An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis (2 SUB)

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An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis (2 SUB)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 322 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780849302336
  • DDC分類 614.1

Full Description


Significant advances in DNA analysis techniques have surfaced since the 1997 publication of the bestselling An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis. DNA typing has become increasingly automated and miniaturized. Also, with the advent of Short Tandem Repeat (STR) technology, even the most minute sample of degraded DNA can yield a profile, providing valuable case information. However, just as the judicial system slowly and reluctantly accepted RFLP and AmpliType (R) PM+DQA1 typing, it is now scrutinizing the admissibility of STRs.Acknowledging STR typing as the current system of choice, An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis, Second Edition translates new and established concepts into plain English so that laypeople can gain insight into how DNA analysis works, from sample collection to interpretation of results. In response to the shift toward more efficient techniques, the authors cover the legal admissibility of STR typing, expand the chapter on DNA databases, and revise the section on automated analysis. They also present key decisions and appellate or supreme court rulings that provide precedent at the state and federal levels.Discussing forensic DNA issues from both a scientific and a legal perspective, the authors of An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis, Second Edition present the material in a manner understandable by professionals in the legal system, law enforcement, and forensic science. They cover general principles in a clear fashion and include a glossary of terms and other useful appendices for easy reference.

Table of Contents

  The Nature of Physical Evidence                  1  (12)
Science and the Law 1 (1)
Principles and Processes of Criminalistics 2 (5)
The Principles 2 (2)
The Processes 4 (1)
Identification 4 (1)
Classification and Individualization 4 (2)
Association 6 (1)
Reconstruction 7 (1)
Fingerprints and DNA 7 (1)
Conventional Blood Typing 8 (5)
The Collection and Preservation of Physical 13 (8)
Evidence
Extraneous Substances 14 (1)
Collection of Evidence 15 (1)
Preservation of Evidence 16 (1)
Evaluation of Evidence 16 (5)
RFLP 17 (1)
PCR 17 (4)
A Short History of DNA Typing 21 (12)
The Scientific Basis of DNA Typing 33 (8)
Why DNA? 33 (1)
An Introduction to Human Genetics 33 (4)
The Physical Basis of Heredity 34 (1)
Alleles: Variations on a Theme 34 (2)
Population Genetics 36 (1)
An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of 37 (1)
DNA
Two Kinds of Variation 38 (1)
Enzymes: The Workhorses of the Biological 39 (2)
World
An Overview of Forensic DNA Typing Systems 41 (24)
RFLP Analysis 41 (1)
PCR Amplification 42 (19)
HLA DQα/HLA DQA1 43 (5)
AmpliType® PM 48 (1)
D1S80 49 (1)
STRs 50 (2)
Gender Identification 52 (1)
Y-STRs 53 (3)
Mitochondrial DNA 56 (5)
What Kinds of Samples Can be Analyzed? 61 (1)
How Much Sample Do You Need? 61 (4)
Procedures for Forensic DNA Analysis 65 (32)
Isolation of DNA 65 (4)
Chelex Extraction 65 (2)
QiaAmp Extraction 67 (1)
Organic Extraction 68 (1)
Differential Extraction 68 (1)
Determining the Quality and Quantity of DNA 69 (2)
Determination of Quantity 69 (1)
Determination of Quality 70 (1)
RFLP Analysis 71 (5)
