ショウジョウバエ:実験ハンドブック(第2版)<br>Drosophilia : A Laboratory Handbook (2ND)

ショウジョウバエ:実験ハンドブック(第2版)
Drosophilia : A Laboratory Handbook (2ND)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 1409 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780879697068
  • DDC分類 595.774

基本説明

初版刊行1989年。
The second edition of the highly successful "grey book". Chapters: Databases and Literature; Nomenclateur; Stocks; Chromosomes; The Genome; Laboratory Biology; Mutation and Mutagenesis; Inversions; DNA Repair; Sex Determination and Dosage Compensation; and more.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition                       xix
Preface to the Second Edition xxi
Acknowledgments to the First Edition xxiii
Acknowledgments to the Second Edition xxv
Abbreviations and Conventions xxvii
Introduction 1 (2)
References 2 (1)
Databases and the Literature 3 (12)
Databases 3 (2)
FlyBase 4 (1)
Literature 5 (3)
Historical and Biographical Accounts 6 (1)
Bibliographies 7 (1)
Drosophila Information Service 8 (1)
Drosophila Bulletin Board 8 (1)
Drosophila Researchers 8 (1)
Introductions to Drosophila 8 (1)
General Monographs 9 (1)
Methods Books 9 (1)
Monographs 10 (2)
General 10 (1)
Developmental and Cell Biology 10 (1)
Neurobiology 11 (1)
Tissue Culture 11 (1)
Aging 11 (1)
Genomics 11 (1)
Chromosomes 11 (1)
Taxonomy, Evolution, Population 12 (1)
Genetics, and Ecology
Published Catalogs of Mutations 12 (1)
Drosophila Research Conferences 13 (2)
Stocks 15 (6)
Introduction 15 (1)
Favorite Wild Types 15 (1)
Inbred Lines 16 (1)
Stock Lists and Stock Centers 16 (1)
Stock Keeping 17 (1)
Exchanging Stocks 18 (1)
A Warning 18 (1)
Health Hazards of Drosophila 18 (3)
References 19 (2)
Chromosomes 21 (38)
The Diploid Chromosome Number 21 (1)
B Chromosomes 22 (1)
Chromosome Evolution 22 (1)
Methods 23 (1)
The Mitotic Chromosomes of D. Melanogaster 23 (5)
The Chromosomes 23 (3)
Heterochromatin 26 (1)
Sister-chromatid Exchange 27 (1)
Meiotic Chromosomes of D. Melanogaster 28 (1)
Females 28 (1)
Somatic Chromosome Synapsis 29 (1)
Polytene Chromosomes 30 (14)
Polytene Chromosome Structure 30 (1)
Special Features 30 (3)
Maps 33 (7)
Polytene Chromosomes in Other Tissues 40 (1)
The Bands 41 (1)
Puffs 41 (3)
Lampbrush Y Chromosomes 44 (15)
References 45 (14)
The Genome 59 (63)
Genome Sequences 60 (1)
Sequence Resources 61 (1)
Genome Size and Composition 61 (5)
Genome Base Composition 64 (2)
Satellite DNA 66 (2)
Satellite DNAs of D. melanogaster 66 (2)
Satellite DNAs of Other Species 68 (1)
Heterochromatic Sequences 68 (2)
Heterochromatic Genes 69 (1)
Telomere Sequences 70 (1)
Centromere Sequences 71 (1)
Transposable Elements 72 (7)
Retrovirus-like Elements 76 (1)
Retroviruses 76 (1)
Non-LTR Retrotransposons 77 (1)
SINEs 77 (1)
Intron-containing Retroelements 77 (1)
TIR Elements 78 (1)
MITEs 78 (1)
Helitrons 79 (1)
Foldback Elements 79 (1)
Ribosomal RNA Gene Organization 79 (5)
The 18S and 28S Genes 79 (1)
Ribosomal RNA Maturation 80 (1)
bobbed Mutations 81 (1)
Magnification of rRNA Genes 81 (2)
Major rRNA Genes in Other Species 83 (1)
The 5S rRNA Genes 83 (1)
Transfer RNAs 84 (1)
Other Nontranslated RNAs 84 (4)
snRNAs and snoRNAs 84 (2)
microRNAs 86 (1)
Other Untranslated RNAs 87 (1)
Protein-Coding Genes 88 (9)
Gene Number 88 (1)
Codon Usage and the Sequence Context of 88 (1)
the Initiating Codon
Gene Families 89 (1)
Introns and Variable Splicing 90 (1)
cis-Acting Regions 91 (1)
Varieties of Gene Organizations 92 (4)
Pseudogenes 96 (1)
Circular DNA Species 97 (1)
The Mitochondrial Genome 98 (1)
Viral Genomes and Their Products 99 (1)
Genomic Resources 100 (22)
References 100 (22)
Life Cycle 122 (85)
Normal Development 121 (13)
Resume of the Life Cycle 122 (1)
Reproductive Biology 122 (12)
Virgin Collection 134 (2)
Desperming by Cold Treatment 135 (1)
Other Species of Drosophila 135 (1)
Genetic Schemes 135 (1)
Collecting Flies of Only One Sex 136 (2)
Embryos 136 (1)
Postembryonic Stages 137 (1)
Embryonic Development 138 (12)
Parthenogenesis 140 (10)
Coordinates of the Embryo 150 (1)
Larval Development 150 (4)
Distinguishing the Instars 150 (1)
Growth 151 (1)
Synchronization of Larval Development 151 (3)
The Critical Stage in Larval Development 154 (1)
Pupariation and Pupation 154 (2)
Pupariation Sites 154 (1)
Pupariation and Pupation 155 (1)
Pupal and Pharate Adult Development 156 (2)
Diapause 158 (2)
Larval Diapause 159 (1)
