Developing an Industrial Chemical Process : An Integrated Approach

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Developing an Industrial Chemical Process : An Integrated Approach

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 229 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780849313608
  • DDC分類 660.28

Full Description


The development and implementation of a new chemical process involves much more than chemistry, materials, and equipment. It is a very complex endeavor and its success depends on the effective interactions and organization of professionals in many different positions - scientists, chemical engineers, managers, attorneys, economists, and specialists. Developing An Industrial Chemical Process: An Integrated Approach is the first professional reference to examine the actual process development practices of industrial corporations, research organizations, engineering companies and universities. Backed by 45 years of experience within R&D, design, and management positions in various countries, the author presents his know-how for better and faster results and fewer start-up problems. While most books on chemical processes concentrate only on the scientific/technical aspect, this book also deals with the range of people and "real life" issues involved.Developing An Industrial Chemical Process serves as a "how to" guide for the effective management of process development procedures. The issues start with the "why" and "how" concerns of the executives and project managers and proceed with the actual implementation by professionals, each in his/her particular role. The author addresses the working organization and the different activities involved in a process development program, including the implementation, design, construction and start-up of a new plant. Finally, each chapter provides a short summary of the key issues along with suggestions for further reading. This book can help you handle the problems normally associated with the development and implementation of a new process and reduce the time and resources that you and your organization spend on this critical activity.

