American Constitutional Law (2-Volume Set) (9TH)

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American Constitutional Law (2-Volume Set) (9TH)

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Full Description


The study of the Constitution and constitutional law is of fundamental importance to understanding the principles, prospects, and problems of America. "American Constitutional Law" provides a comprehensive account of the nation's defining document, comparing how its provisions were originally understood by those who drafted and ratified it with contemporary constructions. The authors examine the constitutional thought of the founders, as well as interpretations of the Constitution by the Supreme Court, Congress, the President, lower federal courts, and state judiciaries to provide students with a sense of how the law has been interpreted over the years. Now fully updated, the ninth edition of this classic volume features several new cases including "National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, Arizona v. United States, Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Company, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, Perry v. Brown, Snyder v. Phelps, " and "Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project." Visit westviewconlaw.com for instructor resources, including recently decided cases, material from prior editions, and a glossary.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
Note to the Reader xix
1 Interpretation of the Constitution 1 (24)
Approaches to Constitutional 4 (10)
Interpretation
The Approaches in Perspective 14 (1)
The Ends of the Constitution 14 (2)
Constitutional Means to Constitutional 16 (5)
Ends
Notes 21 (2)
Selected Readings 23 (2)
2 Constitutional Adjudication 25 (22)
The Justices of the Supreme Court 26 (2)
The Supreme Court in the Federal Judicial 28 (1)
System
How Cases Get to the Supreme Court 29 (4)
How the Supreme Court Decides Cases 33 (3)
The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions 36 (5)
Analyzing Supreme Court Decisions 41 (2)
Sources in Constitutional Law 43 (1)
Notes 44 (2)
Selected Readings 46 (1)
3 The Judicial Power 47 (75)
The Power of Judicial Review 49 (6)
Externally Imposed Restraints on Judicial 55 (1)
Review
Court-Imposed Restraints on Judicial 56 (8)
Review
The Expanding Role of the Courts 64 (1)
The Courts, Judicial Review, and the 65 (2)
Problem of Legitimacy
Notes 67 (3)
Selected Readings 70 (2)
Cases
Marbury v. Madison (1803) 72 (4)
Stuart v. Laird (1803) 76 (1)
Eakin v. Raub (1825) 77 (2)
Cooper v. Aaron (1958) 79 (3)
Plant v. Spendthrift Farm, Inc. (1995) 82 (4)
Young v. United States ex rel. Vuitton 86 (3)
(1987)
Ex parte McCardle (1869) 89 (1)
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife (1992) 90 (4)
Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation 94 (10)
(2007)
Luther v. Borden (1849) 104 (2)
Baker v. Carr (1962) 106 (6)
Nixon v. United States (1993) 112 (5)
Deshaney v. Winnebago County Department 117 (5)
of Social Services (1989)
4 The Legislative Branch 122 (54)
The Scope of Congressional Power 123 (1)
Powers That Facilitate Legislative 124 (5)
Activity
Nonlegislative Powers 129 (2)
Safeguarding Legislative Power 131 (3)
Conclusions 134 (1)
Notes 134 (1)
Selected Readings 135 (1)
Cases
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) 136 (5)
Powell v. McCormack (1969) 141 (4)
U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton (1995) 145 (9)
Gravel v. United States (1972) 154 (3)
McGrain v. Daugherty (1927) 157 (1)
Watkins v. United States (1957) 158 (3)
Articles of Impeachment Against William 161 (3)
Jefferson Clinton (1998)
Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United 164 (2)
States (1935)
Mistretta v. United States (1989) 166 (5)
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. 171 (5)
Chadha (1983)
5 The Executive Branch 176 (40)
The Aims of the Framers 177 (1)
Grants of Power and Their Use 178 (2)
Implied Powers 180 (5)
Prerogative Powers 185 (1)
Notes 186 (1)
Selected Readings 187 (1)
Cases
Clinton v. City of New York (1998) 188 (7)
Myers v. United States (1926) 195 (4)
Morrison v. Olson (1988) 199 (4)
United States v. Nixon (1974) 203 (3)
Clinton v. Jones (1997) 206 (2)
In re Neagle (1890) 208 (2)
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company v. Sawyer 210 (6)
(1952)
6 War and Foreign Affairs 216 (80)
The Interbranch Distribution of Power 217 (4)
The Foundation and Extent of the 221 (3)
Foreign-Affairs Power
War and Individual Rights 224 (5)
Notes 229 (1)
Selected Readings 230 (2)
Cases
The Prize Cases (1863) 232 (1)
The War Powers Resolution (1973) 233 (2)
Authorization for Use of Military Force 235 (1)
(2001)
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export 235 (3)
Corporation (1936)