PCR Amplification 76 (1)
Analysis of PCR Product 77 (10)
Sequence Polymorphisms 78 (1)
AmpliType® PM+DQA1 78 (1)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 79 (4)
Length Polymorphisms (D1S80, STRs, Gender 83 (4)
ID)
Automated Analysis Systems 87 (10)
Automated DNA Extraction and Amplification 89 (1)
Liquid Blood Transfer 89 (1)
DNA Extraction 89 (1)
Quantitation 89 (1)
Amplification 89 (1)
Robot Issues 90 (1)
Summary of Automated Procedures 90 (7)
Interpretation of DNA Typing Results 97 (42)
Complicating Factors 97 (8)
Multiple Contributors 97 (1)
Sexual Assault Evidence 98 (1)
Non-sexual Assault Mixtures 98 (5)
Degradation 103(1)
Extraneous Substances 103(1)
Chemical Inhibition of Enzymes 104(1)
Non-human DNA 104(1)
System-Specific Interpretational Issues 105(26)
RFLP 105(1)
Multi-(More Than Two) Banded Patterns 105(5)
Single-Banded Patterns 110(3)
Summary of RFLP Interpretational Issues 113(1)
PCR Systems 114(1)
Nuclear DNA 114(13)
Mitochondrial DNA 127(4)
Summary of PCR Systems Interpretational 131(1)
Issues
Summary of DNA Interpretation Issues 131(8)
Assessing the Strength of the Evidence 139(18)
Determination of Genetic Concordance 139(3)
Continuous Allele Systems 140(1)
Discrete Allele Systems 141(1)
Evaluation of Results 142(1)
Frequency Estimate Calculations 142(2)
Population Substructure 144(3)
Estimating Frequencies 145(1)
Continuous Allele Systems (RFLP) 145(1)
Discrete Allele Systems (all PCR systems) 146(1)
Correction Factors 146(1)
Relatives 146(1)
Counting Method 147(1)
Error Rates 147(1)
Likelihood Ratios 147(3)
What Is the Question? 147(2)
Complex Evidence 149(1)
Mixtures 149(1)
Articulating the Hypothesis 150(1)
When Is a DNA Profile Unique? 150(7)
The DNA Databank 157(18)
Premise of a Databank 157(1)
The Difference Between a Databank and a 157(1)
Database
Elements of a Successful Databank 158(14)
Legislation 158(1)
Collection of Samples 158(1)
Offenders 158(2)
Cases 160(1)
Analysis of Samples 161(1)
Choice of Markers 161(2)
Offenders 163(1)
Cases 164(1)
Transforming Analyzed Data into a Database 164(1)
The Computer Program 164(1)
Communication Between Laboratories 165(1)
Privacy 165(1)
Flow of Offender Data into the Databank 166(1)
Import of Profiles into the Database 167(1)
Categories and Indexes 167(1)
Searching Profiles 168(2)
Confirmation of a Match 170(2)
United States Statistics 172(1)
Summary 172(3)
Quality Assurance 175(8)
Certification and Accreditation 175(1)
Certification 175(1)
Accreditation 175(1)
SWDAM (Formerly TWGDAM) 176(1)
NRC I and II 176(4)
NRC I 177(2)
NRC II 179(1)
Federal DNA Advisory Board 180(3)
Admissibility Standards: Science on Trial in 183(18)
the Courtroom
Frye, Daubert, and the Federal Rules of 183(3)
Evidence
The Frye Standard 183(1)
The Federal Rules of Evidence 184(1)
The Daubert Standard 185(1)
Past Admissibility 186(1)
DNA: Some Landmark Cases 186(9)
RFLP 186(4)
PCR: DQ7α/A1, Polymarker, D1S80 190(2)
PCR: STRs 192(3)
Mitochondrial DNA 195(1)
The State of the Debate 195(6)
Epilogue 201(2)
Appendix A---Glossary 203(14)
Appendix B---Key Phrases 217(2)
Appendix C---Assessment Tools 219(4)
Appendix D---Chromosomal Locations 223(2)
Appendix E---Profile Frequency Calculation 225(6)
Appendix F---Likelihood Ratio and Probability 231(2)
of Exclusion
Appendix G---DAB 98 233(12)
Appendix H---DAB Statistics 245(8)
Appendix I---NRC I, II 253(10)
Appendix J---DNA Statutes 263(8)
Appendix K---DNA Decision Summary 271(2)
Appendix L---List STR decisions 273(4)
Appendix M---Internet Resources 277(2)
Index 279