Table of Contents

  Why a new industrial chemical process could
be needed?
Changing world 1 (1)
A better quality product 2 (1)
Lower cost of production 2 (1)
Different raw material 3 (1)
Ecological pressure 4 (1)
New products for the corporation 5 (1)
Newly available industrial technology 6 (2)
New functions for new products 8 (2)
Corporate public image 10 (1)
Worth another thought 10 (3)
References 11 (2)
Starting the development of a new process
Driving forces 13 (2)
Backing of a large corporation 13 (1)
Promoting group 13 (1)
The second part 14 (1)
Public authorities 14 (1)
How a new process is born 15 (2)
Normal research and development activity 15 (1)
Personal motivation 15 (1)
Corporate function 16 (1)
Financial and commercial rewards 16 (1)
False starts 16 (1)
Explicit definition of the development 17 (1)
project
Objectives and purposes 17 (1)
Patents 17 (1)
Possible industrial framework 17 (1)
Timetable 18 (1)
Different stages of a typical program 18 (1)
Corporate management procedures for new 19 (1)
projects
Worth another thought 20 (3)
Essential resources needed for the
development project: preceding implementation
Introduction 23 (1)
Specific managerial skills 24 (1)
Core project team 24 (1)
R&D laboratories and pilot installations 25 (1)
Company's own laboratory and pilot 25 (1)
installations
Outside laboratories and pilot 25 (1)
installations
Analytical laboratories 25 (1)
Experts on marketing and on potential users 26 (1)
Particular terminology 26 (1)
Clients' needs 27 (1)
Competition 27 (1)
Support from experts on hardwar 27 (3)
Plant engineering and operation 27 (1)
Equipment design 28 (1)
Corrosion in construction materials 29 (1)
Operation and process control 29 (1)
Support from experts in software 30 (3)
Publication search and analysis 30 (1)
Intellectual property and secrecy 31 (1)
Patent application 31 (1)
Process modeling 32 (1)
Safety, public regulations, and waste 33 (1)
disposal support
Safety 33 (1)
Public regulations 33 (1)
Waste disposal 34 (1)
Support of specific codes relevant to plant 34 (1)
design and operation, and product quality
Economics 35 (1)
Development expense budget 35 (1)
Worth another thought 36 (1)
References 36 (1)
Actual case examples
Nature and man: the Dead Sea 37 (3)
Magnesium chloride-based industries 40 (1)
Economic uses for the HCI by-product 41 (6)
solutions
Strategic policy 41 (1)
Coupling of HCI-producing and consuming 41 (1)
plants
Timing of implementation 41 (1)
Production of pure phosphoric acid 42 (1)
Technological difficulties 42 (1)
Materials of construction 42 (1)
Safe, stable conditions for solvent 43 (1)
extraction in large mineral plants
Clean starting solution for solvent 44 (1)
extraction
Recovery of the residual solvent from 44 (1)
different exit streams
Large-capacity liquid-liquid contacting 45 (2)
equipment
Phosphoric acid diversification processes 47 (3)
Different quality specifications 47 (1)
Solvent extraction opening 47 (1)
IMI ``cleaning'' process 48 (1)
``Close-cycle'' purification process 49 (1)
Mixed process 49 (1)
New proposals 50 (1)
Citric acid by fermentation and solvent 50 (2)
extraction
Conventional lime sulfuric acid process 50 (1)
for citric acid
IMI-Miles solvent extraction process for 50 (1)
citric acid
Newer solvent extraction process for 51 (1)
citric acid
Preparation of paper filler by ultra-fine 52 (1)
wet grinding of white carbonate
Worth another thought 53 (4)
References 53 (4)
Process definition and feasibility tests
Translation of the idea into a process 57 (8)
definition
Scope of the preliminary process 57 (1)
definition
Comprehensive literature survey 58 (1)
Block diagram 59 (2)
Quantitative definitions of the different 61 (1)
sections
Process calculations for the preliminary 62 (1)
process definition
Presentation of one feasible 63 (1)
implementation formula
Possible industrial implementation 63 (1)
framework
Timetable 64 (1)
Important note 64 (1)
Critical and systematic review of the 65 (2)
process definition
Review forum 65 (1)
Fundamental process issues 65 (1)
Patent situation 66 (1)
Profit potential 67 (1)
Design and execution of the feasibility 67 (5)
tests
Purposes of the feasibility tests 67 (1)
Equilibrium conditions 68 (1)
Scale up of reactors 69 (1)
Physical separation operations 69 (1)
Scale-dependant and dynamic flow 70 (1)
operations
Extreme conditions 71 (1)
Actual raw materials 71 (1)
Analytical difficulties 72 (1)
Analysis of the results from feasibility 72 (1)
tests
Second review of the process definition 72 (1)
Worth another thought 73 (4)
References 74 (3)
Experimental program
Basis 77 (4)
Experimental program purposes 77 (1)
Different sections 78 (1)
Quantitative data needed for process 78 (1)
design
Format 78 (1)
Representative raw materials 79 (2)
Classification of missing data 81 (1)
Chemical equilibrium data 81 (8)
Vapor-liquid equilibrium system 81 (3)
Gas-liquid equilibrium system 84 (1)
Liquid-liquid equilibrium system 84 (2)
Solid-liquid equilibrium system 86 (1)
Reversible and nonreversible equilibrium 87 (1)
Chemical equilibrium laboratory tests 87 (1)
Experimental difficulties in chemical 88 (1)
equilibrium tests
Dynamic flow conditions 89 (8)
Design data required 90 (1)
Simpler processes 90 (1)
Theoretical models 90 (3)
Special test rigs 93 (2)
Indirect methods 95 (2)
Scale-dependent operations 97 (8)
Vertical driving force depending on the 97 (1)
hydrostatic height
Wall effect 98 (1)
Crystallizer 99 (3)
High-temperature equipment 102(2)