Missouri v. Holland (1920) 238 (2)
Medellin v. Texas (2008) 240 (7)
Ex parte Milligan (1866) 247 (3)
Korematsu v. United States (1944) 250 (4)
Ex parte Quirin (1942) 254 (5)
The USA PATRIOT Act (2001) 259 (5)
Detention, Treatment, and Trial of 264 (2)
Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against
Terrorism (2001)
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) 266 (10)
Boumediene v. Bush (2008) 276 (10)
Letter on Wiretapping by the National 286 (3)
Security Agency (2005)
Congressional Research Service Memorandum 289 (7)
(2006)
7 Federalism 296 (85)
Federalism and the Founding 297 (3)
Federalism and the First Congress 300 (2)
Federalism and the Marshall Court 302 (2)
Federalism and Its Protection by 304 (13)
Subsequent Courts
The Post-Civil War Amendments and the 317 (3)
Shifting of the Federal Balance
Notes 320 (2)
Selected Readings 322 (1)
Cases
The Judiciary Act of 1789 323 (3)
Cohens v. Virginia (1821) 326 (5)
Coyle v. Smith (1911) 331 (1)
Baldwin v. Montana Fish and Game 332 (3)
Commission (1978)
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) 335 (11)
New York v. United States (1992) 346 (6)
Printz v. United States (1997) 352 (7)
Alden v. Maine (1999) 359 (8)
Tennessee v. Lane (2004) 367 (5)
The Civil Rights Cases (1883) 372 (6)
Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Company (1968) 378 (3)
8 The Exercise of National Power 381 (66)
The Commerce Power 382 (6)
The Taxing Power 388 (1)
The Spending Power 389 (1)
Health Care and the Constitution 390 (3)
Limitations on National Power 393 (1)
Notes 394 (1)
Selected Readings 394 (1)
Cases
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) 395 (4)
United States v. E. C. Knight Company 399 (2)
(1895)
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918) 401 (2)
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & 403 (3)
Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937)
Wickard v. Filburn (1942) 406 (1)
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 407 (1)
(1964)
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan 408 (8)
Transit Authority (1985)
United States v. Lopez (1995) 416 (4)
Gonzales v. Raich (2005) 420 (6)
United States v. Butler (1936) 426 (4)
United States v. Kahriger (1953) 430 (1)
South Dakota v. Dole (1987) 431 (3)
National Federation of Independent 434 (13)
Business v. Sebelius (2012)
9 The Exercise of State Power 447 (34)
Constitutional Principles 448 (1)
Preemption 449 (2)
Negative Implications of the Commerce 451 (2)
Clause
State Regulation and the Modern Court 453 (2)
The Role of the Court 455 (1)
Notes 455 (1)
Selected Readings 456 (1)
Cases
Arizona v. United States (2012) 457 (7)
Cooley v. Board of Wardens (1852) 464 (2)
Southern Pacific Company v. Arizona (1945) 466 (3)
Camps Newfound/Owatonna, Inc. v. Town of 469 (6)
Harrison (1997)
Granholm v. Heald (2005) 475 (6)
10 The Constitution and Native American 481 (51)
Tribes
Native American Tribes and the New 482 (2)
Republic
Tribal Self-Determination 484 (1)
Tribal Authority over Disposition of Lands 484 (1)
Tribal Authority to Institute a Government 485 (1)
Tribal Authority to Enter into Treaties 486 (1)
Tribes and Their Relation to the States 487 (1)
Tribal Authority to Administer Justice 488 (1)
Tribal Authority to Engage in "Indian 489 (3)
Gaming"
Notes 492 (3)
Selected Readings 495 (1)
Cases
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) 496 (3)
Worcester v. Georgia (1832) 499 (1)
United States v. Kagama (1886) 500 (4)
Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) 504 (2)
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903) 506 (1)
Public Law 280 (1953) 507 (4)
United States v. Lara (2004) 511 (4)
Plains Commerce Bank v. Long Family Land 515 (6)
and Cattle Company (2008)
California v. Cabazon Band of Mission 521 (5)
Indians (1987)
Carcieri v. Salazar (2009) 526 (6)
11 The Contract Clause 532 (31)
Marshall's Expansion of the Contract 534 (1)
Clause
The Decline of the Contract Clause 535 (3)
A Continued Relevance? 538 (1)
Notes 539 (2)
Selected Readings 541 (2)
Cases
Fletcher v. Peck (1810) 543 (2)
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) 545 (3)
Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren 548 (3)
Bridge Company (1837)
Home Building and Loan Association v. 551 (5)
Blaisdell (1934)
United States Trust Company v. New Jersey 556 (3)
(1977)
Buffalo Teachers Federation v. Tobe (2006) 559 (4)
12 Economic Due Process and the Takings 563
Clause
The Fourteenth Amendment 564 (1)
The Evisceration (and Possible Recent 565 (3)
Restoration?) of the Privileges or
Immunities Clause
Economic Regulation and the Rise of 568 (3)
Substantive Due Process
The Demise of Substantive Due Process in 571 (1)
the Economic Realm
Punitive Damages: An Exception to the 572 (2)
Demise of Substantive Due Process in the
Economic Realm?
