Unix Administration : A Comprehensive Sourcebook for Effective Systems & Network Management (Internet and Communications Series)

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Unix Administration : A Comprehensive Sourcebook for Effective Systems & Network Management (Internet and Communications Series)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 743 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780849313516
  • DDC分類 005.432

Full Description


To configure and maintain an operating system is serious business. With UNIX and its wide variety of "flavors," it can be especially difficult and frustrating, and networking with UNIX adds still more challenges. UNIX Administration: A Comprehensive Sourcebook for Effective Systems & Network Management is a one-stop handbook for the administration and maintenance of UNIX systems and networks. With an outstanding balance of concepts and practical matters, it covers the entire range of administrative tasks, from the most basic to the advanced, from system startup and shutdown to network security and kernel reconfiguration. While focusing on the primary UNIX platforms, the author discusses all of the most common UNIX "flavors," including Solaris, Linux, HP-UX, AIX and SGI IRIX. Three chapters of case studies offer a practical look at UNIX implementation issues: UNIX installation, disk space upgrade, and several emergency situations that every administrator must expect to face at some point. Diverse yet detailed, filled with examples and specific procedures, this is the one book that both the novice and the seasoned professional need to learn UNIX administration and effectively perform their daily system and network-related duties.

Table of Contents

Section I UNIX Administration
UNIX --- Introductory Notes 3 (24)
UNIX Operating System 3 (2)
User's View of UNIX 5 (1)
The History of UNIX 6 (5)
Berkeley Standard Distribution --- BSD 7 (1)
UNIX
System V or ATT UNIX 7 (4)
UNIX System and Network Administration 11 (16)
System Administrator's Job 13 (3)
Computing Policies 16 (3)
Administration Guidelines 19 (1)
Legal Acts 19 (1)
Code of Ethics 20 (1)
Organizations 21 (2)
Standardization 23 (2)
In This Book 25 (2)
The UNIX Model --- Selected Topics 27 (36)
Introduction 27 (1)
Files 28 (18)
File Ownership 28 (4)
File Protection/File Access 32 (1)
Access Classes 32 (1)
Setting a File Protection 33 (1)
Default File Mode 34 (1)
Additional Access Modes 35 (4)
Access Control Lists (ACLs) 39 (3)
File Types 42 (1)
Plain (Regular) File 43 (1)
Directory 43 (1)
Special Device File 43 (1)
Link 44 (1)
Socket 45 (1)
Named Pipe 46 (1)
Conclusion 46 (1)
Devices and Special Device Files 46 (4)
Special File Names 48 (1)
Special File Creation 48 (2)
Processes 50 (13)
Process Parameters 50 (1)
Process Types 51 (1)
Process Attributes 51 (1)
File Descriptors 52 (1)
Process States 52 (1)
Process Life Cycles 53 (1)
Process Creation 53 (2)
Process Termination 55 (1)
Process Handling 55 (1)
Monitoring Process Activities 55 (4)
Destroying Processes 59 (2)
Job Control 61 (2)
UNIX Administration Starters 63 (22)
Superuser and Users 63 (2)
Becoming a Superuser 63 (1)
Communicating with Other Users 64 (1)
The su Command 64 (1)
UNIX Online Documentation 65 (5)
The man Command 65 (4)
The whatis Database 69 (1)
System Information 70 (6)
System Status Information 70 (1)
The uname Command 70 (1)
The uptime Command 71 (1)
The dmesg Command 71 (1)
Hardware Information 72 (1)
The HP-UX ioscan Command 73 (2)