Failure to recognize the wall effect 104(1)
Reporting results from the experimental 105(1)
program
Frequent partial reports 105(1)
Complete partial reports 105(1)
Implications of the results 106(1)
Worth another thought 106(3)
References 107(2)
Preliminary process design for a particular
proposal
Process team 109(1)
Process flow-sheets 110(5)
Preparation of an overall detailed 115(1)
description
Listing of all the main process streams 116(1)
Material and heat balances 116(4)
Material handling operations 120(3)
Summary tables for all required services 123(1)
Major pieces of process equipment 124(3)
Main operational and control procedures 127(1)
Listing of required staff 128(1)
Worth another thought 128(1)
Economic analysis of the specific proposal
Purpose 129(1)
Preliminary estimate of the Fixed Capital 129(4)
investment (revision 0)
Estimate of operating costs 133(2)
Expected net sales income estimate 135(1)
Profitability calculation 135(2)
Optimistic evaluation of the profit 137(1)
potential in other applications
Possible synergetic effects with other 138(2)
production facilities
Comprehensive report for the justification 140(1)
of the specific proposal
Contractual agreements 140(1)
Worth another thought 141(2)
References 142(1)
Working program toward a first implementation
Patent protection 143(1)
Revised or additional applications 143(1)
Extended geographical coverage of the 144(1)
patents
Detailed process design 144(8)
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams 144(1)
Piping lists 145(1)
Valves 146(1)
Instruments 146(1)
Control loops 147(1)
Flanged manholes and hand-holes in closed 147(1)
pieces of equipment
Provisions for possible future connections 147(1)
Non-conventional drives 148(1)
Examples of portions of piping and 148(4)
instrumentation drawings
``Major'' equipment packages 152(1)
Pilot testing of specific process operations 153(2)
Multiple-effects evaporator 153(1)
Liquid-liquid contacting battery 154(1)
Main problems for piloting 155(1)
Modeling 155(1)
Complementary bench-scale testing program 156(4)
Detailed specification of the industrial 157(1)
equipment
Pilot installations 157(1)
Process modeling 158(1)
The design of instrumentation 158(1)
Corrosion tests 159(1)
Clarification of waste disposal issues 159(1)
Clarifying process safety issues 160(1)
Preparation of product samples for market 160(1)
field tests
Clarification concerning any formal permits 161(1)
needed
Worth another thought 162(3)
References 162(3)
First implementation plant design:
compromises and optimization
``First implementation'' policy 165(2)
Expected start-up problems 165(1)
Design policy 166(1)
Identifying probable causes of problems 167(1)
``Guarantees'' for reasonable plant 167(1)
performance
Modeling and optimization 167(7)
Composition of raw materials 168(1)
Effects of impurities 169(1)
Changes in the kinetics of mass transfer 169(1)
Changes in specifications for the final 170(1)
product
Normal fluctuations around the designed 170(1)
average
Differences in the performance of 171(3)
equipment
Critical pilot testing 174(1)
The process package 175(2)
The role of the engineering company in the 177(3)
first implementation of a novel process
The interests and limitations of the 177(1)
engineering company
The engineering company and the project 178(1)
manager
Specialization 179(1)
The chemical process engineering 179(1)
department
Timetable 180(1)
Detailed engineering documents 180(1)
Final review and approval for construction 181(1)
Worth another thought 182(3)
References 183(2)
Running in and adjustments in the new plant
The plant construction period 185(1)
Assembling and training the operating team 186(1)
Recruitment 186(1)
Maintenance 186(1)
Training 186(1)
Safety 187(1)
Functional organization 187(1)
Preparation for start-up 187(2)
``Dry runs'' 187(1)
The plant manager 188(1)
The construction manager 188(1)
The project manager 188(1)
Preparation with real materials 189(1)
Strategic options for the running-in of the 189(3)
new plant
Possible causes of problems 189(1)
Unsatisfactory results 190(1)
Start-up strategies 190(2)
Stabilization of production 192(1)
Demonstration run and project success report 192(1)
Optimization of operating conditions 192(1)
Worth another thought 193(2)
Consolidation of the new know-how
Updating the process know-how 195(1)
Final revision of the Process Package 196(1)
Updating the Operational Manual 196(1)
Feedback from users in the market 197(1)
Additional patent applications 197(1)
New publications 198(1)
Information on the competition 198(1)
Publications on the new process and plant 198(1)
How can this accumulated specific know-how 198(2)
be used again?
A final note: what have we learned? 200(1)
Worth another thought 200(3)
Appendix 1 Typical organization and contents of
a Process Package
A1.1 General 203(1)
A1.2 Definition of ``black box'' objectives 204(1)
A1.3 Division of the process into sections 205(1)
as illustrated in a block diagram
A1.4 Separate discussions for each section 206(1)
A1.5 Material and heat balances 207(1)
A1.6 Equipment choices 207(1)
A1.7 Services 208(2)
A1.8 Materials of construction: options and 210(1)
preferences
A1.9 Safety aspects 211(2)
Appendix 2 Functional organization structure of
a typical development project
A2.1 Successive stages 213(1)
A2.2 The invention and promotion stage 214(2)
A2.3 The process development stage 216(3)
A2.4 The construction and running-in period 219(2)
Index 221