The Emergence of Substantive Due Process 574 (1)
in the Civil Liberties Realm
The Takings Clause 575 (5)
Notes 580 (2)
Selected Readings 582 (1)
Cases
The Slaughter-House Cases (1873) 583 (5)
Saenz v. Roe (1999) 588 (8)
Munn v. Illinois (1877) 596 (2)
Lochner v. New York (1905) 598 (4)
West Coast Hotel Company v. Parrish (1937) 602 (2)
Williamson v. Lee Optical Company (1955) 604 (1)
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance 605 (4)
Company v. Campbell (2003)
Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Company 609 (8)
(2009)
United States v. Carolene Products 617 (1)
Company (1938)
Kelo v. City of New London (2005) 617 (8)
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission 625 (5)
(1987)
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 630 (3)
(1992)
Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. 633 (5)
v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (2002)
Dolan v. City of Tigard (1994) 638
The Constitution of the United States of America 643 (14)
Justices of the Supreme Court 657 (4)
Glossary of Common Legal Terms 661 (4)
Table of Cases 665 (218)
Preface xvii
Note to the Reader xxi
1 Interpretation of the Constitution 1 (24)
Approaches to Constitutional 4 (10)
Interpretation
The Approaches in Perspective 14 (1)
The Ends of the Constitution 14 (2)
Constitutional Means to Constitutional 16 (5)
Ends
Notes 21 (2)
Selected Readings 23 (2)
2 Constitutional Adjudication 25 (22)
The Justices of the Supreme Court 26 (2)
The Supreme Court in the Federal Judicial 28 (1)
System
How Cases Get to the Supreme Court 29 (4)
How the Supreme Court Decides Cases 33 (3)
The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions 36 (5)
Analyzing Supreme Court Decisions 41 (2)
Sources in Constitutional Law 43 (1)
Notes 44 (2)
Selected Readings 46 (1)
3 Rights Under the Constitution 47 (71)
Rights and the Founding 48 (2)
The Fourteenth Amendment 50 (2)
Due Process and the Bill of Rights 52 (5)
Rights During Wartime and Other 57 (4)
Emergencies
The Second Amendment 61 (2)
Notes 63 (2)
Selected Readings 65 (2)
Cases
Barron v. Baltimore (1833) 67 (1)
Palko v. Connecticut (1937) 68 (2)
Adamson v. California (1947) 70 (3)
Duncan v. Louisiana (1968) 73 (3)
Ex parte Milligan (1866) 76 (3)
Korematsu v. United States (1944) 79 (5)
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) 84 (10)
Boumediene v. Bush (2008) 94 (10)
District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) 104 (14)
4 Economic Due Process and the Takings 118 (79)
Clause
The Fourteenth Amendment 119 (1)
The Evisceration (and Possible Recent 120 (3)
Restoration?) of the Privileges or
Immunities Clause
Economic Regulation and the Rise of 123 (3)
Substantive Due Process
The Demise of Substantive Due Process in 126 (1)
the Economic Realm
Punitive Damages: An Exception to the 127 (2)
Demise of Substantive Due Process in the
Economic Realm?
