61 (1)
Specific gravity 61 (1)
Gradation 61 (13)
Quality of mixing and curing water 74 (1)
Use of admixtures 74 (1)
Accelerators 74 (3)
Air-entraining agents 77 (1)
Water-reducing and set-controlling 78 (4)
admixtures
Field control 82 (3)
Control of heat generation and cracking 85 (6)
in concrete
Investigation and Selection of Concrete
Materials
Prospecting for Aggregate Materials
General comments 91 (1)
Maps and materials information 91 (2)
Geological and related characteristics of 93 (1)
aggregates and aggregate deposits
Types of deposits 93 (2)
Classification and characteristics of 95 (6)
rocks
Chemical suitability of aggregates 101(2)
Prospecting 103(2)
Preliminary sampling of prospective 105(1)
aggregate sources and reporting of
related information
Sand and gravel deposits 105(1)
Prospective rock quarries 106(1)
Exploration of Natural Aggregate Deposits
General procedure 107(1)
Exploratory excavations 108(1)
Steel-cased test holes 108(2)
Uncased test holes 110(3)
Test pits 113(8)
Trenches 121(3)
Designation of deposits and of test holes 124(1)
and test pits
Reports and samples required 124(5)
Facilities for Materials Testing at Denver
Laboratory facilities 129(1)
Denver Tests and Selection of Aggregates
Tests of aggregates 129(5)
Analysis of field and laboratory data 134(1)
Quantity of aggregate 134(2)
The selected aggregate 136(1)
Prospecting for Pozzolanic Materials
Classification of pozzolans 137(1)
Geologic occurrences of pozzolan 138(1)
Samples and information required 138(1)
Denver Tests and Investigation of
Pozzolanic Materials
Tests and analyses of pozzolanic materials 138(1)
Denver Investigations of Other Materials
Cement investigations 139(1)
Investigations of admixtures and sealing 140(1)
compounds
Sampling and analysis of water and soil 140(3)
Concrete Mixes
General comments 143(1)
Selection of proportions 144(1)
Estimate of water requirements 144(2)
Estimate of cement requirements 146(3)
Estimate of aggregate requirements 149(2)
Computations of proportions 151(1)
Example 1 151(1)
Example 2 152(1)
Batch weights for field use 153(1)
Adjustment of trial mix 154(3)
Concrete mix tests 157(1)
Mixes for small jobs 158(3)
Inspection, Field Laboratory Facilities, and
Reports
Inspection
Concrete control 161(1)
Administrative instructions 161(1)
The inspector 161(2)
Daily inspection reports 163(4)
The inspection supervisor 167(1)
Field Laboratory Facilities
The field laboratory 167(6)
Lists of laboratory equipment 173(1)
Facilities for curing concrete test 174(1)
specimens
Water tanks 174(1)
Storage in moist sand 174(1)
Fogrooms 174(4)
Reports and Evaluation of Test Data
Reports 178(1)
Narrative portion 178(2)
Summarized tabulations 180(4)
Evaluation of test data 184(9)
Concrete Manufacturing
Materials
Aggregate production and control 193(1)
Sand production 193(3)
Wet processing of sand 196(1)
Spiral classifiers 197(2)
Reciprocating rake classifiers 199(1)
Hydraulic classifiers 200(1)
Hydraulic sizers 200(2)
Wet process screens 202(1)
Dry processing of sand 203(1)
Production and handling of coarse 204(11)
aggregate
Screen analyses 215(1)
Deleterious substances in aggregate 215(2)
Beneficiation of aggregates 217(1)
Heavy media separation 217(3)
Hydraulic jigging 220(1)
Elastic fractionation 220(1)
Control of surface moisture in aggregate 221(1)
Specific gravity 221(1)
Miscellaneous tests of aggregate 222(1)
Aggregate purchased 222(1)
Cement 222(3)
Water 225(1)
Admixtures 226(1)
Batching and Control Facilities for Large
Concrete Jobs
Weight vs. volume batching 226(1)
Batching equipment 227(5)
Checking scales 232(8)
Graphic recorders 240(4)
Batching Methods and Facilities for the
Average Job
Central batching by weight 244(4)
Weighing equipment 248(4)
Batching of liquids 252(6)
Mixing
General 258(3)
Truck mixers and agitators 261(6)
Quality Control of Concrete
General 267(3)
Consistency 270(2)
Slump 272(3)
Compressive strength 275(3)
Air content and unit weight 278(1)
Hot and Cold Weather Precautions in
Concrete Production
Hot weather precautions 279(1)