The Solaris prtconf Command 75 (1)
The Solaris sysdef Command 76 (1)
Personal Documentation 76 (1)
Shell Script Programming 77 (8)
UNIX User Shell 78 (1)
UNIX Shell Scripts 78 (1)
Shell Script Execution 79 (1)
Shell Variables 80 (1)
Double Command-Line Scanning 81 (3)
Here Document 84 (1)
Few Tips 84 (1)
System Startup and Shutdown 85 (24)
Introductory Notes 85 (1)
System Startup 86 (8)
The Bootstrap Program 87 (1)
The Kernel Execution 88 (1)
The Overall System Initialization 89 (1)
rc Initialization Scripts 89 (1)
Terminal Line Initialization 89 (1)
System States 90 (1)
The Outlook of a Startup Procedure 91 (2)
Initialization Scripts 93 (1)
BSD Initialization 94 (2)
The BSD rc Scripts 94 (1)
BSD Initialization Sequence 94 (2)
System V Initialization 96 (10)
The Configuration File /etc/inittab 97 (2)
System V rc Initialization Scripts 99 (5)
BSD-Like Initialization 104(2)
Shutdown Procedures 106(3)
The BSD shutdown Command 106(1)
The System V shutdown Command 107(1)
An Example 108(1)
UNIX Filesystem Management 109(34)
Introduction to the UNIX Filesystem 109(1)
UNIX Filesystem Directory Organization 110(4)
BSD Filesystem Directory Organization 110(3)
System V Filesystem Directory Organization 113(1)
Mounting and Dismounting Filesystems 114(7)
Mounting a Filesystem 115(2)
The mount Command 117(2)
Dismounting a Filesystem 119(1)
Automatic Filesystem Mounting 120(1)
Removable Media Management 120(1)
Filesystem Configuration 121(8)
BSD Filesystem Configuration File 121(2)
System V Filesystem Configuration File 123(2)
AIX Filesystem Configuration File 125(3)
The Filesystem Status File 128(1)
A Few Other Filesystem Issues 129(5)
Filesystem Types 129(2)
Swap Space --- Paging and Swapping 131(2)
Loopback Virtual Filesystem 133(1)
Managing Filesystem Usage 134(9)
Display Filesystem Statistics: The df 134(2)
Command
Report on Disk Usage: The du Command 136(3)
Report on Disk Usage by Users: The quot 139(1)
Command
Checking Filesystems: The fsck Command 139(4)
UNIX Filesystem Layout 143(26)
Introduction 143(1)
Physical Filesystem Layout 144(11)
Disk Partitions 145(2)
Filesystem Structures 147(1)
Filesystem Creation 148(1)
The mkfs Command 149(1)
The newfs Command 149(1)
The tunefs Command 150(1)
File Identification and Allocation 150(1)
Index Node (inode) 150(2)
File Allocation 152(1)
Filesystem Performance Issues 152(2)
File Storage vs. File Transfer 154(1)
Reserved Free Space 155(1)
Logical Filesystem Layout 155(13)
Logical Volume Manager --- AIX Flavor 156(2)
Logical Volume Manager --- HP-UX Flavor 158(2)
Logical Volume Manager --- Solaris Flavor 160(3)
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks 163(1)
(RAID)
Snapshot 164(1)
The Volume Snapshot 164(1)
The Filesystem Snapshot 165(2)
Virtual UNIX Filesystem 167(1)
Disk Space Upgrade 168(1)
User Account Management 169(28)
User and Groups 169(16)
Creation of User Accounts 170(1)
User Database --- File /etc/passwd 170(2)
Group Database --- File /etc/group 172(1)
Creating User Home Directories 172(1)
UNIX Login Initialization 173(1)
Initialization Template Files 174(1)
User Login Initialization Files 174(2)
Systemwide Login Initialization Files 176(2)
Shell Initialization Files 178(3)
Setting the Proper Ownership 181(1)
Utilities to Create User Accounts 181(4)
Maintenance of User Accounts 185(4)
Restricted User Accounts 185(1)
Users and Secondary Groups 186(1)
Assigning User Passwords 186(1)
Standard UNIX Users and Groups 187(1)
Removing User Accounts 188(1)