Adult Diapause 159 (1)
Aging 160 (1)
Temperature and Development 161 (2)
Temperature and Embryonic Development 161 (1)
Temperature and Larval Development 161 (1)
Temperature and Pupal Development 162 (1)
Temperature and Total Development 162 (1)
Developmental Period in Other Species 163 (1)
Crowding and Development 163 (3)
Tolerance to Environmental Variables 166 (8)
Temperature 166 (6)
Humidity 172 (1)
Light 173 (1)
Anoxia and Hypoxia 173 (1)
Hormones 174 (8)
Ecdysteroid Hormones 174 (3)
Juvenile Hormones 177 (2)
Manipulating Hormone Titers 179 (2)
Peptide Hormones 181 (1)
Pheromones 182 (25)
Sex Pheromones 182 (2)
Aggregation Pheromones 184 (1)
References 184 (23)
Mutations and Mutagenesis 207 (104)
Spontaneous Mutation 208 (3)
Introduction 208 (1)
Temperature and Spontaneous Mutation 208 (1)
Frequency
Parental Age and Spontaneous Mutation 208 (1)
Frequency
Spontaneous Sex-linked Lethals 209 (1)
Spontaneous Autosomal Lethals 210 (1)
Spontaneous Mutation at Specific Loci 210 (1)
The Nature of Spontaneous Mutations 210 (1)
Spontaneous Frequency of Chromosome 211 (1)
Aberrations
Chromosome Loss 211 (1)
Frequency of Reversions 211 (1)
Ionizing and Ultraviolet Radiations 211 (34)
Introduction 211 (1)
Dosimetry 212 (1)
The Radiation Spectrum 212 (3)
Differential Sensitivity of Germ Cell 215 (5)
Stages
The Dose Response 220 (14)
Miscellaneous 234 (7)
Somatic Effects of Radiation 241 (4)
Chemical Mutagens 245 (18)
Introduction 245 (1)
Particular Chemical Mutagens 245 (12)
Mosaicism after Chemical Mutagenesis 257 (2)
Storage Effects 259 (2)
Dominant Lethality after Chemical 261 (1)
Mutagenesis
Chemical Mutagenesis of Females 261 (1)
Systemic Effects of Chemical Mutagens 261 (2)
Viruses and DNA as Mutagens 263 (1)
Germinal Selection 263 (1)
Metabolism of Mutagens and Potential 263 (1)
Mutagens
Somatic Mutation 264 (2)
Mutator Genes 266 (1)
Unstable and Mutable Mutations 267 (5)
Unstable Mutations Due to FB Elements 267 (1)
Unstable Mutations Due to gypsy Elements 268 (1)
Unstable Mutations Due to P-elements 269 (1)
Unstable Mutations Due to hobo Elements 270 (2)
Unstable Mutations Due to mariner 272 (1)
Elements
Maternally Inherited Chromosome 272 (1)
Breakage in D. robusta
Methods 272 (39)
Introduction 272 (1)
Methods of Mutagenesis 273 (4)
Breeding Programs 277 (12)
Dominant Lethals 289 (1)
Somatic Mutations 290 (1)
Standard Test Protocols 290 (1)
Statistical Considerations 290 (2)
References 292 (19)
Transgenesis and the Manipulation of Genes 311 (90)
and Gene Expression
Transformation 312 (8)
Theoretical Background 312 (2)
Design of Transformation 314 (1)
Essential Features of P-element Vectors 315 (1)
P-element Transformation 315 (2)
Other Transposons 317 (3)
Integrase 320 (1)
Markers and Vectors 320 (6)
Vectors Lacking Markers 321 (1)
Nonautonomous Marker Genes 322 (1)
Autonomous Marker Genes 323 (3)
Practical Aspects of Transformation 326 (5)
Preparation of DNA 327 (1)
Injection 327 (2)
The Frequency of Transformation 329 (1)
Effects on Transgene Expression 330 (1)
Transposon Mutagenesis 331 (17)
General Schemes 331 (1)
Existing Collections 331 (2)
Insertion Site Preference 333 (2)
P-element Homing 335 (1)
Insertions into Heterochromatin 336 (1)
Target-selected Insertion 337 (1)
Mutations Resulting from Transposon 337 (2)
Mobilization
Secondary Methods 339 (7)
Gene Conversion 346 (2)
Targeted Transposition 348 (1)
Manipulation and Examination of Gene 348 (11)
Expression
Promoter Reporters 348 (1)
Expression Vectors 349 (1)
Enhancer Traps 350 (1)
Gene and Protein Fusion Elements 351 (2)
Transgenic Regulatory Systems 353 (6)
Site-Specific Recombination 359 (8)
Recombinases 360 (1)
Target Sites 360 (1)
Expression of Recombinases 361 (1)
FLP 361 (2)
Cre 363 (1)
Excision 363 (2)
Inversion 365 (1)
Controlling Transgene Placement 365 (2)
Generating a Dosage Series 367 (1)
Homing Endonucleases 367 (1)
I-SceI 367 (1)
I-CreI 368 (1)
Gene Targeting 368 (33)
Homologous Recombination 368 (15)
RNA Interference 383 (4)
References 387 (14)
Classes of Mutations and Mutant Alleles 401 (36)
A Classification of Mutant Alleles 401 (2)
Lethal Mutations 403 (13)
Introduction 403 (1)
The Effective Lethal Phase 404 (1)
Types of Lethal Mutations 405 (11)
Sterile Mutations 416 (6)
Recessive Female-sterile Mutations 417 (1)
Dominant Female-sterile Mutations 418 (1)
Grandchildless Mutations 419 (1)