The Emergence of Substantive Due Process 129 (1)
in the Civil Liberties Realm
The Takings Clause 130 (5)
Notes 135 (2)
Selected Readings 137 (1)
Cases
The Slaughter-House Cases (1873) 138 (5)
Saenz v. Roe (1999) 143 (8)
Munn v. Illinois (1877) 151 (2)
Lochner v. New York (1905) 153 (4)
West Coast Hotel Company v. Parrish (1937) 157 (2)
Williamson v. Lee Optical Company (1955) 159 (1)
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance 160 (4)
Company v. Campbell (2003)
Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Company 164 (8)
(2009)
United States v. Carolene Products 172 (1)
Company (1938)
Kelo v. City of New London (2005) 172 (8)
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission 180 (5)
(1987)
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 185 (3)
(1992)
Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. 188 (5)
v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (2002)
Dolan v. City of Tigard (1994) 193 (4)
5 Freedom of Speech, Press, and Association 197 (100)
The Meaning of the First Amendment 198 (2)
First Amendment Standards 200 (3)
Political Expression 203 (4)
The Regulation of Speech and Association 207 (5)
Restraints on the Press 212 (3)
Libel and the Invasion of Privacy 215 (1)
Obscenity 216 (1)
Conclusions 217 (1)
Notes 218 (1)
Selected Readings 219 (1)
Cases
Gitlow v. New York (1925) 220 (2)
Schenck v. United States (1919) 222 (1)
Dennis v. United States (1951) 223 (4)
Barenblatt v. United States (1959) 227 (4)
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) 231 (1)
Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project (2010) 232 (8)
Citizens United v. Federal Election 240 (13)
Commission (2010)
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) 253 (8)
Texas v. Johnson (1989) 261 (3)
R. A. V. v. City of St. Paul (1992) 264 (3)
Snyder v. Phelps (2011) 267 (5)
Near v. Minnesota (1931) 272 (3)
New York Times Company v. United States 275 (4)
(1971)
Branzburg v. Hayes (1972) 279 (2)
Memorandum Opinion and Order, Federal 281 (3)
Communications Commission (1987)
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) 284 (2)
Miller v. California / Paris Adult 286 (3)
Theater I v. Slaton (1973)
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union 289 (6)
(1997)
Indianapolis Anti-Pornography Ordinance 295 (2)
(1984)
6 Freedom of Religion 297 (70)
Establishment of Religion 298 (5)
Free Exercise of Religion 303 (3)
Reconciling the Religion Clauses 306 (1)
Trends and Prospects 307 (1)
Notes 308 (1)
Selected Readings 308 (1)
Cases
Everson v. Board of Education (1947) 309 (2)
School District of Abington Township v. 311 (3)
Schempp (1963)
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) 314 (3)
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985) 317 (4)
Lee v. Weisman (1992) 321 (6)
McCreary County v. American Civil 327 (5)
Liberties Union (2005)
Van Orden v. Perry (2005) 332 (4)
Rosenberger v. University of Virginia 336 (4)
(1995)
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002) 340 (9)
West Virginia Board of Education v. 349 (3)
Barnette (1943)
Sherbert v. Verner (1963) 352 (3)
Employment Division, Department of Human 355 (5)
Resources of Oregon v. Smith (1990)
City of Boerne v. Flores, Archbishop of 360 (3)
San Antonio (1997)
Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church 363 (4)
and School v. EEOC (2012)
7 Criminal Procedure 367 (152)
The Ex Post Facto Clauses 369 (1)
Search and Seizure 370 (10)
Self-Incrimination and Coerced Confessions 380 (4)
Due Process of Law 384 (2)
The Right to Counsel 386 (2)
The Insanity Defense 388 (1)
The Entrapment Defense 388 (1)
Trial by Jury 389 (2)
The Right to a Speedy Trial 391 (1)
The Right to Confrontation 392 (2)
Plea Bargaining 394 (1)
Bail and Pretrial Detention 395 (1)
Cruel and Unusual Punishments 395 (3)
Prisoners' Rights 398 (2)
Retroactive Application of Criminal 400 (1)
Procedure Guarantees
Basic Themes in the Court's Criminal 401 (1)
Procedure Decisions
Notes 402 (3)
Selected Readings 405 (2)
Cases
Stogner v. California (2003) 407 (4)
Smith v. Doe (2003) 411 (4)
Board of Education of Independent School 415 (5)
District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v.