Cold weather precautions 280(5)
Handling, Placing, Finishing, and Curing
Preparations for Placing
Foundations 285(1)
Rock 285(1)
Earth 285(1)
Porous underdrains 286(1)
Construction joints 286(9)
Forms 295(6)
Marking dates on concrete work 301(2)
Reinforcement steel and embedded parts 303(3)
Final inspection 306(1)
Contractor's preparations 306(1)
Transporting
Plant layout and methods 307(1)
Transporting 308(1)
Buckets 308(4)
Cars and trucks 312(1)
Chutes 312(1)
Belt conveyors 313(1)
Pneumatic methods 313(1)
Pumping 314(5)
Placing
The mortar layer 319(1)
General discussion of concrete placement 320(9)
Mass concrete 329(5)
Tunnel lining 334(1)
Preparation for lining 334(1)
Control of seeping or dripping water 335(1)
Concrete for tunnel lining 336(1)
Placing concrete in tunnel lining 337(4)
Monolithic siphons 341(3)
Canal lining 344(1)
The concrete mix 344(1)
Reinforcement 345(1)
Placing the lining 346(12)
Contraction joints 358(3)
Precast concrete pipe 361(1)
General 361(1)
Cast pipe 362(4)
Centrifugally spun pipe 366(1)
Tamped and packerhead pipe 367(6)
Prestressed pipe 373(1)
Roller-compacted asbestos-cement pipe 374(1)
Cast-in-place concrete pipe 374(1)
General 374(2)
Concrete 376(1)
Vibrators 376(5)
Surface imperfections 381(1)
Bond with reinforcement and embedded parts 382(1)
Waste concrete 383(1)
Shutting down concreting operations 384(1)
Placing concrete in water 384(1)
Removal of Forms, and Finishing
Removal of forms 385(1)
Repair of concrete 386(1)
Types and treatments of formed surfaces 387(1)
Finish F1 388(1)
Finish F2 388(1)
Finish F3 388(1)
Finish F4 389(1)
Finish F5 389(1)
Special stoned finishes 389(2)
Sack-rubbed finish 391(1)
Sandblast finish 392(1)
Vacuum-processed finish 392(1)
Removing stains from formed surfaces 392(1)
Finishing unformed surfaces 393(1)
Finish U1 393(1)
Finish U2 394(1)
Finish U3 394(1)
Finish U4 395(1)
Preventing hair cracks 395(1)
Special requirements for concrete 395(1)
surfaces subject to high-velocity flow
Surfaces of outlet works conduits and 396(1)
tunnels
Surfaces of tunnel spillways 397(1)
Surfaces of open-flow spillways 397(1)
Painting and dampproofing of concrete 398(1)
Painting 398(1)
Dampproofing 398(1)
Curing
Moist curing 399(1)
Curing with sealing membranes 400(4)
Steam curing 404(2)
Concreting Under Severe Weather Conditions
Precautions to be observed during hot 406(1)
weather
Precautions to be observed during cold 407(10)
weather
Repair and Maintenance of Concrete
General requirements for workmanship 417(1)
Methods of repair 418(1)
Repair of new work 418(1)
Repair of old work 418(1)
Epoxy-bonded repairs 419(1)
Preparation of concrete for repair 420(5)
Dry pack 425(1)
Concrete replacement 425(1)
Mortar replacement 426(1)
Use of dry-pack mortar 427(1)
Procedure for replacement of formed 428(5)
concrete
Procedure for replacement of unformed 433(1)
concrete
Procedure for mortar replacement 433(3)
Procedures for uses of epoxies 436(1)
Repairs under seepage conditions 437(1)
Curing of repairs 437(1)
Treatment for protection of concrete 438(1)
against weathering
General discussion 438(1)
Preparation of surfaces 439(1)
Treatment of surfaces 440(1)
Procedure for repair of transverse cracks 441(2)
in concrete siphons
Procedure for repair of precast concrete 443(1)
pipe
General 443(1)
Methods of repair 444(1)
Preparation of imperfections for repair 445(1)
Hand-placed mortar replacement 446(1)
Pneumatically applied mortar replacement 447(1)
Concrete replacement 447(1)
Curing of repairs 448(1)
Testing repaired pipe 449(2)
Special Types of Concrete and Mortar
Lightweight Concrete
Definition and uses 451(1)
Types of lightweight aggregate 451(1)
Cinders 452(1)
Expanded slag 452(1)
Expanded shale and clay 452(1)
Natural aggregate 452(2)
Properties of lightweight aggregates 454(1)
Construction control of lightweight 454(1)
concrete
Heavyweight Concrete
Definition and uses 455(1)
Types of heavy aggregate 456(1)
Barite 456(1)
Mineral ores (limonite, magnetite) 456(1)
Iron products 456(1)
Nailing Concrete