Recessive Male-sterile Mutations 420 (1)
Dominant Male-sterile Mutations 420 (1)
Paternal Effect Mutations 421 (1)
Male Sterility Due to Chromosome 421 (1)
Aberrations
Suppressor and Enhancer Mutations 422 (15)
Suppressor Mutations 423 (2)
Enhancer Mutations 425 (2)
References 427 (10)
Mapping and Exchange 437 (44)
The Determination of Linkage Groups 438 (1)
Standard Conditions for Mapping 438 (1)
Reference Loci 438 (6)
Mapping by SNPs in Drosophila 439 (5)
Map Distance and Recombination Frequency 444 (2)
Complete Linkage 446 (1)
Variation in Recombination 447 (2)
Maternal Age 447 (1)
Effects of Temperature 448 (1)
Other Environmental Variables 449 (1)
Genetic Variation 449 (1)
The Effects of the Y Chromosome 449 (1)
Recombination of Chromosome 4 449 (1)
Interchromosomal Effects on Exchange 450 (2)
Interchromosomal Effects on Gene 452 (1)
Conversion
Exchange in Triploid Females 452 (1)
Tetrad Analysis 453 (2)
The Method of Zwick and Langley 454 (1)
Interference 455 (1)
Interference and the Centromere 455 (1)
Interference and Gene Conversion 456 (1)
Chromatid Interference 456 (2)
The Distribution of Exchanges 458 (1)
Exchange and Spontaneous Nondisjunction 458 (4)
Tetrad Analysis of Spontaneous Diplo-X 458 (3)
Exceptional Progeny
Tetrad Analysis of Spontaneous Diplo-2 461 (1)
Exceptional Progeny
The Etiology of Spontaneous 461 (1)
Nondisjunction
The Centromere Effect on Exchange 462 (1)
Exchange in Heterochromatin 462 (1)
Male Recombination 463 (4)
In D. melanogaster 463 (2)
Mapping by P-element-induced 465 (1)
Recombination in Males
Male Recombination in Other Species of 466 (1)
Drosophila
Induced Recombination in D. Melanogaster 467 (1)
Females
Fine Structure Mapping 468 (4)
Genetic Selective Methods 468 (3)
Chemical Selective Methods 471 (1)
Mapping Lethal Mutations 472 (1)
Gene Conversion 472 (2)
Interchromosomal Gene Conversion 474 (1)
Postmeiotic Segregation 474 (1)
Unequal Meiotic Exchange 474 (7)
References 475 (6)
Deletions 481 (26)
Introduction 481 (1)
Deletion Kits 482 (1)
Viability of Deletions 482 (2)
Viability of Heterozygous Deletions 482 (1)
Viability of Homozygous Deletions 482 (1)
Viability of Homozygous Deletions in 483 (1)
Cells
Proximal X Chromosome Deletions 483 (1)
The Triplo-lethal Region 484 (1)
Haplo-Insufficient Loci 484 (3)
The Distribution of Deletion Endpoints 487 (1)
The Recovery of Deletions 488 (4)
Introduction 488 (1)
The Effects of Position on the 488 (1)
Frequency of Deletions
Screens for Deletions 489 (3)
The Synthesis of Deletions 492 (6)
From Interchromosomal Transpositions by 492 (1)
Segregation
From Intrachromosomal Transpositions by 492 (1)
Exchange
From Inversions by Exchange 492 (2)
From Translocations by Segregation 494 (1)
Designer Deletions 494 (4)
Terminal Deletions 498 (2)
The Effects of Deletions on Exchange 500 (7)
References 501 (6)
Inversions 507 (20)
Introduction 507 (1)
Paracentric Inversions 507 (4)
Centromere Strength and Anaphase Bridges 510 (1)
Pericentric Inversions 511 (3)
Chromosomes with Dramatically Altered 511 (3)
Centromere Positions
Exchange in Inversion Homozygotes 514 (1)
Exchanges Between Inverted and Standard 514 (2)
Homologs
By Reciprocal Exchange 514 (2)
By Gene Conversion 516 (1)
Effects of Inversions on Exchange and 516 (1)
Disjunction
The Reinversion of Inversions 517 (1)
The Nature of Induced Inversion 518 (1)
Breakpoints
The Detection and Recovery of Inversions 518 (3)
By Cytological Screening 518 (1)
As Crossover Suppressors 518 (1)
By the Specific Effects of Their 518 (1)
Breakpoints
By Translocation between Free Arms 519 (1)
Designer Synthesis 520 (1)
Spontaneous Inversions 521 (2)
Occurrence 521 (1)
Origin 522 (1)
Frequency 523 (1)
The Effects of Inversions on Mitotic 523 (4)
Exchange
References 524 (3)
Balancer Chromosomes 527 (18)
Introduction 527 (1)
X Chromosome Balancers 528 (3)
CIB 528 (1)
The First Multiple Series 528 (2)
Other Derivatives of In(1)sc Inversions 530 (1)
Other Special X Chromosomes that 530 (1)
Suppress Exchange
Second-Chromosome Balancers 531 (4)
Balancers Based on Cy 531 (2)
The Second Multiple Series 533 (1)
Other Second-chromosome Balancers 533 (2)
Third-Chromosome Balancers 535 (5)
Balancers Based on Natural Inversions 535 (1)
The Third Multiple Series 536 (2)
Other Third-chromosome Balancers 538 (1)
Balancers for Special Purposes 539 (1)
Balancing Chromosomes 2 and 3 with One 540 (1)
Balancer