Disk Quotas 189(1)
Managing Disk Usage by Users 189(1)
Accounting 190(7)
BSD Accounting 192(1)
System V Accounting 192(4)
AIX-Flavored Accounting 196(1)
UNIX System Security 197(16)
UNIX Lines of Defense 197(3)
Physical Security 198(1)
Passwords 198(1)
File Permissions 199(1)
Encryption 199(1)
Backups 200(1)
Password Issues 200(6)
Password Encryption 200(1)
Choosing a Password 201(1)
Setting Password Restrictions 202(1)
A Shadowed Password 203(1)
Usual Approach 203(1)
Other Approaches 204(2)
Secure Console and Terminals 206(3)
Traditional BSD Approach 207(1)
The Wheel Group 207(1)
Secure Terminals --- Other Approaches 207(2)
Monitoring and Detecting Security Problems 209(4)
Important Files for System Security 209(1)
Monitoring System Activities 210(1)
Monitoring Login Attempts 211(1)
The su Log File 211(1)
History of the Root Account 212(1)
Tracking User Activities 212(1)
UNIX Logging Subsystem 213(14)
The Concept of System Logging 213(3)
The syslogd Daemon 214(2)
System Logging Configuration 216(8)
The Configuration File /etc/syslog.conf 216(4)
Linux Logging Enhancements 220(1)
The logger Command 221(1)
Testing System Logging 221(3)
Accounting Log Files 224(3)
The last Command 224(1)
Limiting the Growth of Log Files 225(2)
UNIX Printing 227(34)
UNIX Printing Subsystem 227(9)
BSD Printing Subsystem 229(1)
The lpr, lpq, and lprm Commands 229(1)
The lpd Daemon 230(1)
Managing the BSD Printing Subsystem 230(1)
System V Printing Subsystem 231(1)
The lp, lpstat, and cancel Commands 232(2)
The lpsched Daemon 234(1)
Managing the System V Printing Subsystem 234(2)
Printing Subsystem Configuration 236(13)
BSD Printer Configuration and the Printer 236(1)
Capability Database
The /etc/printcap File 236(3)
Setting the BSD Default Printer 239(1)
Spooling Directories 240(1)
Filters 240(3)
Linux Printing Subsystem 243(1)
System V Printer Configuration and the 243(1)
Printer Capability Database
The Printer Database Directory Hierarchy 243(3)
on System V
Setting the System V Default Printer 246(1)
AIX Printing Facilities 246(3)
Adding New Printers 249(7)
Adding a New Local Printer 249(1)
Adding a Local BSD Printer 249(1)
Adding a Local Linux Printer 250(1)
Adding a Local System V Printer 251(1)
Adding a New Remote Printer 252(1)
Adding a Remote BSD Printer 252(1)
Adding a Remote Linux Printer 253(1)
Adding a Remote System V Printer 254(2)
UNIX Cross-Platform Printer Spooling 256(5)
BSD and AIX Cross-Printing 256(1)
Solaris and BSD Cross-Printing 256(3)
Third-Party Printer Spooling Systems 259(2)
Terminals 261(24)
Terminal Characteristics 261(16)
BSD Terminal Subsystem 261(1)
BSD Terminal Line Initialization 262(4)
The BSD termcap Database 266(3)
System V Terminal Subsystem 269(1)
System V Terminal Line Initialization 269(3)
The System V terminfo Database 272(4)
Terminal-Related Special Device Files 276(1)
Configuration Data Summary 276(1)
The tset, tput, and stty Commands 277(4)
The tset Command 277(1)
The tput Command 278(1)
The stty Command 279(2)
Pseudo Terminals 281(2)
Terminal Servers 283(2)
UNIX Backup and Restore 285(30)
Introduction 285(3)
Media 286(2)
Tape-Related Commands 288(6)
The tar Command 288(2)
The cpio Command 290(1)
The dd Command 291(1)
The mt Command 292(1)
Magnetic Tape Devices and Special Device 293(1)
Files
Backing Up a UNIX Filesystem 294(2)
Planning a Backup Schedule 294(2)
Backup and Dump Commands 296(10)
The SVR3 and SVR4 backup Commands 296(2)
The fbackup Command 298(1)
The dump/ufsdump Command 299(3)