Earls (2002)
Indianapolis v. Edmond (2000) 420 (3)
Mapp v. Ohio (1961) 423 (4)
Olmstead v. United States (1928) 427 (3)
Katz v. United States (1967) 430 (2)
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) 432 (7)
Dickerson v. United States (2000) 439 (5)
Nix v. Williams (1984) 444 (5)
Connecticut Department of Public Safety 449 (2)
v. Doe (2003)
Powell v. Alabama (1932) 451 (2)
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) 453 (1)
Clark v. Arizona (2006) 454 (5)
Jacobson v. United States (1992) 459 (5)
Blakely v. Washington (2004) 464 (6)
Michigan v. Bryant (2011) 470 (5)
Gregg v. Georgia (1976) 475 (6)
Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) 481 (10)
Roper v. Simmons (2005) 491 (9)
Miller v. Alabama (2012) 500 (6)
Harmelin v. Michigan (1991) 506 (5)
Ewing v. California (2003) 511 (8)
8 The Equal Protection Clause and Racial 519 (84)
Discrimination
Race and the Founding 520 (4)
Racial Desegregation 524 (9)
Private Discrimination and the Concept of 533 (2)
State Action
Racial Discrimination in Jury Trials 535 (2)
Racial Discrimination in Prisons 537 (1)
Proof of Discrimination: Disparate 537 (1)
Treatment Versus Disparate Impact
Notes 538 (2)
Selected Readings 540 (2)
Cases
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) 542 (3)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 545 (3)
Bolling v. Sharpe (1954) 548 (1)
Brown v. Board of Education (1955) 549 (1)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of 550 (3)
Education (1971)
Milliken v. Bradley (1974) 553 (6)
United States v. Fordice (1992) 559 (8)
Missouri v. Jenkins (1995) 567 (8)
Shelley v. Kraemer (1948) 575 (2)
Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis (1972) 577 (2)
Georgia v. McCollum (1992) 579 (6)
Johnson v. California (2005) 585 (5)
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 590 (1)
Ricci v. DeStefano (2009) 591 (12)
9 Substantive Equal Protection 603 (109)
The Two-Tier Approach 605 (1)
The Development of an Intermediate Level 606 (2)
of Review
Suspect Classifications 608 (13)
Fundamental Rights 621 (1)
The Future of Equal-Protection Analysis 622 (1)
Notes 623 (1)
Selected Readings 624 (2)
Cases
Richmond v. J. A. Croson Company (1989) 626 (11)
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena (1995) 637 (7)
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) 644 (13)
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) 657 (4)
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. 661 (13)
Seattle School District No. 1 (2007)
Foley v. Connelie (1978) 674 (3)
Trimble v. Gordon (1977) 677 (4)
Massachusetts Board of Retirement v. 681 (3)
Murgia (1976)
Frontiero v. Richardson (1973) 684 (2)
United States v. Virginia (1996) 686 (6)
Rostker v. Goldberg (1981) 692 (6)
Shapiro v. Thompson (1969) 698 (3)
San Antonio Independent School District 701 (6)
v. Rodriguez (1973)
Armour v. Indianapolis (2012) 707 (5)
10 Voting and Representation 712 (81)
Equal Protection and the Right to Vote 713 (8)
Race and Representation: The Fifteenth 721 (4)
Amendment and the Voting Rights Act
Notes 725 (1)
Selected Readings 726 (2)
Cases
Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) 728 (3)
Reynolds v. Sims (1964) 731 (4)
Vieth v. Jubelirer (2004) 735 (8)
Harper v. Virginia State Board of 743 (3)
Elections (1966)
Dunn v. Blumstein (1972) 746 (3)
Crawford v. Marion County Election Board 749 (6)
(2008)
Bush v. Gore (2000) 755 (12)
Katzenbach v. Morgan (1966) 767 (3)
Thornburg v. Gingles (1986) 770 (2)
Shaw v. Reno (1993) 772 (5)
League of United Latin American Citizens 777 (6)
v. Perry (2006)
Northwest Austin Municipal Utility 783 (10)
District Number One v. Holder (2009)
11 The Right to Privacy 793 (90)
The Constitutional Basis 794 (1)
What the Right to Privacy Protects 795 (11)
Qualifications on the Right to Privacy 806 (1)
Privacy and the Right to Die 807 (1)
Notes 807 (2)
Selected Readings 809 (2)
Cases
Troxel v. Granville (2000) 811 (4)
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) 815 (4)
Roe v. Wade (1973) 819 (5)
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern 824 (16)
Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)
Gonzales v. Carhart (2007) 840 (13)
Lawrence v. Texas (2003) 853 (6)
Perry v. Brown (2012) 859 (7)
Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 866 (1)
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department 866 (8)
of Health (1990)
Washington v. Glucksberg (1997) 874 (6)
Vacco v. Quill (1997) 880 (3)
The Constitution of The United States Of America 883 (14)
Justices of the Supreme Court 897 (4)
Glossary of Common Legal Terms 901 (4)
Table of Cases 905