Balancers for Other Species 540 (1)
Chromosome Substitution with Balancer 540 (2)
Chromosomes
Balancing Homozygous Viable Chromosomes 542 (3)
References 542 (3)
Translocations 545 (26)
Introduction 545 (1)
Recovery of Translocations 546 (4)
Practical Aspects of Translocation 548 (2)
Recovery and Maintenance
Whole-Arm Translocations 550 (1)
Disjunction in Translocation Heterozygotes 550 (8)
Theoretical Considerations 550 (3)
The Segregation of Reciprocal Autosomal 553 (4)
Translocations
The Segregation of Translocations with 557 (1)
Heterochromatic Breakpoints
Effects of Inversions on Translocation 558 (1)
Segregation
Translocations and Exchange 558 (2)
Interchromosomal Effects of 560 (1)
Translocations on Exchange
Exchange in Females Heterozygous for Two 560 (1)
Translocations
X-Autosome Translocations 561 (1)
X-Y Translocations 561 (1)
Y-Autosome Translocations 562 (2)
In D. melanogaster 562 (1)
In Other Species 563 (1)
Translocations to Chromosome 4: The ci 564 (1)
Effect
The Recovery of Translocations From 564 (7)
Females
References 567 (4)
Duplications 571 (36)
Introduction 572 (1)
Tolerance to Hyperploidy 572 (3)
The Triplo-lethal Region 574 (1)
Homozygous Duplications 575 (1)
Tandem Duplications 575 (7)
Unequal Exchange between Tandem 576 (3)
Duplications
Exchange within Tandem Duplications 579 (2)
Effects of Tandem Duplications on 581 (1)
Exchange
Interchromosomal Effects of Tandem 581 (1)
Duplications
Reverse Tandem Duplications 582 (1)
Insertional Duplications 582 (1)
Origin 582 (1)
Effects on Exchange 583 (1)
Free Duplications 583 (8)
Recovery of Free Duplications 583 (3)
Effects of Free Duplications on Exchange 586 (1)
Effects of Free Duplications on 586 (2)
Disjunction
Molecular Characterization of 588 (1)
Dp(1:f)1187
Other Properties of Free Duplications 589 (2)
The Recovery of Duplications 591 (11)
By Their Phenotype 591 (1)
By the Suppression of 592 (1)
Haplo-insufficient Phenotypes
By Exchange between Similar Inversions 592 (1)
By the Segregation of Different 592 (3)
Translocations
By Exchange between Two Reciprocal 595 (2)
Translocations
By the Detachment of Compound-X 597 (1)
Chromosomes by T(Y;A)s
Free Duplications by Exchange within 598 (1)
Interstitial Duplications
By Exchange with Intrachromosomal 599 (1)
Transpositions
Centric Duplications 599 (1)
By Unequal Exchange 599 (2)
Exchange between Transposable Elements 601 (1)
Flanking Duplications Associated with 601 (1)
P-element-induced Male Recombination
By Site-directed Recombination 601 (1)
Duplications From Sperm 602 (5)
References 603 (4)
The Y Chromosome 607 (34)
Introduction and General Features 607 (2)
Assays for Y Chromosomes 609 (1)
Maps and Functions of the Y Chromosome 609 (7)
Cytological Maps 609 (1)
Genes of the Y Chromosome 610 (5)
P-element Insertions on the Y 615 (1)
Y Chromosome Imprinting 615 (1)
The Effects of the Y Chromosome on 616 (1)
Exchange in Females
Marked-Y Chromosomes 616 (5)
Introduction 616 (2)
The Cytology of Marked-Y Chromosomes 618 (1)
Synthesis of Marked-Y Chromosomes 618 (3)
Use of I-Crel or Rex 621 (1)
Y Chromosome Aberrations 621 (3)
Y-arm Deletions 622 (1)
Compound-Y Arms 622 (1)
Ring-Y Chromosomes 622 (2)
Y Chromosome Aneuploidy 624 (4)
Phenotypes of Aneuploids 624 (1)
Interstitial Y Chromosome Aneuploids 624 (2)
Synthesis of Y Chromosome Aneuploids 626 (2)
Y Chromosome Segregation in Y Aneuploids 628 (1)
Nonhomologous Exchange with the Y 628 (1)
Chromosome
The Y Chromosomes of Other Species of 628 (13)
Drosophila
Introduction 628 (1)
D. hydei 629 (1)
X0 Male Species 629 (1)
Modified Sex Chromosomes 630 (2)
Y Chromosome Hyperploidy in Other 632 (1)
Species
References 632 (9)
The Fourth Chromosome 641 (10)
Introduction 641 (1)
Mapping on Chromosome 4 642 (1)
Aneuploidy for Chromosome 4 642 (1)
Nullo-4 642 (1)
Haplo-4 642 (1)
Triplo-4 642 (1)
Tetra-4 643 (1)
Fourth Chromosome Markers 643 (2)
Genetic Markers 643 (1)
Painting of Fourth: A Cytological Marker 644 (1)
Fourth Chromosome Maps and the Problem of 645 (1)
4L
Segregation in Triplo-4 Diploids 645 (1)
Element F In Other Species 645 (6)
D. simulans 645 (1)
D. ananassae 646 (1)
D. virilis 646 (1)
D. hydei and D. repleta 646 (1)
D. busckii 646 (2)
References 648 (3)
Ring Chromosomes 651 (24)
General Properties 651 (1)
Ring-X Chromosomes 651 (11)
Origin 651 (1)
Somatic Properties of Ring-X Chromosomes 652 (4)