A Few Examples 302(4)
Restoring Files from a Backup 306(6)
The restore Commands 306(1)
The SVR3 restore Command 306(1)
The restore/ufsrestore Command 307(1)
Interactive Restore 308(2)
The frecover Command 310(1)
Restoring Multiple Filesystems Archived 311(1)
on a Single Tape
Tape Control 312(3)
Time-Related UNIX Facilities 315(22)
Network Time Distribution 315(6)
The NTP Daemon 315(1)
The NTP Configuration File 316(5)
Periodic Program Execution 321(8)
The UNIX cron Daemon 322(2)
The crontab Files 324(2)
The crontab Command 326(1)
Linux Approach 327(2)
Programs Scheduled for a Specific Time 329(3)
The UNIX at Utility 330(2)
Batch Processing 332(5)
The UNIX batch Utility 333(4)
Section II Network Administration
Network Fundamentals 337(18)
UNIX and Networking 337(1)
Computer Networks 338(4)
Local Area Network (LAN) 338(1)
CSMA/CD Networks 339(1)
Token Passing Networks 340(1)
Wide Area Network (WAN) 341(1)
A TCP/IP Overview 342(6)
TCP/IP and the Internet 343(1)
ISO OSI Reference Model 343(3)
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 346(2)
TCP/IP Layers and Protocols 348(7)
Network Access Layer 348(1)
Internet Layer and IP Protocol 349(1)
Internet Protocol (IP) 349(1)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 350(1)
Transport Layer and TCP and UDP Protocols 351(1)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 351(1)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 351(2)
Application Layer 353(2)
TCP/IP Network 355(30)
Data Delivery 355(11)
IP Address Classes 355(3)
Internet Routing 358(2)
The route Command 360(1)
Dynamic Routing 361(1)
The gated Daemon 362(1)
Multiplexing 363(1)
Protocols, Ports, and Sockets 363(2)
UNIX Database Files 365(1)
Address Resolution (ARP) 366(2)
The arp Command 367(1)
Remote Procedure Call (RPC) 368(4)
The portmapper Daemon 370(1)
The /etc/rpc File 371(1)
Configuring the Network Interface 372(5)
The ifconfig Command 373(1)
The netstate Command 374(3)
Super Internet Server 377(8)
The inetd Daemon 377(1)
The inetd Configuration 377(2)
Further Improvements and Development 379(2)
Extended Super Server xinetd 381(4)
Domain Name System 385(34)
Naming Concepts 385(8)
Host Names and Addresses 385(1)
Domain Name Service (DNS) 386(2)
Domains and Subdomains 388(1)
Host Database Files 389(1)
The Local Host Table --- /etc/hosts 389(2)
Aliases 391(1)
Maintaining the /etc/hosts File 391(2)
UNIX Name Service --- BIND 393(7)
BIND Configuration 395(1)
Resolvers 395(1)
Configuring a Resolver 396(2)
Other Resolver Parameters 398(1)
Name Servers 399(1)
The named Daemon 399(1)
Configuring named 400(14)
BIND Version 4.X.X 401(1)
The Configuration File /etc/named.boot 401(1)
Standard Resource Records 402(1)
The Resource Record Files 403(5)
BIND Version 8.X.X 408(3)
Subdomains and Parenting 411(3)
Using nslookup 414(5)
The nslookup Interactive Mode 414(2)
A Few Examples of nslookup Usage 416(3)
Network Information Service (NIS) 419(26)
Purpose and Concepts 419(2)
NIS Paradigm 421(9)
yp Processes 422(1)
To Create an NIS Server 423(1)
Set the NIS domain 423(1)
Set the Master Server 423(2)
Set the Slave Server 425(1)
Start NIS Service 426(1)
To Create an NIS Client 426(1)
NIS Domain Name 427(1)
Databases/NIS Maps 428(2)
The /etc/netgroup File 430(1)
NIS Management 430(10)
yp Commands 431(1)
Updating NIS Maps 432(1)
The make Utility and NIS 432(3)
Troubleshooting 435(2)
Security Issues 437(1)
A Few NIS Stories 438(1)
Too Large an NIS Group 438(1)
Invalid Slave Server 439(1)
