Oliver Heaviside : The Life, Work, and Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age

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Oliver Heaviside : The Life, Work, and Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 360 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780801869099
  • DDC分類 530.092

Full Description

"He was a man who often was incapable of conducting himself properly in the most elementary social interactions. His only continuing contacts with women were limited to his mother, nieces, and housekeepers. He was a man who knew the power of money and desired it, but refused to work for it, preferring to live off the sweat of his family and long-suffering friends, whom he often insulted even as they paid his bills."-from the book This, then, was Oliver Heaviside, a pioneer of modern electrical theory. Born into a low social class of Victorian England, Heaviside made advances in mathematics by introducing the operational calculus; in physics, where he formulated the modern-day expressions of Maxwell's Laws of electromagnetism; and in electrical engineering, through his duplex equations. Now available in paperback with a new preface by the author, this acclaimed biography will appeal to historians of technology and science, as well as to scientists and engineers who wish to learn more about this remarkable man.

Contents

Contents: Preface to the Johns Hopkins Edition Preface to the Original Edition A Note of Mathematics A Note of References A Note on Money Acknowledgements 1 The Origins of Heaviside ( A Description of mid-19th century Victorian England.) The Man The Nature of His Work The Grim World of Heaviside's Youth Notes and References 2 The Early Years (The young Heaviside, his family circumstances, and his education.) The Beginning A Lucky Marriage First (and Last) Job A Lifetime Decision Tech Note: Where Is the Fault? Notes and References 3 The First Theory of the Electric Telegraph (Historical discussion of Professor William Thomson's 1854 diffusion theory, the starting point of Heaviside's work.) Thomson and Stokes The Law of Squares The Atlantic Cable The Speed of the Current Phase Distortion Tech Note: How Thomson Thought Electricity "Soaks" into an Infinitely Long Cable Notes and References 4 Heaviside's Early Telegraphy Work (An account of the introduction effects into cable analysis, and the nature of Heaviside's mode of working.) A Full-Time Student The Telegraph Papers The Problem of Signal Rate Assymmetry A "Mathematical Monster" Arithmatic Drudgery Tech Note: Why a Cable Is Slower in One Direction than in the Other Notes and References 5 The Scienticulist (An introduction to William Henry Preece, Engineer-in-Chief of the British Post Offics and Heaviside's great nemesis.) Heaviside's Nemesis Subdividing the Electric Light The Age of the "Practical Man" A Public Debate Why Preece Prevailed (for a While) A Clash of Personalities Preece's Ability The Telephone Affair Heavisides Refuses to Be Shackled Tech Note: Preece's Analysis of the Electric Light Notes and References 6 Maxwell's Electricity (The state of knowledge at Maxwell's death om 1879.) Introduction The Men before Maxwell Action-at-a-Distance The Luminiferous Ether Faraday and Lines of Force William Thomson Maxwell The Displacement Current Post-script: Just What Is Electricity, Anyway? Tech Note 1: A Technically Nice, Often Taught, but Historically False "Explanantion" of the Displacement Current Tech Note 2: Action-at-a-Distance, Fields, and Faraday's Electronic State Notes and References 7 Heaviside's Electrodynamics (How Heaviside formulated the field equations and what he did with them.) The Conversion of a Skeptic The Electrician The Importance of Mr. Biggs Getting Off to a Bad Start Reformulating Maxwell's Equations A Friend in Germany More Germans: Foppl, Boltzmann, and Planck Energy and Its Flux Moving Charges A Friend at Cambridge Faster-than-Light Dr. Heaviside, F.R.S. Tech Note 1: The Duplex Equations Tech Note 2: The Localization of Electromagnetic Field Energy Tech Note 3: Heaviside's Derivation of hte Electromagnetic Energy Flow Vector in Space Tech Note 4: Poynting;s Physics (and Oliver's Objection) Notes and References 8 The Battle With Preece (The story of the " KR-Law" and Preece's efforts to suppress Heaviside's influence.) High-Tech Hardware, Low-Tech Theory Early Mathematical Analysis The Peculiar Experiments of David Hughes Preece's " KR-Law" and Heaviside's Attack Oliver Lodge's Oscillating Leyden Jar "Experience" versus "Theory" Heaviside's Vindication A Change of Scene-and Fame Back in Print-in Style! His Friends Try to Help More Battles Tech Note1: The Skin Effect Tech Note 2: The " KR-Law" Tech Note 3: Preece and Lodge on Lightning Tech Note 4: Heaviside and S. P. Thompson on the Distortionless Circuit Notes and References 9 The Great Quarterionic War (The development of vectors by Heaviside and by Gibbs, and the debate with Tait.) More Debates Peter Tait, the Warrior of Victorian Science William Hamilton and Quarterions Before 1890-The Calm Before the Storm The Vector Analysis of Josiah Willard Gibbs Tait Throws Down the Gauntlet The Battle The Aftermath Off to War-Again Tech Note 1: Numbers and Vecotrs-Real, Complex and Hypercomplex Tech Note 2: Hamilton's Insight at the Brougham Bridge Tech Note 3: Quarterions Are Complex! Notes and References Strange Mathematics (Operational calculus.) "Rigorous Mathematics In Narrow, Physical Mathematics Bold and Broad" The Operator Concept Heaviside's Operators The Expansion Theorem The Royal Society Affair The Aftermath of the Rejection A New Friend at Cambridge Tech Note 1: Heaviside's Resistance Operators Tech Note 2: The Problem with the p and 1/ p Operators Tech Note 3: The Meaning of Heaviside's Fractional Operator, and Impulses Tech Note 4: Heaviside and Divergent Series Notes and References 11 The Age-of-the-Earth Controversy (The debate between Perry and Kelvin, and Heaviside's support of Perry via his operational methods.) Historical Origin of the Debate The Problem of Fossils Kelvin's Theory perry's Rebuttal of Kelvin's Theory Perry's Theory of Discontinuous Diffusivity Kelvin's Defense and Perry's Reply The End of the Debate An Assessment of the Debate A Final Word Tech Note 1: Heaviside's Operator Solution of Kelvin's Original One-Dimensional Problem Tech Note 2: Heaviside's Operator Solution of Perry's Problem of Discontinuous Diffusivity Notes and References 12 The Final Years of the Hermit (The Personal life of Heaviside after 1900, when essentially all his scientific work was done.) A "Gentleman" with a Pension Life in the Country Another Change at The Electrician The Passing of the Century-and of a Friend and a Foe The Catches up t Heaviside-and Leaves Him Behind Oliver Puts His Name on the Atmosphere Increasing Trouble with Life Life at Homefield Death Takes and Past-and the Present The End of the Hermit A Last Look Notes and References 13 Epilogue (An evaluation of Heaviside's impact since his death.) The Legend Grows Heaviside Profiled in TimeMagazine! Formulas Under the Floor Last Words Notes and References Index Credits