Meiotic Properties of Ring-X Chromosomes 656 (5)
The Fate of Induced Ring-X Chromosome 661 (1)
Breaks
Compound-X Chromosome Rings 662 (6)
Tandem Compound Ring-X Chromosomes, 663 (2)
C(1)TR
Reverse Compound Ring-X Chromosomes, 665 (3)
C(1)RR1
Ring-Y Chromosomes 668 (1)
Compound Ring-XY Chromosomes 668 (1)
Ring Autosomes 668 (2)
Mitotic Sister-Chromatid Exchange in 670 (5)
Ring/Rod Heterozygotes
References 672 (3)
Compound Chromosomes and Free Autosomal Arms 675 (70)
Compound-X Chromosomes 675 (28)
Introduction 676 (1)
Uses of Compound-X Chromosomes 677 (1)
Properties of Widely Used Compound-X 677 (2)
Chromosomes
The Breakdown of Compound-X Chromosomes 679 (2)
The Synthesis and Properties of 681 (20)
Compound-X Chromosomes
Recovery of Compound-X Chromosomes from 701 (1)
the Male
Compound-X Chromosomes of Other Species 702 (1)
X-Y Chromosome Exchange and Compound-XY 703 (8)
Chromosomes
Introduction 703 (1)
X-Y Exchange in Females 703 (1)
The Synthesis and Properties of 703 (8)
Compound-XY Chromosomes
Complete Compound-X Compound-Y 711 (1)
Chromosomes
Compound-XY Chromosomes and X-Y 711 (1)
Exchange in Other Species
Compound Autosomes 711 (23)
Introduction 711 (1)
The De Novo Synthesis of Compound 712 (5)
Autosomes
Partial Compound Autosomes 717 (3)
Constructing and Detaching Compound 720 (3)
Autosomes
The Meiotic Behavior of C(A)RM 723 (3)
Chromosomes
The Meiotic Behavior of C(A)EN 726 (1)
Chromosomes
The Meiotic Behavior of C(2;3)EN 727 (1)
Marker Substitution in Stocks 727 (1)
Spontaneous Interchange between 728 (2)
Compound Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
Use of Compound Autosomes for 730 (1)
Mutagenesis
Compound Autosomes for Mapping between 730 (1)
D. melanogaster and D. simulans
Heterocompounds and Tricomplexes 730 (4)
Meiotic Progression in a Female Bearing 734 (1)
Compound-X and Compound Autosomes
Free Autosome Arms 734 (11)
Introduction 734 (1)
Synthesis of Free Autosome Arm Elements 735 (1)
Meiotic Behavior of Free Autosomal Arms 735 (3)
Use in Screens for Aberrations 738 (1)
References 738 (7)
Autosynaptic Chromosome Elements 745 (12)
Introduction 745 (1)
Nomenclature 745 (1)
Meiotic Behavior 746 (1)
Recovery of Autosynaptic Elements 747 (4)
The Triploid Method 747 (1)
The Inchworm Method 747 (1)
The Breakaway Method 747 (2)
The Product Mimic Method 749 (1)
The Pseudo-translocation Method 750 (1)
The Uses of Autosynaptic Elements 751 (6)
Recombinants between Pericentric 751 (1)
Inversions
Insertion and Recovery of Markers into 752 (1)
and from Pericentric Inversions
Synthesis of Tandem Duplications 752 (2)
Synthesis of Interstitial Aneuploids 754 (1)
Half-tetrad Analysis 755 (1)
References 756 (1)
Female Meiosis 757 (70)
An Overview of Meiosis in Drosophila 758 (9)
Females
The Cytology of Meiotic Prophase 758 (3)
The Cytology of Prometaphase 761 (1)
The Cytology of the Two Meiotic 762 (1)
Divisions
Proteins Required to Build the Meiotic 763 (3)
Spindle
Mitotic Instability of Chromosomes that 766 (1)
Misbehave at MI or MII
Two Primary Pathways Ensure the 767 (1)
Segregation of Homologous Chromosomes
Exchange Is Usually Sufficient to 767 (1)
Ensure Disjunction
Achiasmate Segregation (Distributive 767 (1)
Pairing)
The Measurement of Meiosis: Assaying 767 (11)
Meiotic Nondisjunction
Nondisjunction of the Sex Chromosomes 767 (7)
Nondisjunction of the Major Autosomes 774 (2)
Nondisjunction of Chromosome 4 776 (2)
General Screens for Meiotic Mutants in 778 (3)
Drosophila
Genes Affecting Chromosome Pairing 781 (9)
Synapsis, and Recombination
The Lack of Mutants that Affect Meiotic 781 (1)
Chromosome Pairing
Genetic Evidence for Multiple Pairing 782 (1)
Sites
Genes Affecting the Formation of the 782 (1)
Synaptonemal Complex
Genes Affecting the Initiation of 783 (1)
Recombination
Genes Required for Processing of 784 (1)
Double-strand Breaks into Recombination
Intermediates
Genes Defined by Mutants that Alter the 785 (4)
Distribution of Exchange (So-called
Precondition Mutants)
Genes Controlling the Resolution of 789 (1)
Exchange
Genes Affecting Gene Conversion 790 (1)
Genes That Disrupt Chiasmate Segregation 790 (2)
Overview of Chiasma Function 790 (1)
Exchange Is Usually Sufficient to 790 (1)
Ensure Segregation
Role of Chiasmata in Controlling 791 (1)
Meiotic Progression
Mutants that Affect Chiasmate 792 (1)
Segregation
Achiasmate Segregation/Distributive 792 (20)
Pairing