Change of the NIS Domain Name 439(1)
NIS vs. DNS 440(5)
The /etc/nsswitch.conf File 440(2)
Once upon a Time 442(3)
Network File System (NFS) 445(16)
NFS Overview 445(2)
NFS Daemons 446(1)
Exporting and Mounting Remote Filesystems 447(6)
Exporting a Filesystem 447(1)
The exportfs and share Commands 448(2)
The Export Configuration File 450(1)
The Export Status File 451(1)
Mounting Remote Filesystems 452(1)
The showmount Command 452(1)
The mount Command and the Filesystem 452(1)
Configuration File
Automounter 453(6)
The Automount Maps 455(1)
An Example 456(3)
NFS --- Security Issues 459(2)
UNIX Remote Commands 461(18)
UNIX r Commands 461(3)
The rlogin Command 462(1)
The rcp Command 463(1)
The remsh (rsh) Command 463(1)
Securing the UNIX r Commands 464(3)
The /etc/hosts.equiv File 465(1)
The $HOME/.rhosts File 466(1)
Using UNIX r-Commands --- An Example 466(1)
Secure Shell (SSH) 467(12)
SSH Concept 468(1)
RSA Authentication 468(1)
The ssh Client 469(1)
The sshd Daemon 470(1)
SSH Configuration 471(2)
SSH Installation and User Access Setup 473(1)
Setup of the ssh Client 474(1)
Root Access 474(1)
Individual User Access 475(1)
SSH --- Version 2 476(3)
Electronic Mail 479(42)
E-mail Fundamentals 479(11)
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) 482(2)
The MTA Program sendmail 484(1)
The sendmail Daemon 485(1)
The sendmail Command 485(2)
Other sendmail Constituents 487(3)
Sendmail Configuration 490(16)
The sendmail.cf File 491(2)
Macro and Class Definitions 493(5)
Rulesets and Rewrite Rules 498(2)
The Ruleset Sequence 500(2)
The Ruleset 0 502(2)
Creating the sendmail.cf File 504(2)
The Parsing of E-mail Addresses 506(4)
Rewriting an E-mail Address 507(1)
Pattern Matching 507(1)
Address Transformation 508(2)
Testing sendmail Configuration 510(3)
Testing Rewrite Rules 510(1)
The sendmail -bt Command 511(1)
The Debugging Level 512(1)
Checking the Mail Queue 512(1)
Mail User Agents 513(8)
The Mail Program and .mailrc File 513(1)
Starting mail 513(1)
Sending E-mail Messages 514(1)
Reading E-mail Messages 514(1)
Mail Subcommands 514(1)
Forwarding E-mail Messages 515(1)
Variables 515(1)
POP and IMAP 516(1)
Post Office Protocol (POP) 516(2)
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) 518(1)
Comparing POP vs. IMAP 519(2)
UNIX Network Support 521(16)
Common UNIX Network Applications 521(9)
Telnet 522(1)
Telne Commands 522(1)
FTP 523(1)
FTP Commands 524(2)
FTP Auto-Login 526(1)
Anonymous FTP 527(1)
Finger 528(2)
Host Connectivity 530(7)
The ping Command 530(2)
The traceroute Command 532(5)
Section III SUPPLEMENTAL UNIX TOPICS
X Window System 537(54)
An Introduction to the X Window System 537(6)
The Design of X11 537(4)
The X Administration Philosophy 541(1)
Window Managers 541(2)
The X Display Manager 543(20)
xdm/dtlogin Concepts 544(3)
xdm Configuration Files 547(2)
Customizing xdm 549(5)
CDE Configuration Files 554(7)
Vendor-Specific X Flavors --- a 561(2)
Configuration Example
Access Control and Security of X11 563(7)
XDMCP Queries 563(1)
The Xaccess File 564(3)
Other Access Control Mechanisms 567(3)
The User X Environment 570(16)
Components of the xdm-Based User X 570(2)
Environment
Components of the CDE User X Environment 572(5)
Window Manager Customizations 577(1)
Motif Window Manager (mwm) 577(2)
CDE Window Manager (dtwm) 579(2)
The Shell Environment 581(5)
Miscellaneous 586(5)
Other Startup Methods 586(2)
A Permanent X11 Installation 588(1)
A Few X-Related Commands 589(2)
Kernel Reconfiguration 591(24)