Definition, use, and types 457(1)
Sawdust concrete 457(1)
Types and grading of sawdust 458(1)
Porous Concrete
Definition and use 458(1)
Prepacked Concrete
Definition and use 459(1)
Properties of prepacked concrete 459(1)
Mortar materials and consistency 460(1)
Coarse aggregate 461(1)
Construction procedures 461(1)
Prestressed Concrete
Definition and use 461(3)
Vacuum-Processed Concrete
Definition, characteristics, and uses 464(2)
Vacuum forms and panels 466(1)
Processing procedure 467(2)
Concrete Floor Finish
Requirements for a satisfactory finish 469(1)
Concrete floors placed as a monolith 469(1)
Bonded concrete and mortar floors 470(1)
Aggregate 470(1)
Proportioning and mixing 470(2)
Preparation of the base 472(2)
Screeds 474(1)
Depositing, compacting, and screeding 474(1)
Finishing 475(1)
Floating 475(1)
Troweling 476(1)
Grinding 476(1)
Protection and curing 477(1)
Liquid hardener treatments 477(1)
Nonslip finish 478(1)
Colored finish 478(1)
Terrazzo finish 479(1)
Pneumatically Applied Mortar
Definition and use 480(1)
Preparation of surfaces to be treated 480(1)
Sand 480(1)
Rebound 481(1)
The optimum mix 481(1)
Mixing 482(1)
Equipment 482(1)
Placing and curing 483(3)
Uses and essential properties 486(1)
Types of nonsettling mortars 487(1)
Prolonged or delayed mixing 487(1)
Addition of aluminum powder 488(1)
Use of special cement 489(1)
Machine base grouting procedure 490(1)
Mortar Lining and Coating of Steel Pipe
Definition and uses 491(1)
Inplace mortar linings 492(3)
Shop-applied mortar linings and coatings 495(1)
Surface preparation 495(1)
Materials 495(1)
Exterior coatings 496(2)
Interior linings 498(2)
Specials 500(1)
Field coating of joints 500(3)
APPENDIX
1 Sampling aggregate and preparing 503(2)
aggregate samples for test
2 Sampling concrete 505(10)
3 Sampling soil and water for chemical 515(2)
analyses
4 Screen analysis of sand 517(2)
5 Screen analysis of coarse aggregate 519(1)
6 Screen analysis of combined sand and 519(1)
coarse aggregate (computed)
7 Petrographic examination of aggregates 520(2)
8 False set in cement 522(4)
9 Specific gravity and absorption of sand 526(2)
10 Specific gravity and absorption of 528(2)
coarse aggregate
11 Surface moisture of aggregate (also 530(3)
specific gravity and absorption)
12 Unit weight of aggregate for concrete 533(3)
13 Clay lumps in aggregate 536(2)
14 Organic impurities in sand 538(1)
15 Sedimentation test for approximate 539(1)
quantity of clay and silt in sand
16 Percentage of aggregate passing No. 200 539(2)
screen
17 Percentage of particles less than 1.95 541(2)
specific gravity in sand
18 Percentage of particles less than 1.95 543(1)
specific gravity in coarse aggregate
19 Soundness of aggregate (sodium sulfate 544(3)
method)
20 Mortar-making properties of fine 547(4)
aggregate
21 Abrasion of coarse aggregate by use of 551(2)
the Los Angeles machine
22 Slump 553(2)
23 Unit weight and volume of fresh 555(5)
concrete; and cement, water, air, and
aggregate contents of fresh concrete
24 Air content of fresh concrete by 560(3)
pressure methods
25 Method of test for bleeding of concrete 563(2)
26 Variability of constituents in concrete 565(3)
(a test of mixer performance)
27 Batching for machine-mixed laboratory 568(2)
concrete
28 Laboratory concrete mixing 570(1)
29 Casting cylinders in cast-iron molds 571(3)
30 Casting cylinders in cans 574(2)
31 Field-laboratory curing, packing, and 576(1)
shipping of test cylinders
32 Capping concrete cylinders 577(3)
33 Compressive strength 580(3)
34 Turbidity with Jackson turbidimeter 583(1)
35 Temperature of concrete 584(1)
36 Sampling air-entraining agents 585(1)
37 Testing-machine maintenance 585(6)
38 Sampling sealing compounds for curing 591(2)
concrete
39 Sampling mastic joint sealer 593(1)
40 Method of test for pozzolan 594(5)
41 Method of test and acceptance for 599(5)
water-reducing set-retarding agents for
structural and mass concrete
42 Test for lightweight particles in 604(4)
aggregate
43 Relative humidity tests for masonry units 608