Two Separate Systems Ensure the 792 (1)
Segregation of Achiasmate Homologs
A Summary of Homologous Achiasmate 792 (1)
Segregation
Segregation of Chromosome 4 793 (1)
Segregation of Nonexchange X Chromosomes 793 (3)
Role of Heterochromatic Homology: A 796 (2)
Model for Homologous Achiasmate
Segregation
Mutants that Disrupt Achiasmate 798 (3)
Homologous Segregation
Heterologous Segregations 801 (5)
Secondary Nondisjunction 806 (6)
Genes that Affect Sister-Chromatid 812 (2)
Cohesion
Overview of the Role of 812 (2)
Sister-chromatid Cohesion
Meiotic Drive in Drosophila Females: The 814 (2)
Nonrandom Segregation of Asymmetric Dyads
Overview and Novitski's Model 814 (1)
In Translocation Heterozygotes 814 (1)
In Pericentric Inversion Heterozygotes 815 (1)
In Compound-X Females 816 (1)
In Rod-X Females 816 (1)
Control of the Meiotic Cell Cycle 816 (11)
References 817 (10)
Male Meiosis 827 (34)
The Cytology of Meiotic Prophase 827 (2)
Pairing and Synapsis 829 (4)
X-Y Segregation: The rDNA as a Pairing 829 (2)
Site
The Pairing of the Major Autosomes 831 (2)
The Two Meiotic Divisions and Cytokinesis 833 (3)
Overview of the Two Divisions and 833 (2)
Cytokinesis
Genes Required for Proper Spindle 835 (1)
Assembly and Function
The Structure of the Kinetochore 835 (1)
Control of Sister-chromatid Cohesion 835 (1)
Regulation of the Cell Cycle 836 (1)
Assaying Meiotic Segregation 836 (5)
Primary Sex Chromosome Nondisjunction 836 (1)
X-Y Recombination 837 (2)
Nondisjunction of the Major Autosomes 839 (1)
Nondisjunction of the Fourth Chromosome 840 (1)
Screening for Meiotic Mutants 841 (8)
Meiotic Drive Systems 849 (12)
Segregation Distorter 849 (2)
The sc4Lsc8R System 851 (1)
The T(1;4)BS System 852 (1)
Nonrandom Disjunction in Males 852 (1)
Sex Ratio Phenomena 852 (2)
References 854 (7)
Genetic Analysis of DNA Repair 861 (20)
Introduction 861 (3)
Phenotypes of DNA Repair-defective 862 (2)
Mutants
Assays for Defects in DNA Repair 864 (10)
Mutagen Sensitivity (and Screens for 864 (1)
mus Mutants)
The Repair of P-element-induced Breakage 865 (4)
The Repair of DSBs Induced by 869 (1)
Site-specific Endonucleases
Analysis of Mitotic Repair Defects by 869 (1)
Measuring Mitotic Recombination and
Mitotic Loss
Direct Analysis of Chromosome Breakage 869 (2)
by Cytological Examination
Analysis of Mutants that Cause Defects 871 (1)
in Egg Shell Patterning (spn Mutants
and the Rad51 Family of Genes)
Recombination Defects 872 (1)
Analysis of Mitotic and Meiotic 873 (1)
Checkpoints
In Silico Screens for DNA Repair Genes 874 (2)
mus Mutants as Mutators and Mutagen 876 (5)
Potentiators
References 876 (5)
Haploids, Polyploids, and Chromosomal 881 (20)
Aneuploids
Haploids 881 (2)
Haploid Cell Lines 883 (1)
Triploids 883 (7)
Phenotypes of Triploids 883 (1)
Chromosomes of Triploids 883 (1)
Synthesis of Triploids 883 (1)
Marker Expression in Triploids 884 (1)
Meiotic Properties of Triploids 884 (6)
Triploids in Other Species of Drosophila 890 (1)
Tetraploids 890 (1)
Sex Chromosome Aneuploids 891 (3)
Nullo-X 891 (1)
X0 Males 891 (1)
Metamales: XY3A 891 (1)
Triploid Intersexes: 2X3A and 2XY3A 892 (1)
Triploid Metafemales: 4X3A 892 (1)
Diploid Metafemales: 3X2A 892 (2)
Autosomal Aneuploids 894 (2)
Nullosomy 894 (1)
Monosomy 895 (1)
Trisomy 895 (1)
Hypotriploids and Hypertriploids 896 (1)
Aneuploid Gametes 896 (1)
Somatic Polyploidy 896 (5)
References 896 (5)
Sex Determination and Dosage Compensation 901 (32)
Introduction 901 (1)
A Brief Historical Perspective 902 (1)
The SXL Protein Acts as a Master 902 (11)
Regulatory Switch that Responds to the
Number of X Chromosomes
The Sxl Gene: A Tale of Two Different 902 (4)
Promoters
Numerator and Denominator Elements 906 (1)
The Products of Four Maternal Genes Are 907 (1)
Required to Interpret the X:A Signal
Models of Sxlpc Early Regulation 907 (1)
The Switch to Sxlpm and Autoregulation 908 (4)
by SXL
SXL-mediated Splicing of the tra mRNA 912 (1)
SXL Interactions with the msl-2 mRNA 912 (1)
Somatic Sexual Differentiation 913 (5)
transformer (tra) and transformer 2 913 (1)
(tra2)
doublesex (dsx) 914 (2)
The Targets of the DSX Proteins 916 (2)
Dosage Compensation 918 (5)
The Protein Components of the MSL 920 (1)
Complex
The roX Genes and Their Products 921 (1)
Models of Dosage Compensation 922 (1)
Evidence for a Second System for Dosage 923 (1)
Compensation in Females
Germ-Line Sex Determination 923 (10)