Introduction to Kernel Reconfiguration 591(1)
Kernel Configuration Database 592(1)
BSD-Like Kernel Configuration Approach 593(7)
Basic Configuration Entries 593(4)
The BSD-Like Kernel Configuration 597(2)
Procedure
The config Command 599(1)
Other Flavored Kernel Reconfigurations 600(15)
HP-UX 10.x Kernel Configuration 600(2)
Solaris 2.x Kernel Configuration 602(7)
Linux Kernel Configuration 609(6)
Modems and UUCP 615(30)
Introduction to Modems 615(2)
UNIX and Modems 616(1)
UNIX Modem Control 617(3)
Terminal Lines and Modem Control 617(2)
Modem-Related UNIX Commands 619(1)
The cu Command 619(1)
The tip Command 620(1)
Third-Party Communication Software 620(7)
C-Kermit 621(6)
Introduction to UUCP 627(3)
How Does UUCP Work? 627(1)
UUCP Versions 628(1)
UUCP Chat-Transfer Session 629(1)
UUCP Commands, Daemons, and Related Issues 630(6)
The Major UUCP Commands 630(1)
The uucp Command 630(1)
The uux Command 631(1)
The UUCP Daemons 632(1)
The uucico Daemon 633(1)
The uuxqt Daemon 633(1)
The uusched Daemon 634(1)
The uucpd Daemon 634(1)
The UUCP Spool Directories and Files 635(1)
Configuring a UUCP Link 636(5)
Serial Line-Related Issues 636(1)
UUCP Configuration Files 637(1)
The UUCP Systems Data 638(1)
The UUCP Devices Data 639(1)
Other Configuration Data 640(1)
UUCP Access and Security Consideration 641(4)
Additional Security in BNU UUCP 642(2)
Additional Security in Version 2 UUCP 644(1)
Intranet 645(38)
Introduction to Intranet 645(4)
Intranet vs. Internet 646(2)
Intranet Design Approach 648(1)
Intranet Front-End Services 649(21)
Firewalls 650(2)
Firewall Techniques 652(1)
Firewall Types 653(1)
Firewall Implementation 654(2)
Problems and Benefits 656(1)
Viruswalls 656(1)
Computer Viruses and Other Malicious Codes 656(2)
The Viruswall Implementation 658(2)
Proxy Servers 660(3)
Application Proxies 663(1)
SOCKS Proxies 663(1)
Web Services 664(5)
Other External Services 669(1)
Inside the Intranet 670(13)
Network Infrastructure and Desktops 671(1)
Internal Services 672(1)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 673(2)
Virtual Private Network (VPN) 675(3)
UNIX and Not-UNIX Platform Integration 678(5)
Section IV CASE STUDIES
UNIX Installation 683(18)
Introductory Notes 683(1)
UNIX Installation Procedures 683(9)
HP-UX Installation 684(2)
Solaris Installation 686(4)
Linux Installation 690(2)
Supplemental Installations 692(9)
Supplemental System Software 693(1)
Installation of Sun Enterprise (Veritas) 693(1)
Volume Manager 2.5
Installation of Veritas FileSystem 3.X 693(1)
Two Pseudo-Installation Scripts 694(2)
Installation of Optional HP-UX Software 696(2)
Patches 698(1)
Solaris Patch Installation 698(1)
HP-UX Patch Installation 698(3)
Upgrade Disk Space 701(12)
Adding a Disk 701(7)
New Disk on the Solaris Platform 701(2)
New Disk on the SunOS Platform 703(1)
New disk on the HP-UX Platform 704(4)
Logical Volume Manager Case Study 708(5)
LVM on the HP-UX Platform 708(2)
LVM on the Solaris Platform 710(3)
UNIX Emergency Situations 713(12)
Introductory Notes 713(1)
Lost Root Password 714(1)
Solaris and Lost Root Password 714(1)
HP-UX and Lost Root Password 714(1)
Some Special Administrative Situations 715(10)
Solaris Procedure to Create an Alternate 715(2)
Boot Partition
Solaris Recovery of the Failed Mirrored 717(3)
Boot Disk
HP-UX Support Disk Usage 720(1)
HP-UX Procedure to Synchronize a Mirroed 721(1)
Logical Volume
HP-UX Support Tape and Recovery of Root 722(3)
Disk
Recommended Reading 725(4)
Index 729