References 925 (8)
Mitotic Exchange 933 (28)
Introduction 933 (1)
Spontaneous Mitotic Recombination 934 (12)
The Origin of Recombinants 934 (1)
The Segregation of Recombinants 934 (4)
Is Mitotic Recombination Homologous? 938 (1)
The Frequencies of Spontaneous Mitotic 939 (2)
Recombination
Mitotic Loss or Nondisjunction 941 (1)
Genetic Factors Affecting Spontaneous 941 (1)
Mitotic Exchange Frequency
Nongenetic Influences 941 (1)
Mitotic Exchange in Aberration 942 (1)
Heterozygotes
Mitotic Exchange in Compound-X 942 (1)
Chromosomes
Mitotic Exchange in Ring Chromosomes 942 (1)
Unequal Sister-chromatid Mitotic 943 (3)
Exchange
Induced Mitotic Exchange 946 (8)
Induced Mitotic Germ-line Exchange 946 (1)
Induced Somatic Exchange 947 (2)
Exchange Induced by Site-specific 949 (1)
Recombinases
Unequal Sister-chromatid Exchange 949 (1)
Caused by Site-specific Recombination
Induction of Somatic Exchange by 950 (1)
Chemicals
Effects of Mutations on Induced Mitotic 951 (1)
Exchange
Effects of Minutes on Induced Mitotic 952 (1)
Exchange
Dependence of Clone Size and Frequency 953 (1)
on the Time of Irradiation
Using Mitotic Exchange in Screens for 954 (2)
Mutations
Mitotic Exchange Maps 956 (5)
References 957 (4)
Mosaics 961 (46)
Introduction 962 (2)
Principles of Mosaic Analysis 962 (1)
Assessing Cell Autonomy 963 (1)
Perdurance 964 (1)
Gynandromorphs 964 (1)
Making Mosaics by Chromosome Loss 965 (7)
Ring-X Chromosome Elimination 965 (3)
Mutations that Destabilize Chromosomes 968 (3)
Loss of Y Chromosome Centromeres 971 (1)
Mosaics by Mitotic Recombination 972 (4)
Site-specific Recombination 972 (2)
Expression of FLP 974 (1)
The Frequency of FLP-mediated Mitotic 975 (1)
Recombination
Mitotic Recombination Clones by 975 (1)
Irradiation
Markers for the Analysis of Clones 976 (11)
External Markers for Adults 977 (2)
Markers for Embryos 979 (1)
Marking Internal Clones 979 (2)
MARCM Method 981 (1)
EGUF/hid Method 981 (2)
The Minute+ Method 983 (1)
Mitotic Clones in the Female Germ Line 984 (3)
Gynandromorphs by Mitotic Recombination 987 (1)
Site-Specific Recombination in CIS 987 (2)
The Fate of Excised DNA 989 (1)
Marking Excision Clones 989 (1)
Lineage Analysis of Internal Tissues 989 (2)
Mosaics by Directed Gene Expression 991 (1)
Combining Gal4 and FLP 991 (1)
Transposases and Homing Endonucleases 992 (1)
Mosaics by Transplantation 992 (1)
Nuclear Transplantation 992 (1)
Cell Transplantation 993 (1)
Analysis of Mosaics: Fate Mapping 993 (14)
The Calculation of Distance 994 (2)
Assumptions and Limitations 996 (1)
Relationships between Fate Map 996 (1)
Distances and the Blastoderm
Estimating Primordium Cell Numbers from 996 (1)
Mosaic Data
Fate Mapping Global Phenotypes 997 (4)
References 1001 (6)
Position Effect Variegation 1007 (44)
Introduction 1007 (2)
Model Systems 1009 (4)
Euchromatic Genes 1009 (3)
Heterochromatic Genes 1012 (1)
PEV Results from a Novel Juxtaposition of 1013 (2)
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
Heterochromatin 1015 (4)
Centric Heterochromatin 1015 (2)
Telomeric Heterochromatin 1017 (1)
Intercalary Heterochromatin 1018 (1)
Spreading of Inactivation 1019 (1)
Timing of Inactivation 1020 (2)
Modifiers of PEV 1022 (11)
Genetic Factors 1022 (10)
Environmental Factors 1032 (1)
The Mechanism of Silencing 1033 (4)
Transcriptional Repression 1033 (1)
RNA Interference 1034 (1)
Heterochromatin Biochemistry 1035 (2)
Genomic Imprinting and Parental Effects 1037 (1)
Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosome Segregation 1038 (13)
References 1039 (12)
Pairing-Dependent Phenomena 1051 (24)
Introduction 1051 (1)
Transvection at the Bithorax Complex 1052 (5)
The Molecular Background 1052 (4)
Models for Transvection at the BX-C 1056 (1)
Transvection at yellow 1057 (2)
Transvection at decapentaplegic 1059 (1)
Transvection at eyes absent 1060 (1)
Transvection at white 1060 (3)
The zeste-white Interaction 1060 (3)
The whiteDZL Mutation 1063 (1)
The Case of white-spotted 1063 (1)
The Effects of zeste Alleles on 1063 (1)
Transvection at Other Loci
The Molecular Basis of zeste 1064 (1)
The cubitus-interruptus Effect 1064 (2)
Pairing-Dependent Derepression 1066 (1)
Pairing-Dependent Repression 1066 (1)
Para-Inactivation 1067 (1)
Other Possible Cases of Transvection 1068 (1)
Possible Transvection Effects on Puffs 1068 (7)
References 1068 (7)
Hybrid Dysgenesis and Related Phenomena 1075 (48)
Introduction 1076 (1)
PM Dysgenesis 1076 (20)
Classes of Strains 1077 (1)
GD Sterility 1077 (2)
Dominant Lethality 1079 (1)
Mutability 1080 (2)
Nondisjunction 1082 (1)
Male Recombination 1083 (1)
Chromosome Aberrations 1083 (1)
Chromosome Segregation 1084 (1)
Somatic Dysgenesis 1084 (1)
Practical Aspects 1084 (2)
The P-element 1086 (3)
The Regulation of P-element Activity 1089 (4)
Behavior of P-elements Transferred to M 1093 (1)
Strains
A Plasmid Assay of P-element Function 1094 (1)
P-elements in Natural Populations 1094 (1)
The P-element in Other Species 1095 (1)
IR Dysgenesis 1096 (8)
Physiology of IR Dysgenesis 1096 (1)
The Genetic Basis of Reactivity 1097 (1)
Genetic Basis of Inducer 1098 (1)
Other Features of IR Dysgenesis 1099 (1)
The I-element 1100 (1)
The Regulation of I-element Activities 1101 (2)
Distribution of I and R Strains 1103 (1)
Distribution and Variation of I-elements 1103 (1)
Interactions between the PM and IR 1104 (1)
Systems
hobo Dysgenesis 1104 (4)
H and E Strains 1104 (2)
HE Dysgenesis 1106 (1)
Regulation of hobo Elements 1107 (1)
Natural Variation among hobo Elements 1107 (1)
hobo Elements in Other Species 1108 (1)
The Delta System 1108 (2)
Hybrid Dysgenesis in Other Species 1110 (13)
D. virilis 1110 (1)
D. willistoni Species Group 1111 (1)
References 1111 (12)
The Family Drosophilidae 1123 (124)
Introduction 1123 (7)
The Taxonomic Ranks 1130 (4)
The Species Group and Species Subgroup 1130 (1)
Taxonomic Characters 1131 (3)
Species Hybrids 1134 (1)
The Family Drosophilidae: Geographical 1135 (37)
Distribution
Catalogs 1135 (1)
The Palearctic Region 1135 (14)
The Oriental Region 1149 (7)
Oceania 1156 (3)
Australasia 1159 (2)
The Afrotropical Region 1161 (5)
The Nearctic Region 1166 (1)
The Neotropical Region 1167 (5)
Fossil Drosophilidae 1172 (1)
The Time Dimension 1173 (1)
The Family Drosophilidae: Taxonomic 1173 (64)
Treatment
Type Specimens 1174 (1)
Subfamily Steganinae 1175 (13)
Subfamily Drosophilinae 1188 (48)
Unplaced Genera 1236 (1)
Related Families 1237 (10)
Introduction 1237 (1)
Classification of the Diptera 1237 (1)
Families Close to Drosophilidae 1238 (2)
References 1240 (7)
The Melanogaster Species Group 1247 (8)
Introduction 1247 (1)
The Subgroups 1248 (3)
The montium Subgroup 1248 (1)
The ananassae Subgroup 1248 (1)
The takahashii Subgroup 1249 (1)
The suzukii Subgroup 1249 (1)
The elegans Subgroup 1250 (1)
The eugracilis Subgroup 1250 (1)
The ficusphila Subgroup 1250 (1)
The denticulata Subgroup 1250 (1)
The flavohirta Subgroup 1250 (1)
The rhopaloa Subgroup 1250 (1)
The longissima Subgroup 1251 (1)
The melanogaster Subgroup 1251 (1)
Relationships Within the Species Group 1251 (4)
References 1252 (3)
The Melanogaster Species Subgroup 1255 (30)
Identification 1255 (5)
Relationships 1260 (2)
The Species 1262 (4)
D. melanogaster 1262 (1)
D. simulans 1262 (2)
D. mauritiana 1264 (1)
D. sechellia 1265 (1)
D. erecta 1265 (1)
D. orena 1265 (1)
D. teissieri 1266 (1)
D. yakuba 1266 (1)
D. santomea 1266 (1)
Hybridization 1266 (9)
D. melanogaster Hybrids 1266 (8)
Hybridization within the D. simulans 1274 (1)
Complex
Hybridization between D. melanogaster 1274 (1)
and D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D.
sechellia
Hybridization with the D. yakuba 1275 (1)
Species Complex
Premating Isolation 1275 (10)
References 1276 (9)
Parasites, Pests, and Diseases 1285 (48)
Introduction 1285 (1)
Quarantine 1286 (1)
Viruses 1286 (4)
Detection and Eradication of Viruses 1288 (1)
Viruses as Vectors and Drosophila as a 1289 (1)
Model for Exogenous Viruses
Retroviruses 1289 (1)
Mycoplasmas and Spiroplasmas 1290 (1)
``Mycoplasmas'' and L-forms 1290 (1)
Spiroplasmas 1290 (1)
Bacteria 1291 (3)
Spirochetes 1291 (1)
Wolbachia 1291 (2)
Bacteria in the Gut 1293 (1)
Spore-forming Bacteria 1293 (1)
Bacterial Contamination of Food Medium 1293 (1)
Protozoa 1294 (1)
Protomonadina 1294 (1)
Nematodes 1295 (1)
Molds and Fungi 1296 (3)
Microsporidia 1297 (1)
Entomophagous Fungi 1298 (1)
Fungi and Food Media 1298 (1)
Immunity to Infection 1299 (2)
Algae 1301 (1)
Hymenoptera 1301 (2)
Practical Problems with Parasitic 1303 (1)
Hymenoptera
Mites 1303 (30)
Predacious Mites 1303 (4)
Food Mites 1307 (8)
Other Mites and Arachnids 1315 (1)
Control of Mites 1315 (2)
References 1317 (16)
Taxonomic Index 1333 (16)
Index of Genes and Genetic Variations 1349 (18)
General Index 1367